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WELCOME NOTE

MECHANALYSIS
INDIA LTD. WELCOMES ALL PARTICIPANTS TO THE STRUCTURED TRAINING COURSE ON VIBRATION TECHNOLOGY

@
HOTEL AMBASSADOR - DELHI
Mechanalysis India Limited

SOLUTION PROVIDER
STEEL ALUMINIUM POWER POWER NUCLEAR

TURBINE

MIL
AUTO OIL & GAS PAPER

COOLING TOWER

MARINE

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OUR BELIEF

WE BELIEVE YOU ARE OUR PARTNERS IN THIS BUSINESS. BECAUSE MORE THAN WHAT WE HAVE THOUGHT YOU, WE HAVE GAINED MUCH MORE FROM YOU. Mechanalysis India Limited

BRIEF COMPANY HISTORY


FOUNDERS OF PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE 1952 (IRD). PIONERS IN THE FIELD OF CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE. INVENTED VARIOUS INSTRUMENTS AND SOFTWARES. GAVE THE INDUSTRY ITS FIRST ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL ANALYZER. STRATEGIC TAKEOVER IN 1997 BY ENTEK SCIENTIFIC INC. THIS OPENED DOORS FOR FASTER & ACCURATE DATA COLLECTION. IT ALSO LAUNCHED DIFFERENT USER FRIENDLY SOFTWARES. STRATEGIC TAKEOVER IN 2001 WITH ROCKWELL AUTOMATION INC. THIS HAS INTEGRATED US TO THE WORLD OF PLC AND AUTOMATION.

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MY CREDENTIALS
BORN IN A PLACE 365 DAYS ON HOLIDAY (GOA) PASSED ENGINEERING IN STRUCTURAL FAB & ERECTION ENGG. TRAINED IN GODREJ & BOYCE FOR THE ISRO PROJECT (INSP) JOINED AS A FULL FLEDGED TRAINEE ENGINEER IN THERMAX LTD. WAS AN ERECTION & COMMISSIONING ENGG. IN 1996 POSITIONED AS A TROUBLE SHOOTER IN ROTATING EQPTS. IN 1999 JOINED ENTEK IRD IN THE CONSULTANCY DEPARTMENT. NAMED MR. NAVY, SINGLE POINT SUPPORT TO ALL NAVAL BASES. IN 2001 PROMOTED AS ASST. MANAGER WEST. CERTIFIED TRAINER FOR VT-1 COURSE SINCE OCTOBER 2001.

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EVOLUTION EVOLUTION
IT ALL STARTED WITH A VISION TO KNOW THE

FUTURE
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BROAD COURSE OUTLINE BROAD COURSE OUTLINE


x

BASIC CONCEPTS OF VIBRATION INTRODUCTION TO MACHINERY DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES USING VIBRATION. AN OVERVIEW OF BALANCING

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COURSE OUTLINE COURSE OUTLINE


A B C D E F G H

Vibration as an indicator of machinery condition What is vibration? What causes vibration? Vibration and machine life. A comparison of maintenance philosophies. Vibration as a Predictive Maintenance tool. The vibration Predictive Maintenance program. Additional applications for vibration detection and analysis.

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COURSE OUTLINE COURSE OUTLINE


A Vibration frequency B Vibration amplitude C Phase

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COURSE OUTLINE COURSE OUTLINE


1. SENSORS 1. INSTRUMENTS 2. Recognising common machinery problems.

Unbalance bearings Bent Shafts Misalignment Looseness Eccentricity

Defective rolling-element Plain bearing problems Aerodynamic / hydraulic problems Electric motor problems Gear problems Mechanalysis India Limited

COURSE OUTLINE COURSE OUTLINE


A

Unbalance defined Sources of unbalance Types of unbalance Fundamental principals of balancing Single plane balancing techniques

B C D E

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THE RULES THE RULES


x If

you have a question

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THE RULES THE RULES


x If

you have an input

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THE RULES THE RULES


x If

you have feedback

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THE RULES THE RULES

x The

only dumb question is the one that is never asked ! dont know .

xI

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THE RULES THE RULES


x If

we have a discussion

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MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES


x Affect

all three of these principal losses.

Downtime loss. Speed loss. Quality loss.

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MAINTENANCE STRATERGIES MAINTENANCE STRATERGIES


RUN TO FAILURE / BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE. PLANNED / CALLENDER BASED MAINTENANCE. PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE & PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE.

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RUN TO FAILURE RUN TO FAILURE


x

BENEFITS
No maintenance(Run to failure) Some machines are cheaper to replace than repair.

COST

DRAWBACKS
Unplanned shutdown resulting in production loss. High inventory cost. Causes untimely failure Causes damage to the equipment and the attached equipment as well. Sometimes causes catastrophic failure.

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PREVENTIVE PREVENTIVE
x

BENEFITS

COST

Preventive

Machine inspected at fixed intervals. Reduces production downtime. Allows scheduling hence reduces spare inventory cost. Maintenance
x

DRAWBACKS
Setting of inspection period is critical. Periodic disassembly of critical / non critical machines is expensive and time consuming. Biggest problem is of upsetting a machine which is running smooth.

20 03

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PREDICTIVE PREDICTIVE
x

BENEFITS
Minimizes machine damage and allows scheduling of down time, lab our & material Eliminates unnecessary overhauls Machine inspected non-intrusively. Allows machines in good operating condition to continue to run . Further reduces inventory cost.

COST

DRAWBACKS
Implementation cost is rather high. Demands technical competence & commitment to change.

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HOW IT PREDICTS HOW IT PREDICTS


HIGH FAILURE LIKELY ?

SHUT DOWN ?
TIME TO PLAN: SPARES TOOLS LABOUR PRODUCTION

WARNING
LOW

NORMAL OPERATIONS

LEAD TIME

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PROACTIVE PROACTIVE
x
COST

BENEFITS
Maintains minimal downtime. Controlling by taking precautions. Protecting equipment. Eliminates root cause of failure..

DRAWBACKS
Requires qualification. Engineering involvement. Demands foresight. Ongoing investment.

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THE PLANT CHALLENGE THE PLANT CHALLENGE


SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE

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THE PLANT CHALLENGE THE PLANT CHALLENGE


OBJECTIVE TECHNOLOGY

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CASE STUDY CASE STUDY


x x x

5 identical service pumps No spare capacity Stressful service

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DETAILS DETAILS
Equipment Failure Mode Detection : Parallel Centrifugal Pump Sets : Impellor corrosion / erosion : Loss of performance of plant - loss of group flow.

Cost: Production loss Rs. 2,45,000 / hour per unit down

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METHOD - 1 METHOD - 1
RUN TO FAILURE Result : 4 failures per year / 16 hours per change out

Cost : Production loss Rs.1,56,80,000/- per year

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METHOD - 2 METHOD - 2
PREVENTIVE (Periodic internal inspection and replacement) Result: 1 failure per year / 16 hours per changeout 5 inspections per year 3 hours per inspection

Cost: Production loss Rs.75,95,000 / year

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METHOD - 3 METHOD - 3
PREDICTIVE (Trend pump parameters and monitor vibration characteristics). Result: 0 failures per year 1 pump replacement 8 hours per change out Cost: Production loss Rs.19,60,000 / year

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METHOD - 4 METHOD - 4
PROACTIVE (Resolve design and installation problem.) Result: 0 failures per year 1 pump replacement 8 hours per change out Cost: Production loss Rs.0,00 / year

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RELATIVE COSTS
Breakdown Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Rs. 1.57 CRORES. Rs.76 LACS
Rs.19,6 LACS

Predictive Maintenance

Proactive Maint
Rs.0.00

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STRATEGY REPRESENTATION STRATEGY REPRESENTATION


Maintenance strategy
Proactive Maintenance Predictive Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance

Technique needed
Monitoring and control failure root causes, e.g., contamination Monitoring of vibration, wear debris Periodic component replacement Large maintenance budget

Cost per year*

Human Body Parallel


Cholesterol and blood pressure monitoring with diet control Detection of heart disease using EKG or ultrasonics By-pass or transplant surgery Heart attack or stroke

Rs. 0.5 L

Rs. 2 L

Rs. 5 L

Rs. 8 L

Dont limit your condition-based maintenance program to the detection of sudden-death faults.

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DO WE REALLY USE THESE STRATERGIES?


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APPLICATION APPLICATION
Run-to-Failure Usage-Based PM Spare Run-to-Failure

Re-design Time-Based On-Condition

Failure Finding Test

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RELIABILITY ECONOMICS RELIABILITY ECONOMICS


x x x x

Maintenance equates to 15% to 40% of operating cost. About 30% maintenance spending is found to be unnecessary. Maintenance costs more than five times new equipment cost. Maintenance may be the last major controllable cost.

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COST OF MAINTENANCE COST OF MAINTENANCE


Direct maintenance cost Staff, Overtime, Contractors, Spares, tools etc. Indirect maintenance costs High production costs, lost production reduced quality, poor customer service

Rs

Rs

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SEE WITH YOUR EYES SEE WITH YOUR EYES

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FEEL THE DIFFERENCE FEEL THE DIFFERENCE

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PRACTICING MAINTENANCE PRACTICING MAINTENANCE


x x

Most facilities practice all four strategies to some degree. What we wish to do is focus the emphasis on the most suitable strategy for our plant or sub-set of plant. To do this .. We need to plan Maintenance as an integral part of the operation. Wow

x x

Project implementation is the key to success

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THE IMPLEMENTATION LOOP THE IMPLEMENTATION LOOP

Process Improvement

Benchmarking

Planning

Systems Integration

Implementation

So what happens if we get it right? ? . Mechanalysis India Limited

IMPACT IMPACT
Increased production capacity. Lower production costs. Increased quality. Improves customer service.

AND THIS MAKES YOU COMPETITIVE AND DIRECTLY IMPACTS YOUR PROFITABILITY. Mechanalysis India Limited

MAKING SENSE MAKING SENSE


Concurrent engineering Equipment Effectiveness and Reliability Operator maintenance Reliability engineering Diagnostics Predictive maintenance Systematic planning and scheduling Preventive maintenance

Inspect, lubricate Repair after failure

WHERE ARE YOU ON THE CURVE?

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

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SUMMARY SUMMARY
If you dont know where you are, then how can you get where you are going to.

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BREAK - 1 BREAK - 1

TEA BREAK

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SESSION - 2

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WHAT IS VIBRATION WHAT IS VIBRATION


xAny

motion that repeats itself after an interval of time is called vibration or an oscillation.
xThe

cyclic or oscillation motion of a machine or machine component from its position of rest.
xVibration

is the response of a system to an internal or external stimulus causing it to oscillate or pulsate.


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ITS ALL ARROUND US ITS ALL ARROUND US

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OTHER MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS OTHER MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS


NOISE TEMPERATURE. PRESSURE. FLOW. CURRENT. MOVEMENT:-EXPANSION-VIBRATION. INFRA RED :- THERMOGRAPHY. WEAR ANALYSIS:- FEROGRAPHY SPECTROMETRIC OIL ANALYSIS. VIBRATION Mechanalysis India Limited

THEN WHY ONLY VIBRATION? THEN WHY ONLY VIBRATION?


x All

machines vibrate.

x Every

machinery defect generates its own unique vibration frequency. increase in vibration indicates of a developing problem.

x An

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CAUSES OF VIBRATION CAUSES OF VIBRATION


x Forces

that change in direction with time (Rotating Unbalance). that change in amplitude or intensity with time (Motor Problems). Forces (Rotor Rub).

x Forces

x Frictional x Forces

that cause impacts (Bearing Defects).

x Randomly

generated forces (Turbulence / Cavitation).


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COMMON CAUSES OF VIBRATION COMMON CAUSES OF VIBRATION


x Misalignment x Unbalance x Looseness x Eccentricity x Defective

Bearings x Resonance x Electrical Problems x Aerodynamic / Hydraulic Forces


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BUT WHY STUDY VIBRATION? BUT WHY STUDY VIBRATION?


x

Increased machinery life

x x x

L10 Life = Estimated bearing life in hours RATINGB = Basic Dynamic Load LOADE = Equivalent applied Radial load (Dead load + live load) Mechanalysis India Limited

BUT WHY STUDY VIBRATION? BUT WHY STUDY VIBRATION?


x

Increased machinery life

If you RPM is 3000 and you reduce to 1500 then the brg life is doubled. But if you reduce the load by 50% the the life is extended 8 times Mechanalysis India Limited

LOAD IS DYNAMIC LOAD IS DYNAMIC


x Increased

dynamic forces reduce life of bearing drastically of machinery vibration is directly proportional to the amount of dynamic forces generated generated force is lowered, the vibration is lowered and the machine life is increased
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x Amplitude

x If

WHY MACHINES DETERIORATE? WHY MACHINES DETERIORATE?


x

Dynamic forces increase, cause increase in vibration Wear, corrosion, or buildup of deposits increases unbalance Settling of foundation may increase misalignment forces The stiffness of the machine reduces, thus increasing vibration Loosening or stretching of mounting bolts Broken weld Crack in the foundation Deterioration of grouting
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OTHER REASONS OTHER REASONS


x Precision

machine tools Quality products require Good dimensional tolerances Good surface finish quality x Human Annoyance Residences / Hospitals Low vibration in heating, ventilation, air conditioning. machinery, etc...
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SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS


x

System characteristics which determine how a particular machine reacts to forces. The Mass of the vibrating system. The Stiffness of the vibrating system. The Damping qualities of the system Vibration Force = Ma + Cv + Kx Vibration force is trying to cause vibration. M, K, and C are trying to minimise vibration.

x x x

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FORCE DUE TO UNBALANCE FORCE DUE TO UNBALANCE

F(lbs) = 1.77 x (RPM/1000)2 x Ounces x Inches OR F(lbs) = .0625 x (RPM/1000)2 x Grams x Inches Force is proportional to the square of the speed
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EQUATION 1 EQUATION 1
DYNAMIC FORCE DYNAMIC RESISTANCE

VIBRATION AMPLITUDE RESPONSE

ANY VIBRATION CAN BE DEFINED BY THE PARTICULAR COMBINATION OF THESE THREE CHARACTERISTICS

DYNAMIC RESISTANCE IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE AMOUNT OF STIFFNESS, DAMPING AND MASS WITHIN THE SYSTEM

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PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE. PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE.


THE USE OF GRAPHIC TRENDS OF SELECTED MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS AGAINST KNOWN ENGINEERING LIMITS FOR THE PURPOSE OF:-

DETECTING, ANALYSING, CORRECTING & VERIFYING


MACHINERY DEFECTS,

BEFORE FAILURE OCCURS


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PREDICTING PROBLEMS LIKE

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UNBALANCE

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MISSALIGNMENT

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BENT SHAFT

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LOOSENESS

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BAD BEARINGS

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HYDRAULIC FORCES

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CONDITION MONITORING

The assessment on a continuous or periodic basis of the mechanical condition of machinery, equipment and systems from the observations and/or recordings of selected measurement parameters.

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THE FOUR PILLARS THE FOUR PILLARS


Detection x Trending a machines vibration level to detect and quantify any changes from the norm. Analysis x When a significant change is detected the vibration is analysed to determine the nature of the problem Correction x The advanced warning provided by the detection and analysis enables corrective action to be prepared and scheduled. Verification x After correction new readings are obtained to ensure that all defects have been eliminated and to establish new baseline characteristics. Mechanalysis India Limited

MACHINE OPERATING CONDITIONS MACHINE OPERATING CONDITIONS


Bathtub Curve
FAILURE SHUT DOWN

OIL DEBRIS

WARNING

RUNNING RUNNING IN IN

NORMAL OPERATIONS NORMAL OPERATIONS

LEAD LEAD TIME TIME

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CHARACTERISTICS OF VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VIBRATION


Amplitude

Displacement Units are mils or microns(1 micron = 0.001mm or 0.039 mils. Velocity Units are in/sec or mm/sec Acceleration Units g. Where 1g=32.2ft/sec2 or 9.81 m/sec2. Spike Energy gSE, HFD,SEE
Frequency Hertz(CPS), CPM or Orders Phase

Relative Motion Degrees or Clock Mechanalysis India Limited

WHAT IS A TIME WAVE FORM? WHAT IS A TIME WAVE FORM?

AMPLITUDE

TIME Mechanalysis India Limited

TIME WAVEFORM SIMPLIFIED

x Paper

feeds as the block oscillates up and down

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TIME WAVEFORM

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WHAT IS VIBRATION AMPLITUDE? WHAT IS VIBRATION AMPLITUDE?

