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II) Mitosis:

It takes place in somatic cells.

It is an asexual reproduction for grow and replace damaged cells.
It is differentiated into the following phases (stages):.
1- Prophase
@ Chromatin begins to coil and condense
to form chromosomes which become
@ The nuclear membranes disappear.
@ The nucleolus or nucleoli have

Paired centrioles (centrosomes) move to opposite ends of the cell.

As they move apart, the mitotic spindle are formed.
The mitotic spindle consists of:
1) The asters which radiate in a star like pattern away from each
centrosome, and
2) The spindle fibers which go toward the equator of the cell.
2- Metaphase
Spindle fibers grow and form attachments
to the chromosomes at the centromeres.
Chromosomes move to an equatorial
plate (metaphase plate) which is formed
along the midline of the cell between the
Chromosomes are found in the most
condensed state.
Remember that the chromosomes are
still duplicated during metaphase.
3- Anaphase
Centromeres are divided leading to the
formation of daughter chromosomes.
Spindle fibers shorten and the daughter
(sister) chromosomes are drawn to the
opposite poles of the cell.
4- Telophase
Nuclear membrane (envelope) is
reformed (reassembled) and surrounds
each set of daughter chromosomes.

Nucleolus or nucleoli reappear inside the

newly formed nucleus.

Remember that the chromosomes are

still duplicated during metaphase

Chromosomes are decondensed in the daughter cells to become

chromatin and the cells are once again in interphase.

:(Cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm

.It is the division of the cytoplasm
The result of mitosis plus cytokinesis is typically two genetically
.identical daughter cells
Both daughter cells are smaller than the original parent cell and have
.unduplicated chromosomes
Interphase Prophase Prometaphase

Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

Meiosis is the process by which haploid cells are produced from
diploid cells.
Meiosis has several functions:
@ Reduce the chromosome number from the diploid number
(2n) to the haploid number (n).
@ This guarantees the male and female gametes share in the
hereditary characters of the formed zygote in sexual
Prophase I

Meiosis I

Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I

Prophase II Metaphase II Binary fission

Meiosis II

Telophase II Telophase II
Comparison between mitosis & meiosis

Mitosis Meiosis
.It is an indirect division It is a reduction division.
.It occurs in somatic cells It occurs in germ cells of gonads
(testes or ovaries).
wo daughter cells are produced withFour daughter cells are produced with
diploid number of chromosomes (2n).haploid number of chromosomes (n).
No crossing over takes place .Crossing over takes place
Gametogenesis (creation of gametes)
The formation of sperms in the testes is called spermatogenesis.
The formation of eggs (ova) in the ovaries is called oogenesis.
Gametogenesis includes three successive phases which are:
I- Multiplication III- Maturation
II- Growth phase and
phase, phase.
Spermatogenesis Oogenesis
Primordial Primordial
2n germ cell germ cell 2n
I- Multiplication phase
2n 2n By repeated mitotic cell division 2n 2n
(i.e. by mitosis)

2n 2n 2n 2n Spermatogonium Oogonium 2n 2n 2n 2n

II- Growth phase

By growing
1ry spermatocyte 1ry oocyte
2n 2n
1st meiotic division 2ry spermatocyte 2ry oocyte 1st meiotic division 1st polar
n III- Maturation phase n body
n n
2nd meiotic division By meiosis 2nd meiotic division
Spermatid n n n
n n n n Spermatozoon n
Mature ovum 2nd polar body 2 polar bodies
So, each primary spermatocyte (or spermatogonium) gives four sperms.
Also, each primary oocyte (or oogonium) gives one ovum (egg) and
three polar bodies.
The formed three polar bodies are degenerated (disintegrated).

At puberty, a male will produce approximately

1000 sperm per second i.e. 30 billions/year.
Each ejaculation should contain 200-300
million sperms.
When the sperms are formed, they are moved
into the epididymis where they become
mature then stored.
Ne ck

From puberty of a female to menopause, one Tail

egg is normally formed per month.
It the fusion of two haploid gametes
(sperm and egg) to produce a diploid




Sequence of fertilization
1- The acrosomes of thousands of sperms release their enzymes that
destroy the protective barrier (a gelatinous material) around the ovum
and clear a pathway (is called fertilization pathway) for other sperms to

2- At the point of contact between the sperms and the ovum, the egg
surface produces a conical projection known as the entrance.
3- Although thousands of sperms work to clear the fertilization
pathway, only one sperm actually enters the ovum. This successful
sperm binds with a receptor on the cell membrane of the ovum. So, the
successful sperm is engulfed and enter the ovum..
4- A biochemical changes occur that inhibit other sperms from
5- A change in the surface layer of the egg that preventing the entrance
of other sperms.

During fertilization, the head and the middle piece (midpiece) of the
sperm pass into the cytoplasm of the ovum while the tail is cut off and
remains outside.
Embryonic development
The embryonic development of any animal starts
from the fertilized egg (zygote) which usually passes
through three main stages which are:
1) Cleavage, 2) Gastrulation and
3) Organ formation (organogenesis).
1) Cleavage:
After fertilization, the zygote divides repeatedly by a
series of mitotic divisions.
vertical 2-blastomere stage
at right angle to the horizontal
1st division 4-blastomere stage
double vertical
8-blastomere stage 16-blastomere stage
double horizontal
32-blastomere stage (morula)

64-blastomere stage 128-blastomere stage

A blastula
The blastula
@ It is a hollow structure formed at the end of cleavage process.
@ Its wall is consisted of a single layer of cells.
These cells are differentiated into micromeres at the animal pole and
macromeres at the vegetal pole.
@ The fluid filled cavity in its center is termed blastocoel.
This blastocoel is not connected to the exterior.
2) Gastrulation:

The gastrula
@ It is an elongated structure formed at the end of gastrulation process
by flattening and invagination of macromeres of blastula.
Invagination continues until the macromeres come in direct contact
with micromeres.
So, the blastocoel is disappeared while a new cavity is formed.
@ Its wall is formed from a double layers of cells.
The outer layer which is formed from micromeres (is known as the
ectoderm) while the inner layer is formed from the macromeres (the
endoderm forms).
@ It has a cavity that called archenteron which is connected to the
exterior through an opening called a blastopore.
Covering epithelium

Simple epithelium Pseudostratified epithelium Stratified epithelium

Cells arranged in one layer All cells attached to cell membrane while Cells arranged in several
some of them only reach to the free surface layers

Squ amo Cuboida Colu mn Cili ated Pseu do Pseu do

us e.g. l ar colu mn ar - -
lining blood e.g. e.g. mucous e.g. lining of st ra tifi st ratifi
vessels & collecting membrane the
serosa of tubules of of the oesophagous ed e.g. ed
alimentary the kidney & alimentary & ovisac and male ciliated
canal & wall bile ducts & canal of the oviduct of the urethra & Sq uamo us Colu mn a Cilia ted Tr an sitio n
e.g. lining
of sweat and toad toad ducts of e.g. r column ar al
Bowman′s thyroid parotid epidermis of e.g. e.g. lining vas e.g. lining
capsule glands glands skin of conjunctiva deferens & ureter &
vertebrates of eye larynx urinary
(keratinized) bladder
& lining of
of mammals
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