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Chapter 1.


 Motivation: Why data mining?

 What is data mining?
 Data Mining: On what kind of data?
 Data mining functionality
 Are all the patterns interesting?
 Classification of data mining systems
 Major issues in data mining
Motivation: “Necessity is the
Mother of Invention”

 Data explosion problem

 Automated data collection tools and mature database
technology lead to tremendous amounts of data stored
in databases, data warehouses and other information
 We are drowning in data, but starving for knowledge!
 Solution: Data warehousing and data mining

Data warehousing and on-line analytical processing

 Extraction of interesting knowledge (rules, regularities,

patterns, constraints) from data in large databases
Evolution of Database
(See Fig. 1.1)

 1960s:
 Data collection, database creation, IMS and network
 1970s:
 Relational data model, relational DBMS implementation
 1980s:
 RDBMS, advanced data models (extended-relational, OO,
deductive, etc.) and application-oriented DBMS (spatial,
scientific, engineering, etc.)
 1990s—2000s:
 Data mining and data warehousing, multimedia
databases, and Web databases
What Is Data Mining?

 Data mining (knowledge discovery in

 Extraction of interesting (non-trivial, implicit,
previously unknown and potentially useful)
information or patterns from data in large
 Alternative names and their “inside stories”:
 Data mining: a misnomer?
 Knowledge discovery(mining) in databases (KDD),
knowledge extraction, data/pattern analysis, data
archeology, data dredging, information harvesting,
business intelligence, etc.
 What is not data mining?
 (Deductive) query processing.
Relation to Statistics
 Statistical concept as determining a Data
Distribution and calculating a mean and a variance
can be viewed as data mining techniques.

 Often used tool in data mining & machine learning

is that of sampling.

 Statistics research has produced many of the

proposed data mining algorithms.

 Some data mining applications determine

correlations among data.

 Statistical inference techniques can be viewed as

special estimators and prediction methods.
Difference between
DM & Statistics
“Data mining is meant
to be used by the
business user – not by
the statistician “
Empirical life cycle for any
scientific research


Data Collection

Why Data Mining? — Potential
 Database analysis and decision support
 Market analysis and management

target marketing, customer relation management,
market basket analysis, cross selling, market
 Risk analysis and management

Forecasting, customer retention, improved
underwriting, quality control, competitive analysis
 Fraud detection and management
 Other Applications
 Text mining (news group, email, documents) and Web
 Intelligent query answering
Data Mining: A KDD Process

Pattern Evaluation
 Data mining: the core
of knowledge
discovery process. Data Mining

Task-relevant Data
Data Transformation

Data Selection
Data Cleaning

Data Integration

Steps of a KDD Process
 (1)
Learning the application domain:
 relevant prior knowledge and goals of application

 Creating a target data set: data selection

 Data cleaning and preprocessing: (may take 60% of effort!)

 Data reduction and transformation:

 Find useful features, dimensionality/variable reduction,
invariant representation.

 Choosing functions of data mining

 summarization, classification, regression, association,

 Choosing the mining algorithm(s)

 Data mining: search for patterns of interest

 Pattern evaluation and knowledge presentation

 visualization, transformation, removing redundant patterns,
Steps of a KDD Process (2)
 Data cleaning – To remove noise & inconsistent data.
 Data integration – Where multiple data sources may be

 Data selection – Relevant data are retrieved from the data


Data transformation – Transformed or consolidated
-Summary or Aggregation.

 Data mining – An essential process where intelligent

methods are applied to extract data

 Pattern evolution – To identify the truly interesting patterns.

 Knowledge presentation – To present mined knowledge to
the user.
Data Mining and Business
Increasing potential
to support
business decisions End User

Data Presentation Business

Visualization Techniques
Data Mining Data
Information Discovery Analyst

Data Exploration
Statistical Analysis, Querying and Reporting

Data Warehouses / Data Marts

Data Sources
Paper, Files, Information Providers, Database Systems, OLTP
Architecture of a Typical
Data Mining System
Graphical user interface

Pattern evaluation

Data mining engine

Database or
data warehouse
Data cleaning & data integration Filtering

Databases Warehouse
Architecture Major Components (1)
 Database or other information repository

 Data warehouse – Fetching the relevant data

 Knowledge Base
- Domain knowledge
. Interestingness
. Constraints
. Threshold
. Meta data
- Concept Hierarchy

 Data mining Engine – Functional module for task

- Characterization
- Association
- Classification
- Cluster Analysis
- Evolution
- Derivation Analysis
Architecture Major Components (2)

 Pattern evaluation Module

- Employs Interestingness Measures

- Focus the search towards interest
 Graphical User Interface

- Communicates b/w users & the DM system

- uses query
 Discovered Knowledge can be applied to:

- Decision making
- Process control
- Information management
- Query Processing
Data Mining: On What Kind
of Data?