The amount of motion in the system.

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VIBRATION AMPLITUDE
PEAK

Magnitude of the vibration signal Displacement (Mils OR microns) Velocity (in/s OR mm/sec) Acceleration (gs OR mm/sec2) Spike Energy (g/SE) Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE


x

For the time waveform shown in Figure 1, what is the PEAK AMPLITUDE for this vibration?
2

1 Amplitude (mm/s) 0 -1 -2

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

Time (m Secs)

Figure 1

A) 2.0 mm/s B) 0.2 mm/s C) 3.0 mm/s D) 4.0 mm/s

TIME VARIABLES
= t X = D sin (t) V = D cos (t) A = - 2 D sin (t)

DISPLACEMENT VELOCITY ACCELERATION

X = Displacement at a given time (t) D = Peak Displacement = Angular Displacement = Angular Velocity (Frequency)
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EQUATIONS REWRITTEN
DISPLACEMENT X = A sin ( t) VELOCITY V = A sin ( t + 90)
Directly proportional to frequency
DISPLACEMENT TIME

VELOCITY

TIME

ACCELERATION A = 2 A sin ( t + 180)


Proportional to frequency squared
ACCELERATION TIME

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Vibration Displacement
(mils or microns peak-to-peak)
x x

Displacement is most easily understood The problem with Displacement If vibration is not simple, then charts cannot be used for displacement 1 mil 1800 CPM - unbalance FAIR ( ref pg 2.16) 0.5 mil 3600 CPM - misalignment - FAIR DONT combine to FAIR Severity is judged by Displacement and Frequency

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Vibration Velocity
(in/s or mm/s rms)
x x

Fatigue = Displacement * Frequency. Velocity = Displacement * Frequency Thus, Velocity and Fatigue are equivalent. Most machines fail due to Fatigue Velocity takes frequency and displacement into account (Severity Charts) Valid whether simple or complex vibration. Overall velocity tells severity of vibration

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Vibration Velocity
(in/s or mm/s rms)

Peak value is used in Period 1.5 USA 1


Displacement
0.5

Minimum Velocity

Period
Maximum Velocity

1.8 2

-1

VELOCITY

RMS 0value is used 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 -0.5 internationally.
-1.5

90 degrees out Time phase of with Displacement


1 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

TIME
Minimum Velocity

Period

Displacement

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Overall Alarm Chart


M A C H IN E T Y P E C o o lin g T o w e r D r iv e s
L o n g H o llo w D r iv e S h a ft C lo s e C o u p le d B e lt D r iv e C lo s e C o u p le d D ir e c t D r iv e

G O O D
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - .3 7 5 - .2 7 5 - .2 0 0 .3 .2 .2 .2 .1 .3 .2 .2 .2 .2 .1 .1 .1 2 7 0 0 5 0 7 5 5 0 7 7 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 5 0

F A IR
.3 7 5 .2 7 5 .2 0 0 .3 .2 .2 .2 .1 .3 .2 .2 .2 .2 .1 .1 .1 2 7 0 0 5 0 7 5 5 0 7 7 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 5 0 - .6 0 0 - .4 2 5 - .3 0 0 .5 .4 .3 .3 .2 .4 .4 .3 .3 .3 .2 .2 .2 0 2 0 0 5 5 2 7 7 0 7 7 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 0 5 5 0

A L A R M
.6 0 0 .4 2 5 .3 0 0 .5 .4 .3 .3 .2 .4 .4 .3 .3 .3 .2 .2 .2 0 2 0 0 5 5 2 7 7 0 7 7 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 0 5 5 0

C o m p r e s s o r s
R R C C C L B G P L L S V e o e e e c ip r o c a tin g ta ry S c re w n tr ifu g a l w ith o r w ith o u t E x te r n a l G e a r b o x n t r i f u g a l - In t e g r a l G e a r ( A x i a l M e a s . ) n t r i f u g a l - In t e g r a l G e a r ( R a d ia l M e a s . )

B lo w e r s

(F a n s )

o b e -T y p e R o ta ry e lt- D r iv e n B lo w e r s e n e r a l D ir e c t D r iv e F a n s ( w ith C o u p lin g ) r im a r y A ir F a n s a rg e F o rc e d D ra ft F a n s a r g e In d u c e d D r a f t F a n s h a f t - M o u n t e d In t e g r a l F a n ( E x t e n d e d M o t o r S h a f t ) a n e - A x ia l F a n s

M o to r /G e n e r a to r S e t s
B e lt- D r iv e n D ir e c t C o u p le d - .2 7 5 - .2 0 0 - .2 5 0 - .2 0 0 - .1 5 0 - .1 7 5 - .1 5 0 .3 .3 .2 .2 .2 .2 .1 .1 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 7 2 5 0 0 0 2 0 5 0 7 5 3 5 5 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 .2 7 5 .2 0 0 .2 5 0 .2 0 0 .1 5 0 .1 7 5 .1 5 0 .3 .3 .2 .2 .2 .2 .1 .1 .1 .1 .0 .0 .0 7 2 5 0 0 0 2 0 5 0 7 5 3 5 5 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 - .4 2 5 - .3 0 0 - .4 0 0 - .3 0 0 - .2 2 5 - .2 7 5 - .2 2 5 .6 .5 .4 .3 .3 .3 .2 .1 .2 .1 .1 .0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 7 2 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 5 0 .4 2 5 .3 0 0 .4 0 0 .3 0 0 .2 2 5 .2 7 5 .2 2 5 .6 .5 .4 .3 .3 .3 .2 .1 .2 .1 .1 .0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 7 2 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 5 5 0

C h ille r s
R e c ip r o c a tin g C e n tr ifu g a l ( O p e n - A ir ) - M o to r & C e n tr ifu g a l ( H e r m e tic ) - M o to r & C o m p . S e p a ra te Im p e l l e r s In s i d e

L a rg e

T u r b in e /G e n e r a to r
R P M R P M T u r b in e /G e n e r a to r s T u r b in e /G e n e r a to r s ' - 2 0 - 1 2 ' - 8 ' H - 5 ' H o r iz o ' H e ig h t) H e ig h t) e ig h t) e ig h t) n ta l P u m p

3 6 0 0 1 8 0 0 V V V V G B H M G G S

C e n tr if u g a l P u m p s
e r tic a l P u m p s ( 1 2 e r tic a l P u m p s ( 8 ' e r tic a l P u m p s ( 5 ' e r tic a l P u m p s ( 0 ' e n e ra l P u rp o s e H o ile r F e e d P u m p s y d r a u lic P u m p s

( D ir e c t C o u p le d )

M a c h in e

T o o ls

o to r e a r b o x In p u t e a rb o x O u tp u t p in d le s : a . b . c .

R o u g h in g O p e r a tio n s M a c h in e F in is h in g C r itic a l F in is h in g

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Interpreting Charts
x Good x Fair

and Below - Satisfactory operation

No significant problems

- Minor problems

Conduct analysis to find problem Decrease interval Schedule correction, arrange parts and labour

x Rough

and Above - Analyse immediately

Shutdown as soon as possible

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Overall Velocity Guidelines

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Vibration Acceleration
(gs peak)

1g = 9810mm/s/s = 386 in/s/s x Preferable for high frequency vibration x Chart looks at 18000-600000 CPM range
x
1

Period

x Peak

1.5

Period

Displacemen t

Displacement

value is used x 90 degrees out of phase with Velocity, 180 degrees out with Displacement
0 0 -0.5 -1

Displacement

0.5

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Maximum Acceleration

Period
Minimum Acceleration

Time

TIME
Maximum Acceleration

0.5

-0.5 -1 -1.5

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

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Time

Acceleration Severity Chart

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WHEN TO USE D // V // A WHEN TO USE D V A


Amplitude Failure Units Displacement Stress mils pk-pk Velocity Fatigue in/s pk Acceleration Force gs pk
x

Frequency < 600 CPM 600-120K CPM >120K CPM

Fatigue causes most failures, but stress and force can also cause failures. Velocity can go as high as 240000 CPM.

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CONTOURS OF EQUAL SEVERITY CONTOURS OF EQUAL SEVERITY


F (cpm) 60 600 6,000 60,000 600,000 D (um) 100.00 10.00 1.00 0.10 0.01 V (mm/s) 0.314 0.314 0.314 0.314 0.314 A (g) 0.0002 0.002 0.020 0.201 2.012

Displacement
10 um .20 g

Force Indicator

LOG AMPLITUDE (um, mm/s, g)

Velocity
.314 mm/s .002 g .1 um

Fatigue Indicator
.314 mm/s

Acceleration 60 600 6K 60K 600K

Stress Indicator

LOG FREQUENCY (CPM)

FORMULA FOR CONVERSION FORMULA FOR CONVERSION


x

Where : A = Acceleration (g pk), V = Velocity (mm/s pk), D = Displacement (um pk-pk) D=2 60 V x 103 2 RPM D=2 60 g x A x 106 2 RPM
2

= 19.10 x 103 V / RPM (um pk-pk)


x

= 1.79 x 109 A / (RPM)2 (um pk-pk) V= 60 g x A x 103 2 RPM

V = 0.5

2 RPM 60

D x 10-3

= 52.36 x 10-6 D x RPM (mm/s pk)


x

= 93.68 x 103 A / RPM (mm/s pk) A= 2 RPM V x g -3 10 60

A = 0.5

2 RPM 60

D g x 10-6

= 0.559 x 10-9 D x (RPM)2 (g pk)

= 10.67 x 10-6 V x RPM (g pk)

MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS, MEASUREMENT PARAMETERS,


x DISPLACEMENT

- How far it moves (Microns or Mils) - How fast it moves (mm/sec or in/sec) - How quickly velocity changes. (g)

x VELOCITY

x ACCELERATION

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RELATIONSHIP
DISPLACEMENT TIME

VELOCITY

TIME

ACCELERATION

TIME

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WHY IS VELOCITY NORMALLY USED? WHY IS VELOCITY NORMALLY USED?


x

IT GIVES EQUAL AMPLITUDE WEIGHTING TO ALL VIBRATION FREQUENCIES. MOST ROTATING MACHINES PRODUCE FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 6OOCPM TO 120KCPM WHERE VELOCITY IS THE MOST RESPONSIVE IT IS THE ONLY MEASUREMENT PARAMETER WHERE THE OVERALL VIBRATION LEVEL CAN BE APPLIED DIRECTLY TO A STANDARD OF VIBRATION SEVERITY. IE:-WHEN THE FREQUENCIES OF THE VIBRATION ARE UNKNOWN.

Mechanalysis India Limited

Comparative Spectrums
DISPLACEMENT

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Comparative Spectrums
VELOCITY

Mechanalysis India Limited

Comparative Spectrums
ACCELERATION

Mechanalysis India Limited

T.C RATHBONE SEVERITY CHART T.C RATHBONE SEVERITY CHART

Mechanalysis India Limited

MIL VIBRATION SEVERITY CHART MIL VIBRATION SEVERITY CHART

Mechanalysis India Limited

IRD VIBRATION SEVERITY CHART IRD VIBRATION SEVERITY CHART


100 10.000

Plotted Point

1800 1.0000 1000

VIBRATION FRE QUE NCY - CPM 10000 100000

Condition

FAIR

VIBRATION DISPLACEMENT - MILS PEAK TO PEAK 1

Constant RPM Lines

1.000

1200 0.001 1800 0.001 3600 0.001 1.0000 10.6111 21.7284

DISPLACE NT ME

1200 0.2 1800 0.2 3600 0.2

Derived Values

0.0942 1.0000 2.1500

Very Rough

0.100 # R E F! # R E F! # R E 0.010 F! # R E F! # R E F! # R E 0.001 F! # R E F! #

Rough

1 0

Slightly Rough

Fair

Good

Very Good

Sm ooth Very Sm ooth 1200 1800 3600 E xt. Sm ooth

Mechanalysis India Limited

MACHINE TOOL SEVERITY CHART MACHINE TOOL SEVERITY CHART

Mechanalysis India Limited

INTERPRETING CHARTS INTERPRETING CHARTS


x Good

and Below - Satisfactory operation No significant problems to Slightly Rough - Minor problems Conduct analysis to find problem Decrease interval Schedule correction, arrange parts and labour and Above - Analyse immediately Shutdown as soon as possible
Mechanalysis India Limited

x Fair

x Rough

Factors Affecting Amplitude


x x x x x

Whether Mounting is rigid or on isolators What machine does (i.e. Hammer Mills). Damping factor. Mass of the machine. Whether single frequency of multiple frequencies are in action.

Mechanalysis India Limited

Determining Vibration Limits


x

If unsure what vibration level is normal Compare to identical machines If higher than average, analyse Check for increasing levels of vibration

Mechanalysis India Limited

Determining Vibration Limits


x x x x x x x

Experience Manufacturers recommendations (Warranty) Published corporate specifications (Committees) Vibration Severity Charts Overall Alarm Charts Comparison of similar equipment If long term trend on a given machine shows a constant level, this can be considered normal for that machine

Mechanalysis India Limited

BALANCING FORCES BALANCING FORCES


DAMPING (VELOCITY)

RIGIDITY(DISPLACEMENT)

FORCE (ACCELERATION)

MACHINE STARTING FROM REST Mechanalysis India Limited

BALANCING FORCES BALANCING FORCES


DAMPING (VELOCITY)

RIGIDITY(DISPLACEMENT)

FORCE (ACCELERATION)

MACHINE SPEED 10% Mechanalysis India Limited

BALANCING FORCES BALANCING FORCES


DAMPING (VELOCITY)

RIGIDITY(DISPLACEMENT)

FORCE (ACCELERATION)

MACHINE SPEED 30% Mechanalysis India Limited

BALANCING FORCES BALANCING FORCES


DAMPING (VELOCITY)

RIGIDITY(DISPLACEMENT)

FORCE (ACCELERATION)

MACHINE SPEED 50 % Mechanalysis India Limited

BALANCING FORCES BALANCING FORCES


DAMPING (VELOCITY)

RIGIDITY(DISPLACEMENT)

FORCE (ACCELERATION)

MACHINE SPEED 70% Mechanalysis India Limited

BALANCING FORCES BALANCING FORCES


DAMPING (VELOCITY)

90 DEG

90 DEG

RIGIDITY(DISPLACEMENT)

FORCE (ACCELERATION)

MACHINE IN RESONANCE Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION
How much is too much?

Mechanalysis India Limited

FREQUENCY FREQUENCY
x

DISPLACEMENT AND FREQUENCY FROM THE TIME WAVEFORM

Upper Limit DISPLACEMENT TIME Neutral Position

Period(T) (1 complete cycle) Frequency = 1 Period = 1 T =

Lower Limit

Cycles Second

Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION FREQUENCY. VIBRATION FREQUENCY.


x THE

TIME REQUIRED TO COMPLETE ONE FULL CYCLE OF VIBRATION IS CALLED THE PERIOD. i.e.:-

IF ONE PERIOD IS COMPLETED IN ONE FIFTH OF A SECOND, THE VIBRATION FREQUENCY WOULD BE 5 CYCLES PER SECOND (5 Hz) OR 300 CYCLES PER MINUTE (300 CPM). FREQUENCY IS THUS THE RECIPROCAL OF THE PERIOD.

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


x Which

CPM ?

Frequency Units do we use Hertz or

Dedicated after Heinrich Rudolf Hertz(Discovered electromagnetic radiation) x Why

do we need to know the frequency of vibration ?