 Relational databases
 Data warehouses
 Transactional databases
 Advanced DB and information repositories
 Object-oriented and object-relational
 Spatial databases
 Time-series data and temporal data
 Text databases and multimedia databases
 Heterogeneous and legacy databases

 Relational Database
Is a collection of tables, each of which is assigned a unique
Each table consists of
Attributes (Cols or fields)
Tuples (Records or rows)
DM in RDB – is searching for trends or data patterns.
RDB – most popularly available, rich information
It consists of the major data for DM.

 Transactional Database
Consists of a file.
Each record represents a transaction.
It includes a unique transaction identity no.
List of item included in transactions.

 Object-Oriented Database
Based on OOPS.
Each object associated with : set of variable, methods.
 Object-Relational Database – Extends the basic relational data
by adding the power to handle:
- Complex data types.
- Class hierarchies.
- Object inheritance.
 Spatial Database – Contains spatial-related information.
- Includes: Geographic (map) DB.
VLSI chip design DB.
Medical & Satellite image DB.
- Represented in vector format.
- Maps are: roads, bridges, buildings & lakes.
- Mining can be used in:
Describing the characteristics of houses located
near a
specified kind of location, such as a park.
 Temporal Database or Time series Database – Stores time
related data
- Usually stores relational data that include time-related
- It involves several time stamps.
- Time may be decomposed to fiscal, academic, calendar
 Text Database – Contains word description for objects.
- Error or bug reports, warning message, summary reports,
- Unstructured: Web pages.
- Semi structured: e-mail messages.
- Well structured: Library DB.

 Multimedia Database – Stores image, audio and video data.

- Used in:
Picture content-based retrieval.
Voice-mail system.
Video-on-demand systems.

 Heterogeneous & Legacy Database

- Long history of information technology department.
- A large database in a group of heterogeneous DB.
- It contains different types of data systems.
- Relational or object database.
- Hierarchical database.
- N/W database.
- Spreadsheets.
- MM database.
- File system.
Data Mining Functionalities
 Concept description: Characterization and
 Generalize, summarize, and contrast data
characteristics, e.g., dry vs. wet regions
 Association (correlation and causality)
 Multi-dimensional vs. single-dimensional
 age(X, “20..29”) ^ income(X, “20..29K”) 
buys(X, “PC”) [support = 2%, confidence =

Data Mining Functionalities
 Classification and Prediction
 Finding models (functions) that describe and distinguish
classes or concepts for future prediction
 E.g., classify countries based on climate, or classify cars
based on gas mileage
 Presentation: decision-tree, classification rule, neural
 Prediction: Predict some unknown or missing numerical
 Cluster analysis
 Class label is unknown: Group data to form new classes,
e.g., cluster houses to find distribution patterns
 Clustering based on the principle: maximizing the intra-
Data Mining Functionalities
 Outlier analysis
 Outlier: a data object that does not comply with the general
behavior of the data
 It can be considered as noise or exception but is quite useful
in fraud detection, rare events analysis

 Trend and evolution analysis

 Trend and deviation: regression analysis
 Sequential pattern mining, periodicity analysis
 Similarity-based analysis
 Other pattern-directed or statistical analyses
Are All the “Discovered”
Patterns Interesting?
 A data mining system/query may generate thousands of
patterns, not all of them are interesting.
 Suggested approach: Human-centered, query-based, focused
 Interestingness measures: A pattern is interesting if it is
easily understood by humans, valid on new or test data
with some degree of certainty, potentially useful, novel, or
validates some hypothesis that a user seeks to confirm
 Objective vs. subjective interestingness measures:
 Objective: based on statistics and structures of patterns, e.g.,
support, confidence, etc.
 Subjective: based on user’s belief in the data, e.g.,
Can We Find All and Only
Interesting Patterns?