Mechanalysis India Limited

Significance of Frequency
x Essential

for pinpointing the cause of a machine problem x Most vibration problems exhibit frequencies related to the rotational speed(s) of the machine x Process of elimination to narrow down the exact machine fault x Problems not always exact multiple of rpm
Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


IF IT TAKES ONE MINUTE TO COMPLETE ONE CYCLE THEN

1 Minute

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

1 CYCLE PER MINUTE 1 CPM

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


IF IT TAKES ONE MINUTE TO COMPLETE THREE CYCLE THEN

1 Minute

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

3 CYCLES PER MINUTE 3 CPM

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


IF IT TAKES TEN SECONDS TO COMPLETE THREE CYCLE THEN

10 seconds

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

18 CYCLES PER MINUTE 18 CPM

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


IF IT TAKES 0.5 SECONDS TO COMPLETE TWO CYCLE THEN

0.5 Seconds
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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

240 CYCLES PER MINUTE 240 CPM

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


CPM / 60 = CPS e.g. 240 CPM = 4 CPS

CPS X 60 = CPM CPS = Hertz (Hz)

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = ? Hz

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = 20 Hz

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = 20 Hz 60,000 CPM = ? Hz

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = 20 Hz 60,000 CPM = 1000Hz

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = 20 Hz 60,000 CPM = 1000Hz 120,000 CPM = ? Hz

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = 20 Hz 60,000 CPM = 1000Hz 120,000 CPM = 2000Hz

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = 20 Hz 60,000 CPM = 1000Hz 120,000 CPM = 2000Hz 1500 Hz = ? CPM

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = 20 Hz 60,000 CPM = 1000Hz 120,000 CPM = 2000Hz 1500 Hz = 90,000 CPM

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = 20 Hz 60,000 CPM = 1000Hz 120,000 CPM = 2000Hz 1500 Hz = 90,000 CPM 500 CPS = ? CPM

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics


1200 CPM = 20 Hz 60,000 CPM = 1000Hz 120,000 CPM = 2000Hz 1500 Hz = 90,000 CPM 500 CPS = 30,000 CPM

Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE


From the time waveform calculate the frequency of the vibration in CPM

Amplitude (mm/s) 0 3 6 9 12

Time (m Sec)

A) 100 B) 333 C) 2,000 D) 20,000 Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE


x

From the time waveform calculate the frequency of the vibration in CPM

Amplitude (mm/s) 0 3 6 9 12

Time (m Sec)

A) 100

B) 333
C) 2,000 D) 20,000 Mechanalysis India Limited

Common Machine Defect Frequencies


x 1xRPM

- Unbalance x 2xRPM - Misalignment or Looseness x Electrical Line Frequency x Blade or Vane Pass Frequency BPF = # of vanes or blades x RPM x Gear Mesh Frequency GMF = # of Gear Teeth X gear RPM x Bearing Defect Frequencies

Mechanalysis India Limited

Relationship of various frequencies


Fe u n y r qec InT r s em OR M f P 1x R M P Ms L e Cu e o t ik ly a s s U b la c na ne O e P s ib C u e &R m r s th r o s le a s s e ak 1 E c n ic jo r a , g as o p lle s ) c e tr un ls e r r u y 2 M a n e t o b n s a - If h ha ia v r tio ) is lig m n r e t h ft ig x l iba n 3 B dB lts - I R Mo b lt ) a e f P f e 4 Rs n n e ) eoac 5 R c r c tin foc s ) e ipo a g r e 6 E c ic l po le s ) le tr a r b m 7 Loees ) os ns 8 D totio - s f f e o p in s a ) is r n ot e t r ip g tr in 1 M a n e t - if h ha ia v r tio ) is lig m n ig x l iba n 2 R c r c tin foc s ) e ipo a g r e 3 Rs n n e ) eoac 4 B db lts - if 2x R Mo b lt ) a e P f e U u lly ac m in tio o m a n e t a de c s iv a ia sa o b a n f is lig m n n x e s e x l c aa c s ( o e e s . le r n e lo s n s ) 1 B ddiv b lts ) a r e e 2 B c go n v r tio ) a k r u d iba n 3 S bh r o ic r s n n e ) u - am n e o a c 4 "B a V r tio ) e t" iba n C m o e c ic l po le s in lu ebo e r to b r , e c n ic o m n le tr a r b m c d r k n o r as c e tr r to u b la c dp a e inp ly p a es s m , u e u l o r na ne hs s o - h s y te s n q a a gp ir a . R r a apo le u le s r s n n eis e c d ae s r b m n s e o a c x ite G a te thtim s R Mo b dg a er e e P f a er N m e o fa b d s tim s R M u b r f n la e e P N m e o im e r v n s tim s R M u b r f p lle a e e P M y o c r a 2 3 4a ds m tim s h h r h r o ic if a cu t , , n o e e ig e am n s s v r lo s n s e ee o e e s 1 B ain v r tio m y b u s a y - a p d a df e u n y ) e r g iba n a e n te d m litu e n r q e c 2 C v tio , r c c la na df wtub le c c u er n o , ) a ita n e ir u tio n lo r u ne as adm h hfr q e c v r tio ig e u n y iba n 3 Im r p r lu r a no jo r a b ain s ) po e bic tio f un l e r g ( r tio e c dv r tio ) Fic n x ite iba n 4 R b in ) ub g

2x R M P

M c a ic l ehn a Loees os ns

3x R M P L s th n es a 1x R M P

M a n et is lig m n O W ir ( s il h l le s th n 1/ 2 R M a P

S n ho o s y c r nu ( .C L e A . in Fe u n y r qec ) 2x S n h yc. Fe u n y r qec Mn T e R M a y im s P ( am n a H r o ic lly R la dFe .) e te r q

E c ic l le tr a Po le s rb m T r u P ls s oq e u e B dG as a er Ar dnm Fr e eo y a ic oc s H da lic F r e yru oc s M c a ic l L o e e s ehn a os ns R c r c tin F r e e ipo a g oc s B dA ti- r tio a n Fic n B ain s er g

H hFe u n y ig r q e c ( o H r o ic lly N t am n a R la d e te )

Mechanalysis India Limited

Real Vibration is Complex

Mechanalysis India Limited

ACTUAL VIBRATION ACTUAL VIBRATION

Imbalance

Rolling Element Bearing Coupling chatter

Gearmesh

Resultant Complex Waveform

Time Mechanalysis India Limited

Real Vibration is Complex

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Resulting Spectrum (FFT)

Mechanalysis India Limited

One More Example

Mechanalysis India Limited

Resulting Spectrum (FFT)

Mechanalysis India Limited

Spectrum Terms
x x x x x x

Predominant Frequency - Highest amplitude. Subsynchronous Frequency - Below 1xRPM. Fundamental Frequency - Lowest frequency associated with a particular problem Harmonic Frequency - Exact multiple of a fundamental frequency Order Frequency - Same as Harmonic Subharmonic Frequency - Exact sub-multiple of a fundamental frequency

Mechanalysis India Limited

TIME DOMAIN TIME DOMAIN

RESULTS IN

TIME DOMAIN

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TIME DOMAIN TIME DOMAIN

COMPLEX WAVEFORM

TIME DOMAIN

Mechanalysis India Limited

FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAINS FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAINS


Simple Wave forms Complex Waveform

FMAX Amplitude
5X 1X 3X Frequency Spectrum Plot 9X

Time Domain (Sec or Min) TMAX

Frequency Domain (CPM or Hertz)

Mechanalysis India Limited

WHAT IS AN FFT WHAT IS AN FFT


x x x x x

Fast Fourier Transform. Also known as a Spectrum or as the Frequency domain. Graph of Vibration Amplitude vs. Frequency. Also known as Signature All frequencies in a chosen range are separated and displayed as individual peaks each having its own amplitude. Most useful tool for analysis.

Named after French mathematician Baron Jean Baptist Joseph Fourier Mechanalysis India Limited

FFT FFT

Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE


x

For the sine wave shown in Figure 1, calculate and draw a representation of the frequency spectrum on Figure 2 (Amplitude not important).

Velocity (mm/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Time (m Secs)

Figure 1
Velocity (mm/s) Frequency (CPM)
15K 30K 45K 60K 75K 90K

Figure 2

VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE VIBRATION SPECIALIST 1 - EXAMPLE


x

For the sine wave shown in Figure 1, calculate and draw a representation of the frequency spectrum on Figure 2 (Amplitude not important).

Velocity (mm/s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Time (m Secs)

Figure 1
Velocity (mm/s) Frequency (CPM)
15K 30K 45K 60K 75K 90K

Figure 2

PRACTICALS PRACTICALS
x x x

TAKING AMPLITUDE READINGS. CAPTURING TIME WAVEFORM. LOOKING INTO AN FFT.

HENCE SPLIT INTO MAY BE 3-4 IN EACH GROUP.

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WHAT IS PHASE? WHAT IS PHASE?

x The

angular reference --at a given instance in time -- of a moving part--to a fixed point. angular reference--at a given instance in time--of two moving parts to each other.
Mechanalysis India Limited

x The

Phase
Phase

is a means of determining the Relative motion of two or more vibrating machine parts Phase readings only have meaning when compared to other phase readings with a common reference

Mechanalysis India Limited

Phase (continued)
x

Used as an analysis tool to pinpoint between problems that occur at 1xRPM Unbalance, Bent Shaft, Misalignment, Looseness, Resonance, Eccentricity Measured with a strobe light or digitally Essential for Balancing Distortion Studies Shows the distortion of the machine

x x x

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Relative Phase
x

Comparative phase readings show how the machine is vibrating

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

Mechanalysis India Limited

Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

A B

A=180

B=180

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

A=180

B= ?

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Vibration Basics Vibration Basics

A B 180

A=180

B= 0

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Relative Phase Relative Phase


x

Comparative phase readings show how the machine is vibrating

Mechanalysis India Limited

Relative Phase
x x

Obtained by moving transducer to different measurement locations while keeping the same speed reference Amplitude and phase are recorded at points of interest

Mechanalysis India Limited

Phase Obtained with a Strobe

x x x

Strobe Light is triggered by the vibration signal similar to the way a timing light is fired by the #1 spark plug Rotating reference mark appears frozen and its position is compared to the stationary reference If predominant vibration that pickup sees is not at running speed, then multiple reference marks will appear Mechanalysis India Limited

HOW A STROBE IS CONNECTED HOW A STROBE IS CONNECTED

Mechanalysis India Limited

Phase Obtained Digitally

x x

Photocell or Laser Tachometer is pointed at the rotating shaft which must have reflective tape Tape Interrupts Laser and creates a signal which is sent to the vibration analyser which compares it against an arbitrary time waveform position. Mechanalysis India Limited

DIGITAL PHASE PHOTOCELL/ LASTACH

Mechanalysis India Limited

ADVANTAGES OF PHOTOCELL/LASER ADVANTAGES OF PHOTOCELL/LASER


x

Digitally obtained phase readings are generally more accurate than strobe readings. Orders of running speed can easily be obtained by placing multiple strips of tape uniformly spaced

Mechanalysis India Limited

MACHINE TRAIN MISALIGNMENT MACHINE TRAIN MISALIGNMENT

TURBINE

G/B

HP COMP

LP COMP

AXIAL PHASE (degrees)

0 10 12 8

5 12 10 6

15 22 20 16

18 24 22 20

198 210 208 200

215 220 218 210

Note: All phase readings corrected for pickup direction

VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS

x AMPLITUDE.

MUCH.

HOW

x FREQUENCY. x PHASE.

HOW OFTEN. WHEN.

LUNCH

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SPIKE ENERGY FOR REB SPIKE ENERGY FOR REB

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BASIS FOR PMP BASIS FOR PMP

DETECTION ANALYSIS CORRECTION VERIFICATION

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RECENT ADVANCES RECENT ADVANCES


x Spike

EnergyTM Spectrum Analysis. (Demodulation) Frequency Measurement.

x Low

Mechanalysis India Limited

WHY DOES A BEARING FAIL WHY DOES A BEARING FAIL


x Product

Faults - 30.1%

Faulty workmanship Design, Planning etc.. Wrong Materials

x Operational

faults- 65.9%

Mishandling, Faulty Maintenance Rapid wear due to overloading

x External

Influences - 4%

False Brinneling Electrical Arcing etc..

Mechanalysis India Limited

SPIKE ENERGY TM
x What

is it ? x How is it measured ? x Why does it work ? x Where is it used ? x How do we assess levels ? x Can it be analysed in the frequency domain ?

Mechanalysis India Limited

SPIKE ENERGY. WHAT IS IT?


A measurement parameter designed to detect low amplitude transient impacts generated within the Audiosonic/Ultrasonic frequency range by microscopic surface flaws inrolling element bearings and gears.
Mechanalysis India Limited

SPIKE ENERGY SPIKE ENERGY


x x x

Special amplitude parameter obtained using special filters. First indication of a problem in the rolling element bearing. Special circuit detects very high frequency, short duration pulses of energy generated by defects such as nicks on the raceway.

Mechanalysis India Limited

HOW IS IT MEASURED ?

The acceleration signal is processed via a high pass filter and a peak detection circuit to produce a numerical value which is the product of :The Number and amplitude ( Intensity ) of the impacts TM The value is in a unit of time. expressed in units of gSE

Mechanalysis India Limited

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIKE ENERGY


FOUR FACTORS MAKE IT EFFECTIVE!
x Detects

audiosonic/ultrasonic frequencies. x Its a filtered reading which only responds to frequencies above the range of most machine vibrations. (300kcpm.) x It is localised to the area of source x It is defect orientated to impact energy.

Mechanalysis India Limited

ROOT MEAN SQUARE (RMS) ROOT MEAN SQUARE (RMS)


x

x x x

ISO Standard 2372 ...vibration velocity has been selected as the significant parameter for characterising the severity of machine vibration ...the RMS value of the oscillating velocity is used to measure vibration severity Instruments measure RMS RMS is a measure of energy and is the average vibration amplitude Roughly equals to 0.707xpeak reading

Mechanalysis India Limited

VISUAL CONCEPT OF RMS AVERAGING VISUAL CONCEPT OF RMS AVERAGING

Because vibration is Complex, two waves that have the same peak value can actually be quite different in RMS because of the Superposition Principle Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING DEFECTS BEARING DEFECTS

x x

Bearing defects cause high frequencies with comparatively low amplitude Even advanced stages of failure in bearings may show little increase in displacement, velocity, or acceleration Mechanalysis India Limited

SPIKES CAN GO UNDETECTED SPIKES CAN GO UNDETECTED

Short duration spikes or pulses are covered up by The RMS technique itself Low frequency vibration (such as unbalance or misalignment) Mechanalysis India Limited

SPIKE ENERGY CIRCUIT SPIKE ENERGY CIRCUIT


x

Because vibration is very high, circuit utilises an acceleration signal. Band - Pass filters out frequencies Below 300K CPM (5 kHz) Above 3 Million CPM (50 kHz) A true Peak-to-Peak value detecting circuit is incorporated because spike pulse signals have such low RMS values

Mechanalysis India Limited

BAND PASS FILTER FOR SPIKE ENERGY BAND PASS FILTER FOR SPIKE ENERGY

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SIGNAL PROCESSING SIGNAL PROCESSING

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RELEVENCE OF THE FILTER RELEVENCE OF THE FILTER

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INTELLIGENT CIRCUIT INTELLIGENT CIRCUIT

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SEVERITY CHART FOR SPIKE ENERGY SEVERITY CHART FOR SPIKE ENERGY

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SPIKE ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS SPIKE ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS


x x x

Readings need to be directly on bearing. Minimise interfaces. Consistency between measurements Always use same accelerometer. Transducer mounting makes a difference. Overall levels should be trended.

x x

Mechanalysis India Limited

FACTORS AFFECTING SPIKE ENERGY FACTORS AFFECTING SPIKE ENERGY


x x x x x x

Load Lubrication Temperature Type of Defect Distance to Measurement Point Transducer Mounting Method

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MOUNTING MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE MOUNTING MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE

Mechanalysis India Limited

MOUNTING MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE MOUNTING MAKES A BIG DIFFERENCE


x

Sharp pulses and random ultrasonic vibrations excite the accelerometers natural frequency regardless of mounting method, but stud mounting gives the highest amplitude response and is most repeatable. Energy is reflected (60-80%) at each interface depending on the sharpness of the pulse, material differences, fits/clearances, etc. Potential hand pressure variation with use of probe. Heavy magnet is better than light magnet

x x

Mechanalysis India Limited

MOUNTING OF ACCELEROMETERS MOUNTING OF ACCELEROMETERS


x

When attaching any pickup to a threaded stud or magnet ensure that the surfaces are clean and flat and that a smear of silicon grease is used to ensure good contact. Dont over tighten. A probe will miss bearing faults & worse may produce phantom data in the bearing defect range due to natural frequency of the probe being excited

Mechanalysis India Limited

MOUNTING METHOD MOUNTING METHOD


Mounting Maximum Acceptable Frequency (cpm) 975 000 540 000 450 000 360 000 48 000 Rating

Stud Adhesive Magnet Quick Connect Hand-held

Best Very good Good Quite good Poor

Mechanalysis India Limited

FREQUENCY LIMITATIONS ACCEL FREQUENCY LIMITATIONS ACCEL


x x x x x

Hand Held 9 Probe Small Magnet Large Magnet Hand Held Threaded Stud

30,000 cpm 20,000 cpm 240,000 cpm 300,000 cpm >600,000 cpm

Ensure surfaces are clean and use a smear of silicon grease to improve transmission of vibration

Mechanalysis India Limited

FREQUENCY LIMITATION FOR VEL FREQUENCY LIMITATION FOR VEL


x x x x x

Vice grip Pliers Hand Held 9 Probe Large Magnet Hand Held Threaded Stud

7,200 cpm 16,000 cpm 37,000 cpm 60,000 cpm 90,000 cpm

Ensure surfaces are clean and use a smear of silicon grease to improve transmission of vibration Mechanalysis India Limited

ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF gSE ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF gSE


x x x x x x x

Gear Tooth Impacts Cavitation and Recirculation Inadequate Lubrication Rubbing Loose or Rattling Parts Commutator/Brush Noise V-Belt Seams, Chunks Toothed Belts

xMachining, xHigh xHigh

Grinding (Chatter)

Pressure FlowCavitation. pressure steam and air in liquids and air.

flow.

xTurbulence xRubbing. xImpact

(Seals, rotors, belts, guards etc.) excitation. (Looseness or inherent in the machines operation.)
xElectrical

arcing.

Mechanalysis India Limited

SPIKE ENERGY DOES NOT RESPOND TO SPIKE ENERGY DOES NOT RESPOND TO
x x x x x x x x

Unbalance Misalignment Bent shaft Electrical problems Eccentric rotors Resonance Structural looseness/weakness Beat vibration problems

Mechanalysis India Limited

Review
x gSE

should be used primarily as a trending tool. Absolute values should be used with caution. of absolute values developed from empirical data should only be used as guidelines. detects defects which may, or may not be detected by other measurement parameters.

x Tables

x gSE

Mechanalysis India Limited

VELOCITY & gSE RELATIONSHIP


Ratio to Alarm

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

ALARM

Normalised Multiple Trend Graph

Jan
20 1994

Feb
18 1994

Mar
20 1994

Apr
19 1994

May
18 1994

Jun
17 1994

Jul
16 1994

Aug
15 1994

Sep
13 1994

ID FAN No 1. POS 4 H

ALARM - 8.00 mm/S - 0 .500 g/SE

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING DAMAGE BEARING DAMAGE

Mechanalysis India Limited

The gSE Spectrum Technique


x Time

domain signal is filtered via a band pass filter with a definable low frequency corner. x The signal is then routed through a peak-to-peak detector to extract only those frequencies which are repetitive x The demodulated signal is then enveloped and transformed into the frequency domain to show the frequency and harmonics of the fault causing the high spike energy

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DEMODULATION
x The

high pass filtered signal is routed through a Peak to Peak Detector/demodulator to detect repetetive frequencies. x The signal is then enveloped to detect the modulation rate. x An FFT is then performed on the resulting waveform.

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Spike Energy Spectrum TM


The modulation frequencies of the Spike Energy signal can be displayed as a spectrum
x

This allows the user to pinpoint the underlying cause of the spike energy. It allows the user to extract the forcing frequencies ie, bearing or gear impact repetition rates, from a complex spectrum which may mask developing problems

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gSE SPECTRUM

BPFI 2 X BPFI 3 BPFI

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gSE SPECTRUM

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ACCELERATION SPECTRUM

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ACCELERATION SPECTRUM

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gSE SPECTRUM WITH BANDS

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WATERFALL DISPLAY gSE SPECTRUM

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FFT OF DEFECT FREQUENCIES FFT OF DEFECT FREQUENCIES

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VIBRATION TRANSDUCERS VIBRATION TRANSDUCERS

Overview and Selection

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THE TRANSDUCER THE TRANSDUCER


x x x

The Heart of Every Vibration Instrument Converts the Mechanical Vibration Energy into an equivalent Electrical Voltage Signal There are transducers to detect Displacement (Eddy-Current or proximity probes) Velocity (Velocity Pickup) Acceleration (Accelerometers) Accelerometers are the most common because all parameters (displacement, velocity, acceleration, and spike energy) can be obtained
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TRANSDUCER TYPES TRANSDUCER TYPES


Seismic:- Bearing relative to space.
x x x

Velocity Pickups Accelerometers Piezoelectric velocity pickups

Relative:- Shaft relative to bearing.


x

Non-contact Eddy Current Displacement Probes

Absolute:- Shaft relative to space.


x

Shaft Contact Displacement Probes (including Shaft Sticks and Shaft Riders)

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VELOCITY PICKUP CONSTRUCTION VELOCITY PICKUP CONSTRUCTION


Pickup Case Springs Magnet

Damper

Mass Wire Coil

SENSITIVITY 1080 mili volt /inch/sec Mechanalysis India Limited

PRINCIPAL OF OPPERATION PRINCIPAL OF OPPERATION


x x

The magnet provides a strong magnetic field around the coil. When held against a vibrating surface the magnet moves whereas the coil remains stationery in space due to the springs. When the coil of wire cuts magnetic lines of force a voltage is generated in that wire. This voltage is directly proportional to the magnetic field strength, no of turns on the wire & the velocity at which the lines are cut. Since the magnetic strength and no of turns are fixed the output is directly proportional to the velocity and hence VELOCITY PICKUPS. Mechanalysis India Limited

VELOCITY PICKUP VELOCITY PICKUP


ADVANTAGES Rugged design. Self- Generating. High electrical output levels. No On-board Electronics. Strong signal. Unaffected by cable length. Can wire upto 300 mtrs. Can withstand 250 deg C. DISADVANTAGES Bulky and heavy in construction. Limitation on the min and max amplitude and frequencies. Not reliable below 600 cpm. Note :- There are two types of velocity pickups the above advantages do not apply to piezoelectric velocity transducers. Mechanalysis India Limited

FREQUENCY LIMITATION - 544 FREQUENCY LIMITATION - 544


x x x x x

Vice grip Pliers Hand Held 9 Probe Large Magnet Hand Held Threaded Stud

7,200 cpm 16,000 cpm 37,000 cpm 60,000 cpm 90,000 cpm

Ensure surfaces are clean and use a smear of silicon grease to improve transmission of vibration.

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CORRECTION CHART CORRECTION CHART


THIS APPLIES TO FILTERED READINGS ONLY MULTIPLICATION FACTOR

1000

100

10

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

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FREQUENCY - cpm

OTHER DRAWBACKS OTHER DRAWBACKS


x x x x

Velocity transducers work on fixed internal magnetic field. Interference in this can distort the readings. Machines such as AC motors, generators etc.. Create interference. The induced electrical signal is proportional to the strength of the signal at that location in terms of,
The frequency is proportional to the strength of the external magnetic field. The amplitude is proportional to the strength of the external magnetic field.

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HOW DO WE CHECK THIS? HOW DO WE CHECK THIS?


dataPACTM 1250
ADV DEC SKIP ADV

Connect the pickup to the analyzer


STORE
1.10 Review Data

STORE

12:53 PM

PROGRAM MANAGER

Data Collection

Setup Utility

Balancing

Help System

Highlight an icon using the arrow keys, and then press <SELECT> or <STOP>. Select Stop

Hold the pickup just above the motor where readings are normally taken.
RETURN
MANAGER

ON
OFF

F1

F2

F3

F4

F5

SHIFT

LIGHT
HELP

SELECT

+/-

DONE

EntekIRD

Hold steady and capture data at line frequency. The reading observed is the AC interference.

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HOW DO WE OVERCOME HOW DO WE OVERCOME


x

Keeping the pickup as far as possible from the magnetic field.


The problem here is that you may not get the correct vibration. You may get probe natural frequency. You will definitely miss all you high frequencies.

Using a magnetic shield to reduce the interference.


It is observed that magnetic shield can reduce interference to a ratio of 100:1.

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DIRECT PROD VELOCITY PICKUP DIRECT PROD VELOCITY PICKUP


x x

The construction is same as velocity pickup. The coil is moved by a small magnetized prod directly connected to the coil. It measures actual vibration of the part monitored. Extremely useful for monitoring machine operating at low frequency. As low as 50rpm. Valuable for balancing machine applications. Does not dampen the original vibration, since its light weight. It is subjected to the similar interference problems. Mechanalysis India Limited

x x

x x x

CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION
MOUNTING BRACKET

Prod Magnetised tip

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ACCELEROMETER ACCELEROMETER

Acoustic shield Seismic Mass Preload Stud Piezoelectric Material Electrical connector Base
Charge Amp

Mounting Stud receptacle

OUT PUT = PICO COULOMBS

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PRINCIPAL OF OPPERATION PRINCIPAL OF OPPERATION


x x

Acceleration is the measure of the rate of change of velocity. Generally expressed in g which is the same as the acceleration produced by the force of gravity at the surface of the earth. The value may change due to latitude or elevation but as internationally agreed the value is 980.665 cm/sec2, 386.087 in/sec2 & 32.179 ft/sec2. Basic material is the piezoelectric material. This is squeezed between the body and the calibrated weight. This is the basic force needed to get the desired output.

x x

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PRINCIPAL OF OPPERATION PRINCIPAL OF OPPERATION


x x

Generally works on the quartz crystal principal. When subjected to mechanical forces, a charge proportional to the force is generated. Works on the principal, Force = mass x acceleration Force and mass being constant the vibration is directly proportional to acceleration. Acceleration is a function of displacement and frequency squared, hence accelerometers are extremely sensitive to high frequencies. The charge produced is in picocoulombs which is 1 millionth of 1 millionth of a coulomb. Because of this a high gain amplifier is used.

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SIGNAL CONDITIONING SIGNAL CONDITIONING


High Impedance Charge Type. Generally requires separate charge amplifier.
x

Low impedance, voltage mode, integrated circuit piezoelectric (ICP) type. Now included with most data collectors/ Analysers.
x

AFTER CONDITIONING THE OUTPUT THE VOLTAGE IS READ IN MILI VOLT/G

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ACCELEROMETER ACCELEROMETER

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ACCELEROMETER ACCELEROMETER

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ACCELEROMETERS ACCELEROMETERS
ADVANTAGES
x x x x x x x

No moving parts, no wear. Hence rugged. Not affected by outside magnetic fields. Very large dynamic range. amplitude Wide frequency range. Compact, often low weight. High stability. Can be mounted in any orientation & areas where space is the constraint.

DISADVANTAGES
x x x

Susceptible to ground loops. Affected by radio frequencies. Cable length effects may reduce sensitivity

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ACCELEROMETERS ACCELEROMETERS
Main characteristics to consider: x Sensitivity (mV/g) x Linear frequency range (Hz or CPM) x Mass (grams) x Dynamic range (Amplitude) x Noise Floor x Temperature range x Ambient conditions x Hermetically sealed.

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ACCELEROMETER TYPES ACCELEROMETER TYPES

Three most common:


x x x

Compression Type Inverted Compression Type Shear Type

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COMPRESSION ACCELEROMETER COMPRESSION ACCELEROMETER

Acoustic shield Seismic Mass Preload Stud Piezoelectric Electrical connector Base

ICP Amplifier Mounting Stud receptacle

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COMPRESSION TYPE COMPRESSION TYPE


Advantages x Relatively low cost Disadvantages x Sensitive to base strain x Sensitive to Thermal transients x Can cause over-saturation and transducer settling problems Widely used

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INVERTED COMPRESSION INVERTED COMPRESSION

ICP Circuit

Piezoelectric Material

Seismic Mass Preload Sleeve

Mounting stud receptacle

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SHEAR TYPE SHEAR TYPE

Acoustic Shield

Piezoelectric Material

Seismic Mass Electric connector Post

Base ICP Circuit

Mounting Stud Receptacle

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SHEAR TYPE SHEAR TYPE


Lower sensitivity to base strain x Large dynamic range x Much less sensitive to temperature transients x Stabilizes quickly when taking measurements at low frequencies. Disadvantage: Generally higher cost due to added components
x

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PIEZO ELECTRIC VELOCITY OUTPUT PIEZO ELECTRIC VELOCITY OUTPUT ACCELEROMETER ACCELEROMETER

Connector
INTEGRATOR

Mass

Special ceramic Piezoelectric Disks

Base

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PIEZO ELECTRIC VELOCITY PICKUP PIEZO ELECTRIC VELOCITY PICKUP


x ADVANTAGES
No moving parts. Very useful for low frequency applications. As low as 60 CPM. It is not susceptible to magnetic interference.

x DISAVANTAGES
High cost. Temperature limitations.

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WHICH ACCELEROMETER TO USE? WHICH ACCELEROMETER TO USE?

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SELECTION CRITERIA SELECTION CRITERIA

x x x x x x x

Sensitivity range Frequency range Amplitude range Natural frequency Weight range Usable temperature range Cross axis sensitivity

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MOUNTING CRITERIA MOUNTING CRITERIA


Maximum Acceptable Frequency (cpm) 975 000 540 000 450 000 360 000 48 000

Mounting Stud Adhesive Magnet Quick Connect Hand-held

Rating Best Very good Good Quite good Poor

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MOUNTED RESONANCE MOUNTED RESONANCE

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PROBE TIPS PROBE TIPS

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NATURAL FREQUENCY OF 225MM PROBE NATURAL FREQUENCY OF 225MM PROBE

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PAGE 4.3 TABLE 1.

TYPICAL SPECS
RANGE SENSITIVITY MV/G FREQUENCY RANGE CPM STUD MOUNTED NAT FREQ WEIGHT RANGE GRAMS USABLE TEMP RANGE OF EXAMPLE TRANSDUCERS

ACCELEROMETERS
GENERAL PURPOSE 10-100 LOW FREQUENCY 500-10,000 HIGH FREQUENCY 0.4-20 PERMANENT MOUNTED 10-100 TRIAXIAL 10-100

VELOCITY PICKUPS GENERAL PURPOSE 10 - 1000 MV/IN/SEC 600-60,000 ABOUT 200,000 100 -150 --50 - 250 IRD 544

120-160,000 960,0002,700,000 17 -110 --100 -250 B&K 4390

6-60,000 390,0002,100,000 135 - 1000 --100 - 250 PCB 8318

600-3,600,000 4,200,00010,800,000 1.2 - 1.5 --40 - 350 WILCOXON 732

180-600,000 1,080,0001,800,000 60 - 180 --50 - 250 IRD 942

120-600,000 480,0003,000,000 17 - 130 --100 - 250 VIBRAMET 3130

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RELATIVE RELATIVE

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HOW IT WORKS HOW IT WORKS


It requires an external electronic circuitry to generate a high frequency ac signal. This signal applied to the coil generates a magnetic field. The shaft close to the tip absorbs some of this magnetic energy. This absorption places a load on the electrical signal thereby reducing its strength. This loading reduction of strength is inversely proportional to the distance between the shaft and the tip. As the shaft moves relative to the tip the strength changes proportionally. The signal sensor provides an ac signal proportional to vibration and dc signal proportional to gap. Hence the ac signal is proportion to displacement, hence displacement probe.

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EDDY CURRENT PROBE EDDY CURRENT PROBE


MAGNETIC FIELD

NON-CONTACT PICKUP

SHAFT

PICKUP COIL

OSCILLATOR

DETECTOR

AMPLIFIER

DISPLACEMENT SIGNAL - TO ANALYSER OR MONITOR

DC GAP METER

SIGNAL SENSOR

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EDDY CURRENT PROBE EDDY CURRENT PROBE


USED FOR:x Relative Shaft Vibration. x Radial & axial shaft position. x Differential expansion between case and rotor. Especially effective on machinery with high mass rigid casings and relatively low mass rotors supported in journal type bearings.

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CAREFUL CAREFUL
x

Only Measures Displacement - Sensitive Only to low frequency defects. Subject to Mechanical and Electrical Run-out . Units must be pre calibrated for specific shaft materials. In many instances the gap needs to be set while the shaft is rotating, hence needs competence.

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OUTPUT CURVE OUTPUT CURVE

200mV/mil -22 -18 -14 SIGNAL SENSOR OUTPUT - VOLTS -10 -6 -2 0 20 +0.8 MIL SET POINT -0.5 MIL

40

60

80

100

120

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GAP - MILS (1 MIL = 0.001)

EFFECT ON DIFF SHAFT MATERIAL EFFECT ON DIFF SHAFT MATERIAL


-22 -20 -18 -16 -14 Output, V (d.c) -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Gap From Probe Tip to Target (Mils) 4149 Steel

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ABSOLUTE ABSOLUTE
SHAFT CONTACT DISPLACEMENT PROBES

x x x x

Shaft Sticks Hardwood, fish-tail, fixed to accelerometer or velocity pickup Measures vibration amplitude & phase Shaft Riders

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SHAFT CONTACT MEASUREMENT SHAFT CONTACT MEASUREMENT

Shaft Sticks. Accelerometer or Velocity pickups fixed to Hardwood, fish-tail.