 Find all the interesting patterns: Completeness

 Can a data mining system find all the interesting
 Association vs. classification vs. clustering
 Search for only interesting patterns: Optimization
 Can a data mining system find only the interesting
 Approaches
 First generate all the patterns and then filter out the
uninteresting ones.
 Generate only the interesting patterns—mining query
Data Mining: Confluence of Multiple

Database Statistics Image Process


Neural N/W
High Per.Comp.

Learning Data Mining Data Visualization

Info. Retrieval

Pattern Recogn.
Signal Processing Spatial Data Anal.
Data Mining: Classification

 General functionality
 Descriptive data mining
 Predictive data mining
 Different views, different
 Kinds of databases to be mined
 Kinds of knowledge to be discovered
 Kinds of techniques utilized
A Multi-Dimensional View of
Data Mining Classification
 Databases to be mined
 Relational, transactional, object-oriented, object-

relational, active, spatial, time-series, text, multi-media,

heterogeneous, legacy, WWW, etc.
 Knowledge to be mined
 Characterization, discrimination, association,

classification, clustering, trend, deviation and outlier

analysis, etc.
 Multiple/integrated functions and mining at multiple

 Techniques utilized
 Database-oriented, data warehouse (OLAP), machine

learning, statistics, visualization, neural network, etc.

 Applications adapted
OLAP Mining: An Integration of
Data Mining and Data
 Data mining systems, DBMS, Data
warehouse systems coupling
 No coupling, loose-coupling, semi-tight-coupling, tight-
 On-line analytical mining data
 integration of mining and OLAP technologies
 Interactive mining multi-level knowledge
 Necessity of mining knowledge and patterns at different
levels of abstraction by drilling/rolling, pivoting,
slicing/dicing, etc.
 Integration of multiple mining functions
An OLAM Architecture
Mining query Mining result Layer4
User Interface
Engine Engine OLAP/OLAM

Data Cube API

Filtering& Integration Database API Filtering
Data cleaning Data
Databases Data
Data integration Warehouse Repository
Major Issues in Data Mining (1)
 Mining methodology and user interaction
 Mining different kinds of knowledge in databases
- Since different users can be interested in different kinds of knowledge,
data mining should cover a wide spectrum of data analysis and KD tasks.
 Interactive mining of knowledge at multiple levels of abstraction
- Since it is difficult to know exactly what can be discovered within a DB.
 Incorporation of background knowledge
-Such as integrity constraints and deduction rules, can help focus and
speed up a data mining process.
 Data mining query languages and ad-hoc data mining
-Such a language should be integrated with a DB or DW/H query
language, and optimized for efficient and flexible data mining.
 Presentation and visualization of data mining results
-Discovered knowledge should be expressed in high level languages,
visual representation (i.e) easily understood and directly usable by
humans. Such as trees, tables, rules, graphs, charts, crosstabs, matrices,
 Handling noise and incomplete data
-As a result the accuracy of the discovered patterns can be poor.

 Pattern evaluation: the interestingness problem

Major Issues in Data Mining (2)
 Performance and scalability
 Efficiency and scalability of data mining algorithms
-The running time of a Data Mining algorithm must be predictable and
acceptable in large Database.
 Parallel, distributed and incremental mining methods
-Such algorithms divide the data into partitions, which are processed in
-Not from scratch, it will amend and strengthen what was previously
 Issues relating to the diversity of data types
 Handling relational and complex types of data
-One may expect to have different data mining systems for different
kinds of data.
 Mining information from heterogeneous databases and global
information systems (WWW)
-Becomes a very challenging and highly dynamic field in data mining.
 Issues related to applications and social impacts
 Application of discovered knowledge
 Domain-specific data mining tools

 Intelligent query answering

 Process control and decision making

 Data mining: discovering interesting patterns from large
amounts of data
 A natural evolution of database technology, in great
demand, with wide applications
 A KDD process includes data cleaning, data integration, data
selection, transformation, data mining, pattern evaluation,
and knowledge presentation
 Mining can be performed in a variety of information
 Data mining functionalities: characterization, discrimination,
association, classification, clustering, outlier and trend
analysis, etc.
 Classification of data mining systems