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PROBE HOLDER PROBE HOLDER


80mm

150mm

AAA

BBB

NOMINAL

25mm

Probe Tip

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SHAFT RIDER SHAFT RIDER


PICKUP MOUNTING STUD

SHAFT RIDER ASSEMBLY

MACHINE HOUSING

NON-METALLIC TIP

SHAFT SURFACE

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MOUNTING FLANGE ACCELEROMETER MOUNTING FLANGE ACCELEROMETER


DUAL ELEMENT PIEZO-ELECTRIC DEVICE FLEXIBLE STAINLESS STEEL ARMOUR

HEAVY DUTY BLUE OUTER JACKET 3 HOLE FIXING

HIGH TEMPERATURE CROSS LINKED POLYMER CABLE

ELECTRONICS IN BASE FOR DRIVING LONG CABLES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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CASE ABSOLUTE CASE ABSOLUTE


Case Absolute - Seismic Velocity or Accelerometer
x

6622 Dual Channel Case Absolute Vibration


Two Channel Accepts Velocity or Acceleration Input

Application
Measures radial vibration primarily on Roller Bearing applications

SHAFT RELATIVE SHAFT RELATIVE


Shaft Relative - dual X-Y non-contact pickups
x

6652 Dual Channel Relative Shaft Vibration


Two Channel Accepts NCPU Input

Application
Monitors radial vibration primarily on sleeve bearing application

REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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SHAFT ABSOLUTE SHAFT ABSOLUTE


Shaft Absolute - either Shaft Rider or Accel/NCPU combination
x

6621 Shaft Absolute Vibration


Accepts either Seismic Velocity or Acceleration and NCPU transducers

x x

6622 Case Absolute Vibration


Shaft Rider configuration

Application
High shaft/case weight ratio

ECCENTRICITY ECCENTRICITY
Eccentricity - utilizes a non-contact pickup located in the front standard area
x x

6686 Dual Channel Eccentricity


Accepts two NCPU inputs

Application
measure shaft bow from < 1 RPM to ~ 180 RPM monitors shaft bow while turning gear is engaged indicates when machine is ready to increase speed

REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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SPEED ACCELERATION SPEED ACCELERATION


Machine Speed - utilizes non-contact pickup or magnetic interrupter
x

6675 Speed/Acceleration
Accepts either NCPU or Magnetic Interrupter If primary signal fails, automatically switches to backup

Application
Locked Rotor alarm indicates startup sequence fault Zero Speed detection s need to engage turning gear

FOR .300 TIP D=1.0" L=.3"

REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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POSITION // THRUST POSITION THRUST


Position/Thrust - dual non-contact pickup using AND voting recommended
x x

6682 Dual Channel Position


Accepts two NCPU transducers

Application
Early detection of thrust bearing wear, balance piston wear, and loose thrust bearing Indicator of misalignment and compressor surge

SHELL EXPANSION SHELL EXPANSION


Shell Expansion - utilizes a Linear Variable Differential Transducer (LVDT) Input
x x

6687 Dual Channel Shell Expansion


Accepts LVDT input

Application
Ensures uniform shell expansion Avoids machine damage due to non-uniform thermal and mechanical expansion

REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION


Differential Expansion - utilizes long range non-contact pickups
x

6688 Dual Channel Differential Expansion


Accepts two long range NCPU transducers

Application
Critical to monitor effect of thermal expansion and avoid turbine rubs Monitor supports multiple configurations

REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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Valve Position - utilizes a rotary cam potentiometer or LVDT


x x

6689 Dual Channel Valve Position


Accepts Rotary Cam or LVDT input

Application
Monitor inlet valve position on a steam turbine

REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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REAL LIFE PICTURES REAL LIFE PICTURES

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SUMMARY SUMMARY
x x

x x x x x

THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS PERFECT TRANSDUCER FOR ALL APPLICATIONS. YOUR DECISION ON SELECTING A PARTICULAR TRANSDUCER IS CRITICAL IN OBTAINING ACCURATE AND RELIABLE DATA. WHICH PARAMETERS NEED TO BE MEASURED. OPERATING TEMPERATURES. APPLICATION. SAFETY. WHICH FREQUENCIES ARE TO BE CARTURED.

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TEA BREAK

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INSTRUMENTS FOR VIBRATION DETECTION INSTRUMENTS FOR VIBRATION DETECTION

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CONDITION MONITORING CONDITION MONITORING The assessment on a continuous or periodic basis of the mechanical condition of machinery, equipment and systems from the observations and/or recording of selected measurement parameters.

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CHOOSING YOUR INSTRUMENTATION CHOOSING YOUR INSTRUMENTATION


x x x x x x

What do you want to achieve? What is your present and future Budget for equipment & Training? Person power? Knowledge level? Number of machines to be monitored? Type of machines to be monitored? Environment?

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INSTRUMENT TYPES INSTRUMENT TYPES


q

Hand held amplitude meter. (spot checker) Quick Check Analysers FFT Data Collector/Analysers Full Feature Analysers Real Time Spectrum Analysers Instrument Quality Tape Recorders Dedicated Balancing instruments Continious vibration monitoring systems.

q q q q

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OVERALL AMPLITUDE METERS OVERALL AMPLITUDE METERS


x x

Measures total vibration only. Simple easy to you, no storage of data Lightweight/ portable No frequency information Limited capability Main application is on non-critical machinery

x x x

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THE SPOT CHECKER THE SPOT CHECKER

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INTERPRETATION OF READING INTERPRETATION OF READING


Overall Level
5 4 3 2 1 5 4

Spectrum
1

3 2

Vibration

Frequency

Date

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FAN

INTERPRETATION OF READING INTERPRETATION OF READING


Vibration
1

Overall Level
2 3 4 5

5 4 2 3 1

Frequency

Date

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GEARBOX

QUICK CHECK ANALYZERS QUICK CHECK ANALYZERS


x

Will obtain rapid hard copy printouts of the amplitude / time and frequency characteristics of a vibration. Used for basic trending & analysis purposes. Low cost. Easy to operate. Excellent for quick on site assessments of machinery condition.

x x

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SWEPT FILTER ANALYZERS SWEPT FILTER ANALYZERS


x x x x x x x

Older technology It is like tuning a radio through the frequency range. Amplitude at each frequency is displayed. Not very portable Provides frequency information but very slow Usually has a strobe light No storage of data Acceptable for analysing one machine at a time, not suitable for a large predictive maintenance program. Mechanalysis India Limited

SWEPT FILTER ANALYZER BANDWIDTH SWEPT FILTER ANALYZER BANDWIDTH


x

Bandwidth rejects all frequencies not within upper and lower cutoff frequencies Bandwidth can be set to 3%, 5%, 10%, etc.. 10% - Broad - less accurate - less time 3% - Sharp - more accurate - more time Constant Bandwidth: fixed frequency range Constant Percentage: percentage of tuned centre frequency

x x

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TUNING INTO VIBRATION FREQUENCIES TUNING INTO VIBRATION FREQUENCIES

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ERROR DUE TO SWEEPING ERROR DUE TO SWEEPING


Slow Sweep Fast Sweep

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WHAT IS FFT? WHAT IS FFT?


x x x

Also known as a Spectrum or as the Frequency domain Graph of Vibration Amplitude vs. Frequency All frequencies in a chosen range are separated and displayed as individual peaks each having its own amplitude Most useful tool for analysis

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WHAT IS A SPECTRUM WHAT IS A SPECTRUM

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FFT DATA COLLECTORS FFT DATA COLLECTORS


Primary function is the rapid acquisition of route data for storage in a computer software system but will usually have a secondary off tour analysis capability
x x x x x x x x x x x x

Lighweight Current state-of-the-art Portable High accuracy of measurement Very high maximum frequency. Rapid frequency information Data storage capability Often has advanced analysis functions Dynamic Range up to 96 dB Much faster than analog 2 Channels Balancing in 1& 2 planes

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FULL FEATURE ANALYZERS FULL FEATURE ANALYZERS


Primary function is the in depth analysis of complex machinery defects either on site or from stored data, May inteface with PMP software & have secondary function as a Data collector. Can be Swept filter or FFT, or both. Advanced data acquisition and display functions. May have Real Time data acquisition rate but not Real Time screen update. Mechanalysis India Limited

x x

REAL TIME SPECTRUM ANALYZER REAL TIME SPECTRUM ANALYZER


x x x x x x

Very expensive Fairly portable Multi-channel capability (STA), Order tracking, Natural frequency tests. Real-time display. Requires frequent/ training to maintain proficiency

Powerful for advanced diagnostics Mechanalysis India Limited

REAL TIME RATE REAL TIME RATE

The Highest rate at which data can be captured and displayed without leaving any gaps in the analysis.

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REAL TIME OPERATION REAL TIME OPERATION

Time Record 1

Time Record 2
FFT 1

Time Record 3
FFT 2

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NON-REAL TIME OPERATION NON-REAL TIME OPERATION

Time 1

Time 2 FFT 1

Time 3 FFT 2

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INSTRUMENT QUALITY TAPE RECORDERS INSTRUMENT QUALITY TAPE RECORDERS


x x x x x x

Multi-Channel simultaneous recording. Captures transient events for replay in dynamic form. Analogue (dynamic range 40 to 48 dB) Digital (dynamic range about 78dB) Expensive. Requires a vibration analyser to process the signal. Analysis at your leisure

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DEDICATED BALANCING INSTRUMENTS DEDICATED BALANCING INSTRUMENTS

Designed to achieve a rapid and automated balance of rotating bodies in one, two, or three planes from two simultaneous inputs.

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CRITERIA FOR COMPARISON CRITERIA FOR COMPARISON


x x x x x x x x x

Portability Relative cost Ease of use Frequency & Dynamic range Measurement parameters Operation & Display types Transducer types Reference and/or Strobe light Software available

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CRITERIA FOR COMPARISON CRITERIA FOR COMPARISON


x x x x x x x x

Spike Energy, HFD, or Shock Pulse . Enveloping. Selectable frequency range? Synchronous Time Averaging. Waterfall, Bode plotting. Display Update rate. Data storage. What method? How much? Of what?, Spectra, Time Waveform, etc... PM P software available. Multi - channel.

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SCAN RATE V/S TIME SCAN RATE V/S TIME


Critical
$$$

Cost per Point Cost of Lost Production

Essential

Continuous Monitoring and Protection Systems On-line Surveillance Systems Walk-Around Data Collectors and Analyzers

$$

BOP
$

Years

Months

Weeks

Days

Hours

Minutes

Seconds

Gradual Degradation

Sudden Onset Failure

Time to Failure / Required Scan Rate

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ONLINE SYSTEMS ONLINE SYSTEMS

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DAY 2 DAY 2

UNDERSTANDING FFT

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FROM TIME TO FREQUENCY FROM TIME TO FREQUENCY


Complex Waveform

FMAX
9X

Time Domain (Sec or Min) TMAX

5X 1X 3X Frequency Spectrum Plot

Frequency Domain (CPM or Hertz)

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PROCESS OF GENERATING AN FFT PROCESS OF GENERATING AN FFT

Integration and Calibration based on sensitivity take place at input Anti-Alias Filter removes frequencies above the given maximum frequency for collection

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ANTI ALIAS FILTER(NYQUIST THEOROM) ANTI ALIAS FILTER(NYQUIST THEOROM)


x If

we are not to lose any information contained in the sampled signal, we must sample at a frequency rate of at least twice the highest frequency component of interest.

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ANTI ALIAS FILTER ANTI ALIAS FILTER

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PROCESS OF GENERATING AN FFT PROCESS OF GENERATING AN FFT

x x x x x

The A/D Converter digitises the data The Windowing process compromises between frequency and amplitude accuracy The Input Buffer temporarily stores data FFT calculation Averaging removes any transient events

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SAMPLING SAMPLING

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WINDOWING FUNCTION WINDOWING FUNCTION

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TYPES OF WINDOWS TYPES OF WINDOWS


x x x x x

HANNING HAMMING FLAT TOP RECTANGULAR KAISER BESSEL

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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FLAT TOP AND HANNING DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FLAT TOP AND HANNING

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LINES OF RESOLUTION LINES OF RESOLUTION

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINES, FMAX & RESOLUTION RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINES, FMAX & RESOLUTION
x Increasing

FMax gives worse Resolution x Decreasing FMax gives better Resolution x Increasing the Lines gives better Resolution x Decreasing Lines gives worse Resolution x The better the Frequency Resolution, the longer it takes to obtain the FFT reading and the more memory it requires to store

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SPECTRA PARAMETERS SPECTRA PARAMETERS


Amplitude Units - Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, and Spike Energy x Frequency Units - CPM or Hz x Frequency Max (Fmax) - The range of frequency x Lines of Resolution - The accuracy or sharpness of the displayed frequencies x Number of Spectral Averages - Spectra are averaged to minimise transient events
x Mechanalysis India Limited

SELECTING PROPER FMAX SELECTING PROPER FMAX


x Most x Must

important FFT Decision

be high enough to include all significant, problem-related frequencies. We can not afford to miss anything! higher we go, the more we decrease our accuracy between frequency peaks

x The

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EFFECT OF IMPROPER FMAX EFFECT OF IMPROPER FMAX

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WHERE TO START WHERE TO START


x Collect

data with a fairly high Fmax and if no high frequencies are present, then lower General Machinery Charts

x Use

x Anticipate

the highest problem-related frequency for a given machine

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SELECTING PROPER FMAX SELECTING PROPER FMAX


x Rolling-element

bearings About 120,000 CPM (2KHz) bearing machines Usually not to exceed 60,000CPM (1KHz) Drives Fundamental gear mesh frequency x 3.25

x Sleeve

x Gear

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FMAX EXAMPLE FMAX EXAMPLE


GMF1 = (50T)(1180 RPM) = (20T)(2950 RPM) GMF1 = 59,000 CPM POS 3HI FMAX = GMF1 X 3.25 = 191,750 CPM USE POS 3HI FMAX = 200,000 CPM GMF2 = 54T X 2950 RPM = (30T)(5310 RPM) GMF2 = 159,300 CPM POS 6HI FMAX = 3.25 X 159,300 = 517,725 CPM USE POS 6HI FMAX = 540,000 CPM (Must Measure Acceleration Here)

Mechanalysis India Limited

FFT LINES OF RESOLUTION FFT LINES OF RESOLUTION


x Determines

Frequency Accuracy by setting the Sharpness used in obtaining the FFT range (0 to Fmax) is divided equally by the number of these bins FFT Analysers offer choices of 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400, and 12,800 lines
Mechanalysis India Limited

x Frequency

x Typical

FREQUENCY RESOLUTION FREQUENCY RESOLUTION


x For

an Fmax of 120,000 CPM with 400 Lines, the Resolution = 300 CPM / bin vibration frequency present within a given 300 CPM span will be averaged together and shown as one peak it is possible that more than one peak exists in a 300 CPM span
Mechanalysis India Limited

x Every

x Thus

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FMAX,LINES & RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FMAX,LINES & RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP
Increasing Fmax gives worse Resolution x Decreasing Fmax gives better Resolution x Increasing the Lines gives better Resolution x Decreasing Lines gives worse Resolution x The better the Frequency Resolution, the longer it takes to obtain the FFT reading and the more memory it requires to store
x

Mechanalysis India Limited

UNDERSTAND CURSOR FREQUENCY UNDERSTAND CURSOR FREQUENCY


x x x

The lines of resolution determine the speed and accuracy of data collection The FFT displays the Cursor Frequency The actual peak lies somewhere within the band defined by the frequency resolution

Mechanalysis India Limited

SPECTRAL AVERAGING SPECTRAL AVERAGING


x Linear

or RMS x Exponential x Time Synchronous x Peak Hold

Mechanalysis India Limited

SPECTRAL AVERAGING SPECTRAL AVERAGING


x More

than one set of data is taken for a given FFT reading x These sets of data are averaged together to help eliminate the influence of transient or random vibrations in the FFT that can confuse the data readings x The number of data sets is usually 2, 4, or 8 Can go much higher as need arises
Mechanalysis India Limited

HOW MANY SPECTRAL AVERAGES HOW MANY SPECTRAL AVERAGES


Compromise between accuracy and time x For general machines, use 4 averages x When collecting data on High Frequency machines or performing a detailed analysis, use at least 8 averages x Set higher where random vibration occurs x If overlapping is option, then use 8 averages with 50% overlap
x Mechanalysis India Limited

INCREASING AVERAGES LIMITS INCREASING AVERAGES LIMITS TRANSIENTS TRANSIENTS

Mechanalysis India Limited

INCREASING AVERAGES LIMITS INCREASING AVERAGES LIMITS TRANSIENTS TRANSIENTS

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME

Implementing an effective predictive maintenance program

Mechanalysis India Limited

AIM OF PM PROGRAM AIM OF PM PROGRAM


x Effectiveness x Efficiency

- doing the right things

- doing things right

x Continuous

Improvement - doing the right things better tomorrow

Mechanalysis India Limited

PRE IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES PRE IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES


x What

are your objectives ? x Is the technology applicable to your plant ? x What are the organizational implications ? x Material requirements ? x How much does it cost ? x Is it justified ? x Do we have management commitment ?

Mechanalysis India Limited

TYPICAL PM OBJECTIVES TYPICAL PM OBJECTIVES


PROCESS / UTILITIES INDUSTRY
x Extension

of Planned Maintenance intervals x Reduction of Planned Maintenance content x Protection of vital, key equipment x Focussing of activity resources x Product quality improvement x Lower spare parts inventory

Mechanalysis India Limited

TYPICAL PM OBJECTIVES TYPICAL PM OBJECTIVES


BATCH MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
x Protection

of vital, key equipment x Non interruption of production runs x Optimized maintenance effort during shut downs x Focussing of activity resources x Product quality improvement x Lower spare parts inventory

Mechanalysis India Limited

TYPICAL PM OBJECTIVES TYPICAL PM OBJECTIVES


BATCH INDUSTRY Decrease downtime with no associated cost penalty. PROCESS / UTILITY Decrease costs with no associated downtime penalty.
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PROGRAM PLANNING PROGRAM PLANNING


x Set

objectives x Structured criticality assessment x Preliminary cost benefit analysis x Get management commitment x Define budgets x Start pilot program x Establish schedule

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TYPICAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TYPICAL IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


x x x x x

1 - Initial system setup 2 - Learn to swim 3 - Applicable training 4 - Second stage setup 5 - Ongoing support

Mechanalysis India Limited

PHASE 1 INITIAL SYSTEM SETUP PHASE 1 INITIAL SYSTEM SETUP


x System

installation x Database setup x Initial training x Baseline data collection x Route compilation x Overall exception level setting

Mechanalysis India Limited

PHASE 2 LEARN TO SWIM PHASE 2 LEARN TO SWIM


x Routine x System

data collection familiarisation identification

x Problem

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PHASE 3 - TRAINING PHASE 3 - TRAINING


x On

or off site x General awareness x Basic system operation x Vibration analysis - VA1,2,3 x Advanced system management x Syndicate work x Interactive training

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PHASE 4 SECOND STAGE SETUP PHASE 4 SECOND STAGE SETUP


x Database

expansion features analysis groups

x Advanced x Frequency x Spectral

alarms

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PHASE 5 ONGOING SUPPORT PHASE 5 ONGOING SUPPORT


x Partner

mind set - Platinum club etc. x System upgrades x Data analysis assistance x System management contracts x Hardware calibrations x Post implementation reviews

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
Plant Survey Plant Survey

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
Plant Survey Plant Survey Select Select machines machines

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
Plant Survey Plant Survey Select Select machines machines Select Select Technique Technique

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
Plant Survey Plant Survey Select Select machines machines Select Select Technique Technique Set-up System Set-up System

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
CHANGE PLANT PLANT TRAIN

DATABASE

SETUP

ROUTE

OPTIONS

POINT FREQUENCY BANDS ROUTE INSTRUCTIONS NOTE CODES CHANGE PLANT ADD EDIT RECALL STORE DELETE PRINT CLEAR DATA DIRECTORY SYSTEM DEFAULTS COLORS HARDWARE DATA COLLECTOR HOUSEKEEPER DOS FUNCTION

MACHINE

Mechanalysis India Limited

PLANNING DATABASE & ROUTE DATA PLANNING DATABASE & ROUTE DATA
x Creating x Do

first on paper saves time

not create too many measurement points could be a waste of time, money, and computer storage.

Mechanalysis India Limited

PLANNING YOUR DATABASE FILES PLANNING YOUR DATABASE FILES


x Classify

equipment into groups and determine which groups to monitor - consider

(a) Equipment Classification - Critical - Essential - General purpose

Mechanalysis India Limited

PLANNING YOUR DATABASE FILES PLANNING YOUR DATABASE FILES


(b) Failure Rate - Monitor equipment that has a high failure rate (c) Safety - Regularly monitor any equipment whose failure results in unsafe conditions or threatens personnel safety (d) Cost of Downtime - Monitor any equipment that results in large monetary losses due to downtime

Mechanalysis India Limited

PLANNING YOUR DATABASE FILES PLANNING YOUR DATABASE FILES


x

Determine where to take the measurements for best indicating the condition of the equipment. Estimate the number of locations - Too many points reduces software performance. Identify the parameters for determining the condition of the equipment. Fill in a database configuration worksheet

Mechanalysis India Limited

PLANNING YOUR ROUTES PLANNING YOUR ROUTES


Plan on paper x Review layout of your plant to determine equipment
x Select

which points to use in the route. Can have as many routes as you like. through plant following route - decide on most convenient sequence for collecting measurements in the fastest possible time

x Walk

Mechanalysis India Limited

PLANNING YOUR ROUTES PLANNING YOUR ROUTES


x Make

some measurements to estimate time to collect data for all points on the route identify the measurement locations to ensure same location and direction how often to monitor the equipment.

x Clearly

x Identify x Fill

in a route planning worksheet

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
Plant Survey Plant Survey Select Select machines machines Select Select Technique Technique Set-up System Set-up System Set/review Set/review Limits Limits Measure Measure Machine Machine

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
Plant Survey Plant Survey Select Select machines machines Select Select Technique Technique Set-up System Set-up System Set/review Set/review Limits Limits Measure Measure Machine Machine Condition Condition Analysis Analysis

Not OK

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
Plant Survey Plant Survey Select Select machines machines Select Select Technique Technique Set-up System Set-up System Set/review Set/review Limits Limits Fault Fault Correction Correction Measure Measure Machine Machine Condition Condition Analysis Analysis Fault Found

Not OK

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
Plant Survey Plant Survey Select machines Select machines Select Select Technique Technique Set-up System Set-up System Set/review Set/review Limits Limits Measure Measure Machine Machine Condition Condition Analysis Analysis Fault Found

Not OK Fault Fault Correction Correction

No Fault Found

Mechanalysis India Limited

ANALYZE FAILURE ANALYZE FAILURE


x Ask

the questions: Understand what went wrong physically What needed to exist for this to happen Conditions Events x Follow the fault tree to a root cause

Mechanalysis India Limited

ANALYZE FAILURE TILL THE ROOT ANALYZE FAILURE TILL THE ROOT
Identify unacceptable performance Be specific, use measures Ask both: "why is this happening", and "what conditions must exist for this to happen" Keep asking until there are no more answers This is your root cause

Mechanalysis India Limited

ANALYZE YOUR DECISIONS ANALYZE YOUR DECISIONS


We

tend to stick with what we know We jump to solutions that appear obvious We seldom test those solutions for completeness We really need to be more innovative and creative in our problem solving Failure analysis is driven by our knowledge of causes of failure Events need to be considered Events trigger conditions that cause failures

Mechanalysis India Limited

PM PROGRAME PM PROGRAME
Plant Survey Plant Survey Select machines Select machines Select Select Technique Technique Set-up System Set-up System Set/review Set/review Limits Limits Routine Routine Monitoring Monitoring OK Measure Measure Machine Machine Condition Condition Analysis Analysis Fault Found Data Data Recording Recording OK Trend Trend Analysis Analysis Alarm

Not OK Fault Fault Correction Correction

No Fault Found

Mechanalysis India Limited

PHASE ? SYSTEM REVIEW PHASE ? SYSTEM REVIEW


x Communicate

success x Adapt for failure x Adjust alarms x Add measurements x Extend to new machines x Identify problem machines x Embrace new technologies

Mechanalysis India Limited

PHASE ? SYSTEM REVIEW PHASE ? SYSTEM REVIEW


x Is

your CM programme changing the way you do maintenance ? or information ?

x Data x Is

your CM programme saving or just costing you money ? you running CM for its own sake ?

x Are x Is

anyone aware of the above ?


Mechanalysis India Limited

MANAGING CHANGE MANAGING CHANGE


B a rg a in in g

x x x x x

Do it slowly Let people understand why

D e n ia l Anger

NO!

Help them to be involved


D e p re s s io n

Listen to and act on their concerns Communicate


A c c e p ta n c e !

Mechanalysis India Limited

GENERATING MEANINGFUL REPORTS GENERATING MEANINGFUL REPORTS


x Overall x Band

Alarm Reports

Alarm Reports Code Reports

x Inspection x Spectral

Reports

Mechanalysis India Limited

OVERALL TREND OVERALL TREND


Reports all machines that have vibration which has exceeded the Overall Alarm for one or more points

Mechanalysis India Limited

WATERFALL WATERFALL

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SPECTRUM SPECTRUM

Mechanalysis India Limited

POLAR PLOTS POLAR PLOTS

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EXCEPTION REPORT EXCEPTION REPORT

Mechanalysis India Limited

OVERALL REPORT OVERALL REPORT


Page No. 1 9/16/2003 8:42 PM COLLECTED MEASUREMENT REPORT Location Pos Direction Area 2 Level 3 PA FAN #1 MTR-OB-HORIZ 1 MTR-OB-HORIZ 1 MTR-OB-HORIZ 1 MTR-OB-HORIZ MTR-OB-VERT MTR-OB-VERT MTR-IB-HORIZ MTR-IB-HORIZ MTR-IB-HORIZ MTR-IB-HORIZ MTR-IB-VERT MTR-IB-VERT MTR-IB-AXIAL MTR-IB-AXIAL FAN-IB-HORIZ FAN-IB-HORIZ FAN-IB-HORIZ FAN-IB-HORIZ FAN-OB-HORIZ FAN-OB-HORIZ FAN-OB-HORIZ FAN-OB-HORIZ 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 Data Type Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Vertical Vertical Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Vertical Vertical Axial Axial Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Units Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Magnitude Spectrum Filter ips ips g's g's ips ips ips ips g's g's ips ips ips ips ips ips g's g's ips ips g's g's Value Date/Time 6/4/1997 11:12 AM 6/4/1997 11:13 AM .037 6/4/1997 11:12 AM 6/4/1997 11:13 AM 6/4/1997 11:13 AM 6/4/1997 11:14 AM 6/4/1997 11:15 AM 6/4/1997 11:15 AM .128 6/4/1997 11:15 AM 6/4/1997 11:14 AM 6/4/1997 11:15 AM 6/4/1997 11:15 AM 6/4/1997 11:16 AM 6/4/1997 11:16 AM 6/4/1997 11:17 AM 6/4/1997 11:17 AM .065 6/4/1997 11:17 AM 6/4/1997 11:16 AM 6/4/1997 11:17 AM 6/4/1997 11:18 AM .178 6/4/1997 11:17 AM 6/4/1997 11:18 AM

Overall .43 None .553 High Frequency Envelope .00858 None .503 None .48 None .481 None .464 High Frequency Envelope .0335 None .247 None .245 None .114 None .0921 None .86 None .851 High Frequency Envelope .0235 None .87 None .774 High Frequency Envelope .118

Mechanalysis India Limited

General Considerations and Pitfalls.

Mechanalysis India Limited

CONSIDERATIONS IN OBTAINING QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS IN OBTAINING QUALITY DATA DATA


x Measurement

Locations. x Machine and Point Identification. x Measurement Parameters. x Instrument and Transducer Selection. x Measurement Techniques. x The use of Probes and Transducer Mounting

Mechanalysis India Limited

MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS

Mechanalysis India Limited

MEASUREMENT DIRECTIONS MEASUREMENT DIRECTIONS

Mechanalysis India Limited

CHOOSE MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS CHOOSE MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS


x Select

optimum locations. x For acceleration and ultra-sonic rolling element bearing detection get as close to the machine bearings as possible (ideally within load zone). x If you have to compromise on safety or frequency response consider installing a permanently mounted transducer

Mechanalysis India Limited

CHOOSE MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS CHOOSE MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS


x Never

compromise safety. x Measure as near as possible to the vertical, horizontal and axial centrelines x Any axial measurement is better than none so long as the same location is used each time x Do not mistake seal locations for bearing locations e.g. on pumps x Avoid measurements on locations with a low dynamic resistance e.g. protective covers

Mechanalysis India Limited

MACHINE POINT IDENTIFICATION MACHINE POINT IDENTIFICATION


x Always

Use Consistent numbering and naming conventions ie:a) Number the measurement points in the line of drive from the outboard end of the prime mover to the outboard bearing of the driven machine. b) Consistent lettering conventions for the direction of the pickup e.g. A - Axial H - Horizontal V - Vertical

Mechanalysis India Limited

USE CONSISTENT NAMING CONVENTION USE CONSISTENT NAMING CONVENTION


Number from the DE of prime mover to the NDE of driven unit. Location on the Machinery Motor Inboard Bearing (Drive end) Fan (Driven) Inboard Bearing Fan (Driven) Outboard Bearing Option 1 Option 2 MOV MIV FIV FOV

Motor Outboard Bearing (Non drive end) 1 2 3 4

Mechanalysis India Limited

MACHINE AND POINT IDENTIFICATION MACHINE AND POINT IDENTIFICATION


x Clearly

mark machine with the same name as on computer database and data collector x Produce machine drawings showing measurement locations x Clearly mark and label measurement point locations - Use Special paint, metal stamps etc.

Mechanalysis India Limited

MACHINE DRAWING AND DATA MACHINE DRAWING AND DATA


3120

MACHINE IDENT: 3 COND XFER PUMP RPM min: 3560 max.:

DRIVER

MFGR:WESTINGHOUSE

MODEL: 7209 SER NO.: V 480 P 3 A 109 pulley: ___ID H.P.: 100 OTHER:

BRG#: BALL 6312 (I) BRG#: BALL 6312 (O)

RPM in: out: RATIO: MODEL: SER NO.: RATING: BELT #:


BRG#: BRG#:

INTERMEDIATE

AREA: NGS-3 ROUTE:

RPM min.: 3560 max.:


MFGR:WESTINGHOUSE

DRIVEN

(I) (O)

MODEL: SER NO.: RATING: # BLADES: CT GEAR T: OTHER:

BRG#: BALL BRG#: BALL

(I) (O)

GEAR T: OTHER:

CT

Mechanalysis India Limited

MACHINE AND POINT IDENTIFICATIONS MACHINE AND POINT IDENTIFICATIONS


x Construct

plant This will help you to verify where you are during data collection and to decide on an efficient route - use the same identification number on machine, database and your map

a map of machine locations within the

Mechanalysis India Limited

SAMPLE MACHINE LOCATION MAP SAMPLE MACHINE LOCATION MAP


AH19
HEATTREAT VPUMP (GROUND)

AH23 01 02 AH21 ABS CLEAN ROOM (INTERIOR ROOF) (ROOF)


101A AHU MET-7 101A AHU MET-7 AHU SUP-7

BLDG. 101 ADDITION

AH20 AH22

101B

101A

(ON SECOND FLOOR)


SLA-1A SLA-1B

AHU SUP-7

COOLING BLOWER 101A

Mechanalysis India Limited

MEASUREMENT POINT SETUP MEASUREMENT POINT SETUP


x From

your knowledge of the machines build, operating characteristics and forcing frequencies set up the measurement details for each point. i.e.: Measurement Parameters Alarm Levels (Overall and Bands ) Optimum frequency span. (Fmax ) Number of Lines of Information. Number of Averages

Mechanalysis India Limited

ENSURE CORRECT INSTRUMENT SETUP ENSURE CORRECT INSTRUMENT SETUP


x Data

collector batteries are in good condition and properly charged are in good operating condition correct date and time in data collector

x Cables x Check

x Ensure

correct transducer sensitivity is entered in data collector or software

Mechanalysis India Limited

ENSURE CORRECT INSTRUMENT SETUP ENSURE CORRECT INSTRUMENT SETUP


When using additional transducers e.g.. temperature, current or proximity probes, ensure that :x Operation is clearly understood
x Instrument

is correctly configured to accept the information sensitivity is entered

x Proper

Mechanalysis India Limited

MTR DRIVEN GB AND BLOWER SKETCH MTR DRIVEN GB AND BLOWER SKETCH
Gearbox 1:1.7 ratio Bull gear (68 teeth) Blower 6086 RPM

Motor 3580 RPM

Pinion (40 teeth) Mechanalysis India Limited

0-12000 CPM SPECTRUM 0-12000 CPM SPECTRUM


No particular problem noted from this spectrum
.300 .270 .240 .210 .180 .150 .120 .090 .060 .030 2400 Peak Velocity (in/sec)

2X Motor rpm (Fm) 1X Motor rpm (Fm) 1X Blower rpm (Fb) 3X Motor rpm (Fm) 4800 7200 9600 Frequenc Mechanalysis India Limited y (CPM) 12000

0-24000 CPM SPECTRUM 0-24000 CPM SPECTRUM


Slight mechanical looseness on the gearbox output shaft is indicated
.300 .270 .240 .210 .180 .150 .120 .090 .060 .030 4800 Peak Velocity (in/sec)

1X Fb 1X Fm 2X Fb 2X Fm 3X Fm 3X Fb

9600 14400 19600 Frequenc Mechanalysis India Limited y (CPM)

24000

0-240000 CPM SPECTRUM 0-240000 CPM SPECTRUM


SKF 22212 Bearing outer race defect is detected in addition to the mechanical looseness
Peak Velocity (in/sec)

.300 .270 .240 .210 .180 .150 .120 .090 .060 .030

1XBPFO with cage frequency sidebands 2X BPFO 3X BPFO 4X BPFO 5X BPFO

48,000

96,000 144,000 192,000 Frequenc Mechanalysis India Limited y (CPM)

240,000

0-360000 CPM SPECTRUM 0-360000 CPM SPECTRUM


1X Gear mesh frequency with bearing defect frequency harmonics and slight mechanical looseness. Gear mesh looks normal.
Peak Velocity (in/sec)

.300 .270 .240 .210 .180 .150 .120 .090 .060 .030

2X BPFO 3X BPFO 4X BPFO 1X GMF 1X BPFO 2X Fb 5X BPFO

Fb

72,000

144,000 216,000 288,000 Frequenc Mechanalysis India Limited y (CPM)

360,000

0-780000 CPM SPECTRUM 0-780000 CPM SPECTRUM


Output gear and bearing problem noted
10.0 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 156,000 312,000 468,000 624,000 Frequenc Mechanalysis India Limited y (CPM) 780,000 3X GMF Peak Acceleration (gs) Blower speed sidebands 2X GMF
3X BPFO 2X BPFO 1X BPFO 5X BPFO 4X BPFO

1X GMF

SELECTING PROPER FMAX SELECTING PROPER FMAX


x Rolling-element

bearings About 120,000 CPM (2KHz) bearing machines Usually not to exceed 60,000CPM (1KHz) Drives Fundamental gear mesh frequency x 3.25

x Sleeve

x Gear

Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION ANALYSIS

Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION ANALYSIS VIBRATION ANALYSIS


x x

Every machine fault will generate a unique vibration characteristic. Analysis involves a logical, systematic approach that can pinpoint the exact machine fault Analysis is a process of elimination A step by step procedure can be used to minimise wasted time

x x

Mechanalysis India Limited

DEFINE THE PROBLEM. WHY PERFORM AN DEFINE THE PROBLEM. WHY PERFORM AN ANALYSIS? STEP 1 ANALYSIS? STEP 1
x x x x

Establish Baseline Data Identify cause of excessive vibration Identify cause of significant vibration increase Identify cause of frequent component failures bearings, couplings, seals, gears... Identify cause of structural failures - foundation, piping, mountings, welds...

Mechanalysis India Limited

DEFINING THE PROBLEM DEFINING THE PROBLEM


x x

Identify the source of a noise problem. Identify why a machine tool fails to produce a quality part Surface finish Dimensional tolerances... Machine does not meet performance standards such as those set by NEMA, ISO, and API

Mechanalysis India Limited

DETERMINE MACHINE HISTORY STEP 2 DETERMINE MACHINE HISTORY STEP 2


x When

Did the Problem Start?

x Where

any recent changes made prior to the problem being noticed?

Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION INCREASED GRADUALLY OVER VIBRATION INCREASED GRADUALLY OVER TIME TIME
x Components

eventually wear out - bearings, grouting, couplings, etc... or deposit build-up can affect the balance

x Corrosion x Settling

of bases can affect alignment of filters can affect flow of lubrication


Mechanalysis India Limited

x Blockage

x Breakdown

ALWAYS RUN ROUGH EVEN WHEN NEW ALWAYS RUN ROUGH EVEN WHEN NEW
x Resonance x Machine

condition may exist

/ associated piping may have not been properly aligned designed correctly for application i.e. Pump not operating on curve

x Not

Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION INCREASED ABRUPTLY VIBRATION INCREASED ABRUPTLY


x Changes

in machine speed or load.

x Modifications

to any machine component such as the base, foundation, piping, etc.. of parts

x Replacement

Mechanalysis India Limited

DETERMINE MACHINE DETAILS - STEP 3 DETERMINE MACHINE DETAILS - STEP 3


x All

machine speeds (rpm) x Types of bearings x Number of fan blades / impeller vanes x Number of gear teeth x Type of coupling x Machine critical speeds/natural frequencies x Background vibration sources

Mechanalysis India Limited

HAVE A MACHINE DIAGRAM HAVE A MACHINE DIAGRAM

Mechanalysis India Limited

VISUAL INSPECTION STEP 4 VISUAL INSPECTION STEP 4


x Loose

or Missing Bolts x Cracks in the Base, Foundation, Welds x Leaking Seals x Worn Belts x Excessive corrosion or build-up of deposits x Perform a Slow Motion Study

Mechanalysis India Limited

PROBING STUDDIES STEP 5 PROBING STUDDIES STEP 5


x Suction

and discharge piping on pumps x Externally mounted components x Background sources x Compare overall levels across all mounting interfaces for looseness x Compare overall levels at machine feet for soft foot

Mechanalysis India Limited

COMPARING LEVELS ACROSS INTERFACES COMPARING LEVELS ACROSS INTERFACES

Mechanalysis India Limited

OBTAIN TRI-AXIAL SPECTRA STEP 6 OBTAIN TRI-AXIAL SPECTRA STEP 6


x Run

machine at normal load, speed, temperature, pressure, etc... the same amplitude scale for all FFT readings (normalisation) spectral parameters that cover important frequencies

x Use

x Define

Mechanalysis India Limited

MACHINE TOOL MACHINE TOOL


x Take

readings with: Machine shut down to analyse background sources Machine idling (no machining) to identify drive related problems Machine under normal operating conditions to identify cutting, drilling, or grinding operation problems (chatter)

Mechanalysis India Limited

USE SAME AMPLITUDE SCALE USE SAME AMPLITUDE SCALE

Mechanalysis India Limited

SET FFT PARAMETERS PROPERLY SET FFT PARAMETERS PROPERLY


x Fmax

needs to be high enough to catch all defect frequencies in machine. needs to be sharp enough to separate closely spaced frequencies. FFTs. machines may require more than one set of

x Resolution

x Some

Mechanalysis India Limited

INTERPRETING THE DATA INTERPRETING THE DATA


x Identify

the machine component with the vibration problem (motor, pump, gears). the number of possible problems from several hundred to only a few

x Reduce

Mechanalysis India Limited

IDENTIFICATION BASED ON FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION BASED ON FREQUENCY


x Most

vibration problems generate frequencies related to the rotating speed. at 1x rpm, 2x rpm, 3x rpm, 4x rpm, etc.

x Frequencies

Mechanalysis India Limited

IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS BASED ON IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS BASED ON AMPLITUDE AMPLITUDE


x Component

with highest amplitude is usually problem component. exceptions such as Misalignment of direct coupled machine

x Some

Mechanalysis India Limited

FREQUENCY RELATED PROBLEMS FREQUENCY RELATED PROBLEMS


Frequency In T s erm OR f PM 1x R PM M Likely C ost auses U nbalan ce O ther Possib C le auses & R arks em 1) Eccentric journals, gears or pulleys 2) M isalignm or bent shaft - If high axial v ent ibration 3) Ba Belts - If R d PM of belt 4) R sonance e 5) R ciprocating forces e 6) Electrical problem s 7) Looseness 8) D istortion - soft feet or piping strain 1) M isalignm - if high axial v ent ibration 2) R ciprocating forces e 3) R sonance e 4) Ba belts - if 2 x R d PM of belt U sually a com bination of m isalignm nt and excessiv axial e e clearances (looseness). 1) Ba driv belts d e 2) Ba ckground v ibration 3) Su b-harm onic resonance 4) "Beat" Vibration C m n electrical problem include broken rotor b om o s ars, eccentric rotor unbalanced phases in poly-phase system unequal s, air gap. R as a problem unless resonance is excited are G teeth tim R ear es PM of bad gear N ber of fan blades tim R um es PM N ber of im um peller v anes tim R es PM M occur at 2, 3, 4 and som ay etim higher harm es onics if sev looseness ere 1) Be aring v ibration m be unsteady - am ay plitude and frequency 2) C v a itation, re circulation and flow turbulence cause random , high frequency v ibration 3) Im proper lubrication of journal bearings (Friction excited v ibration) 4) R bbing u

2x R PM

M echanical Looseness

3x R PM Less than 1x R PM

M isalignm ent O W (less il hirl than 1/ 2 R PM

Synchronous (A.C Line . Frequency) 2 x Synch. Frequency M any T es R im PM (H onically arm R elated Freq.)

Electrical Proble s m T orque Pulses Bad G ears Aerod ynam Forces ic H ydra ulic Forces M echanical Loosene ss R eciprocating Forces Bad Anti-Friction Bearin gs

H Frequency igh (N H onically ot arm R elated)

Mechanalysis India Limited

COMPARISON BY DIRECTION COMPARISON BY DIRECTION


x How

do radial (horizontal and vertical) readings compare to each other. do radial readings compare with axial measurements

x How

Mechanalysis India Limited

COMPARE HORIZ & VERTICAL READINGS COMPARE HORIZ & VERTICAL READINGS
x Relative

stiffness between the measurement directions needs to be established beyond 4:1 are unusual and indicate an abnormal condition such as looseness or resonance

x Ratios

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COMPARING RADIAL AMPLITUDE COMPARING RADIAL AMPLITUDE

Mechanalysis India Limited

COMPARING RADIAL AND AXIAL COMPARING RADIAL AND AXIAL


x Only

a few machine defects can cause high axial readings These include Misalignment, Bent Shafts, or Unbalance of Overhung Rotors. Rule: Any time the axial amplitude exceeds 50% of the highest radial, these defects should be strongly considered

x General

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SINUSOIDAL WAVEFORM SINUSOIDAL WAVEFORM

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Sinusoidal Waveform

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Square Wave

Mechanalysis India Limited

Spike - Pulse Waveform

Mechanalysis India Limited

Side-Band Frequencies

x x x

The resultant of Amplitude Modulation The Carrier Frequency is the centre frequency which is also the defect frequency The two sidebands are equally spaced from the Carrier by the modulation frequency Mechanalysis India Limited

AM & FM AM & FM

Mechanalysis India Limited

Typical Side-Bands

Mechanalysis India Limited

Step 7 - Is Vibration Directional


x Directional

is non-uniform vibration. is uniform vibration.

x Non-directional x Unbalance

and bent shafts are uniform, most other types are directional. eccentricity, and looseness cause directional vibration

x Misalignment,

Mechanalysis India Limited

Directional Versus Non-Directional Vibration


x Comparing x Comparing x Multiple

horizontal, vertical, and axial FFTs. vertical and horizontal phase.

radial amplitude measurements

Mechanalysis India Limited

Comparative Horizontal & Vertical Phase

Mechanalysis India Limited

Multiple Radial Measurements

Mechanalysis India Limited

COMMON PROBLEMS
x Unbalance x Bent x Defective

Shafts x Misalignment x Looseness x Eccentricity Problems x Resonance x Belt Drive Problems

Rolling Element Bearings x Sleeve Bearing Problems x Electric (Induction) Motor Problems x Gear Problems

Mechanalysis India Limited

UNBALANCE
x x x x x

ONLY causes vibration at 1x rpm. Amplitude is proportional to the unbalance Amplitudes are higher in the radial direction unless the rotor is overhung Phase readings will be stable Phase readings will shift 90 degrees when pickup is shifted 90 degrees (60o to 120o phase difference is allowable)

Mechanalysis India Limited

UNBALANCE
x Operating

conditions such as load, flow condition and temperature effect unbalance Balance under normal operating conditions in track and pitch angle of fan blades can result in Aerodynamic Unbalance

x Changes

Mechanalysis India Limited

Typical Spectrum For Unbalance

Mechanalysis India Limited

BENT SHAFTS
x Caused

by: Manufacturing errors Mishandling during transportation Bow due to thermal growth can be kinked or bowed

x Rotors

Mechanalysis India Limited

BENT SHAFTS
x Predominant

vibration at 1x rpm which can be accompanied by a 2x rpm peak. vibration amplitude exceeds 50% of highest radial amplitude. vibration is uniform

x Axial

x Radial x Axial

phase analysis needs to be used to verify problem and type of bend

Mechanalysis India Limited

Typical FFT for Bent Shaft

Mechanalysis India Limited

Axial Phase Readings

x Determine

axial twisting or planar motion x Taken at 4 positions around bearing face x Corrections need to be made for transducer orientation
Mechanalysis India Limited

Identifying a Shaft with a Kink

Mechanalysis India Limited

Kink in the Shaft


x

x x x

Use axial phase measurements to see twisting motion 180o difference between top and bottom 180o difference between left and right Shows 1x rpm peak and possible 2x rpm Condition verified with dial indicator Appears the same as a cocked bearing, but axial readings show similar amplitudes around bearing face for kink
Mechanalysis India Limited

Identifying a Simple Bow

x x x x

Axial amplitude and phase readings around the bearing face will be uniform Shows 1x rpm peak with possible 2x rpm Axial phase readings across the support bearings show 180 degree phase difference Correct for orientation of transducer Mechanalysis India Limited

Axial Phase Indicating Planar Motion from Shaft Bow

Mechanalysis India Limited

MISALIGNMENT
x BIGGEST

PROBLEM INITIALLY x Operating temperature can affect alignment Machines aligned cold can go out when warm x Bases or foundations can settle x Grouting can shrink or deteriorate x Increases energy demands

Mechanalysis India Limited

MISALIGNMENT
x Forces

shared by driver and driven (not localised) x Level of misalignment severity is determined by the machines ability to withstand the misalignment If coupling is stronger than bearing the bearing can fail with little damage to the coupling

Mechanalysis India Limited

Three Types of Misalignment

x Combination x Angular x Parallel

(most common)

or Offset
Mechanalysis India Limited

General Characteristics Of Misalignment


x Radial

vibration is highly directional x 1X, 2x, and 3x running speed depending on type and extent of misalignment Angular 1x rpm axial Parallel 2x rpm radial (H & V) Combination 1,2,3x rpm radial and axial

Mechanalysis India Limited

Typical Spectrum for Misalignment

Mechanalysis India Limited

Angular Misalignment
x Produces

predominant 1x rpm component x Marked by 180 degree phase shift across the coupling in the axial direction

Mechanalysis India Limited

Parallel Or Offset Misalignment


x Produces

spectrum x Marked by 180 degree phase shift across the coupling in the radial direction.

a predominant 2x rpm peak in the

Mechanalysis India Limited

Typical Spectrum for Misalignment

Mechanalysis India Limited

Axial Phase Showing Misalignment

Mechanalysis India Limited

Other Types Of Misalignment

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING COCKED ON SHAFT


x

Comparative axial phase will show large amplitude discrepancy and same phase as kink in bearing

COCKED SLEEVE BEARING


x

Rarely causes a problem unless there is some other exciting force to create radial vibration and magnifies the misalignment

Mechanalysis India Limited

LOOSENESS LOOSENESS
x Not

an exciting force x Allows exciting frequencies already present to exhibit much higher amplitudes x Loss or reduction in normal stiffness x Caused by: loose mounting bolts deterioration of grouting cracked welds

Mechanalysis India Limited

Two Types Of Looseness


x

Looseness of Rotating Components Loose Rotors Bearings Loose on the Shaft or in Housing Excessive Sleeve Bearing Clearances Looseness of Support System Loose Mounting Bolts Grouting Deterioration Cracks Poor Support Frame Distortion
Mechanalysis India Limited

Looseness Of Rotating System


x Rattling

condition cause impacts due to excessive clearance in a rolling element or sleeve bearing x Impacts cause multiple running speed harmonics to appear in the spectra x Identified by: multiple harmonics unstable phase highly directional radial vibration

Mechanalysis India Limited

Spectrum for Looseness of Rotating System

Mechanalysis India Limited

Spectrum Looseness of Rotating System

Mechanalysis India Limited

Looseness Of Support System


x FFT

readings show 1x rpm, 2x rpm, and 3x rpm components x Structural looseness / weakness will cause high 1xrpm peak in FFT x Identified by Highly directional radial vibration Bouncing Taking comparative phase readings across interfaces and look for amplitude variation Typically loose in vertical direction
Mechanalysis India Limited

Looseness Of Support System

Mechanalysis India Limited

ECCENTRICITY
x Produces

vibration at 1xrpm of the eccentric component x Vibration is highly directional x Pulleys, gears, and chain sprockets will show directional vibration acting on a line between the two centres x Slow motion studies and dial indicators can assist confirmation x Balancing will give only limited success

Mechanalysis India Limited

Eccentricity Gears and Sheaves


x Gears

have variation in mating force along centreline of gears have vibration along centreline of driver and driven pulley

x Sheaves

Mechanalysis India Limited

Eccentric Armatures and Bearings


x Eccentric

Motor Armature causes unbalanced magnetic forces bearings rarely cause a problem because of precision manufacture

x Eccentric

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Typical Spectrum For Eccentricity

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RESONANCE
x

Every machine element has a natural frequency(s) based on mass and stiffness Resonance occurs when a forcing frequency coincides with a one of these natural frequencies

Mechanalysis India Limited

VIBRATION DUE TO RESONANCE


x

x x x

Every object, including every element or part of a machine, has a natural frequency or a frequency at which it likes to vibrate Determined by the machines mass and stiffness Does not cause vibration but serves as a mechanical amplifier (10x-100x) Resonance is a very common cause of excessive vibration because: Machines consist of many individual elements Stiffness of each machine component differs in all directions, causing several natural frequencies

Mechanalysis India Limited

Identifying Resonance
x Vibration

will be Highly Directional x Changing the Exciting Forcing Frequency x Change the mass or stiffness of the suspected resonant machine component x Perform a Bump Test

Mechanalysis India Limited

RESONANCE

Occurs when Forcing Frequency is within +/- 20% of Natural Frequency

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Bump Test Results to Confirm Resonance

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GEAR VIBRATION GEAR VIBRATION DIAGNOSTICS DIAGNOSTICS


Mechanalysis India Limited

CALCULATION OF GEAR MESH CALCULATION OF GEAR MESH FREQUENCIES FREQUENCIES


1700 RPM 51 TEETH 31 TEETH 20 TEETH

8959 RPM -- HOW MANY TEETH ON THIS GEAR?


Mechanalysis India Limited

GEARS NORMAL SPECTRUM GEARS NORMAL SPECTRUM


2625 rpm 8 teeth GMF= 21k CPM 1500 rpm 14 teeth

x Normal spectrum shows 1X and 2X and gear mesh

frequency GMF x GMF commonly will have sidebands of running speed x All peaks are of low amplitude and no natural frequencies are present
Mechanalysis India Limited

GEARS TOOTH WEAR GEARS TOOTH WEAR


8 teeth 2625 rpm GMF = 21k CPM 14 teeth 1500 rpm

x x x

Wear is indicated by excitation of natural frequencies along with sidebands of 1X RPM of the bad gear Sidebands are a better wear indicator than the GMF GMF may not change in amplitude when wear occurs Mechanalysis India Limited

GEARS TOOTH LOAD GEARS TOOTH LOAD

x Gear

load x High GMF amplitudes do not necessarily indicate a problem x Each analysis should be performed with the system at maximum load
Mechanalysis India Limited

Mesh Frequencies are often sensitive to

GEARS GEAR ECCENTRICITY AND BACKLASH GEARS GEAR ECCENTRICITY AND BACKLASH

x Fairly

high amplitude sidebands around GMF suggest eccentricity, backlash or non parallel shafts x The problem gear will modulate the sidebands x Incorrect backlash normally excites gear natural frequency
Mechanalysis India Limited

GEARS GEAR MISALIGNMENT GEARS GEAR MISALIGNMENT

x x x

Gear misalignment almost always excites second order or higher harmonics with sidebands of running speed Small amplitude at 1X GMF but higher levels at 2X and 3X GMF Important to set Fmax high enough to capture at least 2X GMF Mechanalysis India Limited

GEARS CRACKED // BROKEN TOOTH GEARS CRACKED BROKEN TOOTH


TIME WAVEFORM

x x x x

A cracked or broken tooth will generate a high amplitude at 1X RPM of the gear It will excite the gear natural frequency which will be sidebanded by the running speed fundamental Best detected using the time waveform Time interval between impacts will be the reciprocal of the 1X RPM Mechanalysis India Limited

GEARS HUNTING TOOTH GEARS HUNTING TOOTH


f

Ht = (GMF)Na
(TGEAR)(TPINION)

x x x x

Vibration is at low frequency and due to this can often be missed Synonymous with a growling sound The effect occurs when the faulty pinion and gear teeth both enter mesh at the same time Faults may be due to faulty manufacture or mishandling Mechanalysis India Limited

GEAR BOX LIMITATIONS GEAR BOX LIMITATIONS

Mechanalysis India Limited

PUMPS AND BEATS

Mechanalysis India Limited

FLOW INDUCED VIBRATION


x x x x

Cavitation, Recirculation, and Flow Turbulence Inherent in Pumps and Fans Varies significantly with Load Blade Pass Frequency = # Blades x RPM

Mechanalysis India Limited

CAVITATION
x

Pumps forced to operate will below their designed capacity experience cavitation Lack of suction pressure creates a vacuum pockets in the fluid that are unstable and can collapse or implode. Implosions excite natural frequencies. Show up as haystack of frequencies in the 20,000 CPM to 150,000 CPM range

x x

Mechanalysis India Limited

Flow Related Considerations


x x x

BPF may excite Resonance Manufacturing Errors Piping and Duct Configuration API 610 specifies a five x diameter rule for inlet elbows Design Capacity (Check Pump Curve)

Mechanalysis India Limited

HYDRAULIC AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES HYDRAULIC AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES


BPF = BLADE PASS FREQUENCY

x x x

If gap between vanes and casing is not equal, Blade Pass Frequency may have high amplitude High BPF may be present if impeller wear ring seizes on shaft Eccentric rotor can cause amplitude at BPF to be excessive Mechanalysis India Limited

HYDRAULIC AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES HYDRAULIC AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES


FLOW TURBULENCE

x Flow

turbulence often occurs in blowers due to variations in pressure or velocity of air in ducts x Random low frequency vibration will be generated, possibly in the 50 - 2000 CPM range

Mechanalysis India Limited

Case Study: Flow Problem

Mechanalysis India Limited

Spectra for Flow Problems

Mechanalysis India Limited

HYDRAULIC AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES HYDRAULIC AND AERODYNAMIC FORCES


CAVITATION

x x x x

Cavitation will generate random, high frequency broadband energy superimposed with BPF harmonics Normally indicates inadequate suction pressure Erosion of impeller vanes and pump casings may occur if left unchecked Sounds like gravel passing through pump Mechanalysis India Limited

BEAT VIBRATION BEAT VIBRATION


WIDEBAND SPECTRUM

F1

F2
ZOOM SPECTRUM

x x x

A beat is the result of two closely spaced frequencies going into and out of phase The wideband spectrum will show one peak pulsating up and down The difference between the peaks is the beat frequency which itself will be present in the wideband spectrum Mechanalysis India Limited

BELT VIBRATION BELT VIBRATION

Mechanalysis India Limited

BELT PROBLEMS BELT PROBLEMS


WORN, LOOSE OR MISMATCHED BELTS

BELT FREQUENCY HARMONICS

x x x x

Often 2X RPM is dominant Amplitudes are normally unsteady, sometimes pulsing with either driver or driven RPM Wear or misalignment in timing belt drives will give high amplitudes at the timing belt frequency Belt frequencies are below the RPM of either the driver or the driven Mechanalysis India Limited

BELT PROBLEMS BELT PROBLEMS


BELT / PULLEY MISALIGNMENT

1X DRIVER OR DRIVEN

x x

Pulley misalignment will produce high axial vibration at 1X RPM Often the highest amplitude on the motor will be at the fan RPM Mechanalysis India Limited

BELT PROBLEMS BELT PROBLEMS


ECCENTRIC PULLEYS
1X RPM OF ECCENTRIC PULLEY RADIAL

x x x

Eccentric or unbalanced pulleys will give a high 1X RPM of the pulley The amplitude will be highest in line with the belts Beware of trying to balance eccentric pulleys

Mechanalysis India Limited

BELT PROBLEMS BELT PROBLEMS


BELT RESONANCE
1X RPM RADIAL

BELT RESONANCE

High amplitudes can be present if the belt natural frequency coincides with driver or driven RPM. Belt natural frequency can be changed by altering the belt tension

Mechanalysis India Limited

Reduce premature bearing failure Reduce premature bearing failure


Poor installation - 16% of all
premature bearing failures are caused by poor installation . Professional installation, using specialized tools and techniques, is a positive step toward achieving maximum machine uptime.

Contamination - 14% of all


premature bearing failures are attributed to contamination problems. A bearing will not operate efficiently unless both the bearing and its lubrication are isolated from contamination.

Poor lubrication - 36% of all


premature bearing failures are caused by incorrect specification and inadequate application of the lubricant. Because bearings are the least accessible components of machinery, neglected lubrication compounds the problem.

Fatigue - 34% of all premature


bearing failures are caused by overloaded, incorrectly serviced or neglected machines. Sudden failures can be avoided since bearings emit early warning signals which can be detected using condition monitoring equipment.

Mechanalysis India Limited

Construction of bearings Construction of bearings


Outer Ring Raceway Cage Outer Ring Land Inner Ring Inner Ring Raceway Rolling Element Inner Ring Land Outer Ring Side Faces O.D. Surface

Bore Surface

Mechanalysis India Limited

Bearing load Bearing load

Mechanalysis India Limited

Bearing types Bearing types

Single row deep groove ball bearing

Single row angular contact ball bearing

Double row angular contact ball bearing

Self-aligning ball bearing

Cylindrical roller bearing

Spherical roller bearing

Tapered roller bearing

Needle roller bearing

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURES BEARING FAILURES

Mechanalysis India Limited

Basic L10 Fatigue Life


p

L10h

1,000,000 60 (n)

( )

C P

Where: n = rotational speed (rpm) C = dynamic bearing capacity P = equivalent load applied p = 3 for ball bearings p = 10/3 for roller bearings
Note: C/P target = 8 to 12 Mechanalysis India Limited

Lubrication conditions Lubrication conditions

Full lubrication

Marginal / inadequate lubrication

Mechanalysis India Limited

Contamination Contamination

When a hard particles > 5 microns is forced through the gap of around 0.5 microns a dent is formed in the raceway Even soft particles, if large enough, will produce dents in the very hard raceway Mechanalysis India Limited

Contamination Contamination
Contamination - Surface Fatigue

1) A dent is formed

2) A crack arises

3) Crack Propagation

4) Flaking

Mechanalysis India Limited

Bearing arrangements Bearing arrangements

Locating

Non-Locating

Mechanalysis India Limited

Temperature Mounting Temperature Mounting

Hot Plate

Induction Heater

Mechanalysis India Limited

Bearing Terminology

Mechanalysis India Limited

BEARING FAILURE
x Four

failure stages Stage 1: Visible flaw, only seen in Spike Energy Stage 2 : Size of flaw increases, natural frequency of bearing appears Stage 3 : Bearing defect frequencies appear Stage 4 : The last hurrah!, Spike Energy may actually decline

Mechanalysis India Limited

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 1 ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 1

ZONE A

ZONE B

ZONE C

ZONE D

gSE

x x x

Earliest indications in the ultrasonic range These frequencies evaluated by Spike EnergyTM gSE, HFD(g) and Shock Pulse Spike Energy may first appear at about 0.25 gSE for this first stage Mechanalysis India Limited

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 2 ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 2


ZONE A ZONE B ZONE C ZONE D gSE

x x x x

Slight defects begin to ring bearing component natural frequencies These frequencies occur in the range of 30k-120k CPM At the end of Stage 2, sideband frequencies appear above and below natural frequency Spike Energy grows e.g. 0.25-0.50gSE

Mechanalysis India Limited

Stage 2 Of Bearing Failure

Mechanalysis India Limited

Stage 2 Of Bearing Failure

Mechanalysis India Limited

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 3 ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 3


ZONE A ZONE B ZONE C ZONE D gSE

x x x x

Bearing defect frequencies and harmonics appear Many defect frequency harmonics appear with wear the number of sidebands grow Wear is now visible and may extend around the periphery of the bearing Spike Energy increases to between 0.5 -1.0 gSE Mechanalysis India Limited

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 4 ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 4

ZONE A

ZONE B

ZONE C gSE

High just prior to failure

x x x x

Discreet bearing defect frequencies disappear and are replaced by random broad band vibration in the form of a noise floor Towards the end, even the amplitude at 1 X RPM is effected High frequency noise floor amplitudes and Spike Energy may in fact decrease Just prior to failure gSE may rise to high levels

Mechanalysis India Limited

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 4 ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 4

Mechanalysis India Limited

Bearing Database

Mechanalysis India Limited

Paper Roll Bearing With Multiple Harmonics Of BPFO

Mechanalysis India Limited

Case Study: Defective Rolling Element Bearing

Mechanalysis India Limited

Oil Whirl
x Pressure

lubricated sleeve-type bearings operating above critical speed x Occurs in range of 0.42-0.48x rpm x Oil film pushes shaft around in housing x Only causes problems when oil whirl dominates normal static or dynamic load

Mechanalysis India Limited

Oil Whip
x Occurs

in machines operating above 2x rotor critical speed x Oil film breaks down and shaft whirls at first critical speed

Mechanalysis India Limited

STRATEGIC APPROACH TO MOTOR STRATEGIC APPROACH TO MOTOR HEALTH DIAGNOSIS HEALTH DIAGNOSIS

ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL DIAGNOSTICS DIAGNOSTICS

Mechanalysis India Limited

ELECTRICAL PROBLEM ELECTRICAL PROBLEM

STATOR ECCENTRICITY SHORTED LAMINATIONS AND LOOSE IRON

x Stator x Stator

problems generate high amplitudes at 2FL (2X line frequency )

eccentricity produces uneven stationary air gap, vibration is very directional x Soft foot can produce an eccentric stator
Mechanalysis India Limited

ELECTRICAL PROBLEM ELECTRICAL PROBLEM ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS


ECCENTRIC ROTOR ECCENTRIC ROTOR ((VariableAir Gap)) Variable Air Gap

x Eccentric

rotors produce a rotating variable air gap, this induces pulsating vibration x Often requires zoom spectrum to separate 2FL and running speed harmonic x Common values of FP range from 20 - 120 CPM
Mechanalysis India Limited

FREQUENCIES GENERATED FREQUENCIES GENERATED


Electrical line frequency.(FL) = 50Hz = 3000 cpm. Electrical line frequency.(FL) = 50Hz = 3000 cpm. No of poles. ((P) No of poles. P)
60HZ = 3600 cpm 60HZ = 3600 cpm

Rotor Bar Pass Frequency (Fb) = No of rotor bars x Rotor Bar Pass Frequency (Fb) = No of rotor bars x

Rotor rpm. Rotor rpm.

Synchronous speed ( Synchronous speed (Ns) = 2xFL Ns) = 2xFL P P Slip frequency ( FS )= Synchronous speed -- Rotor rpm. Slip frequency ( FS )= Synchronous speed Rotor rpm. Pole pass frequency (FP )= Slip Frequency x No of Poles. Pole pass frequency (FP )= Slip Frequency x No of Poles.
Mechanalysis India Limited

ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS


ROTOR PROBLEMS

x x x

1X, 2X, 3X, RPM with pole pass frequency sidebands indicates rotor bar problems. 2X line frequency sidebands on rotor bar pass frequency (RBPF) indicates loose rotor bars. Often high levels at 2X & 3X rotor bar pass frequency and only low level at 1X rotor bar pass frequency. Mechanalysis India Limited

ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

POWER SUPPLY PHASE PROBLEMS


(Loose Connector)

x x

Phasing problems can cause excessive vibration at 2FL with 1/3 FL sidebands Levels at 2FL can exceed 25 mm/sec if left uncorrected Particular problem if the defective connector is only occasionally making contact Mechanalysis India Limited

ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
(Loose Stator Coils)

x x

Loose stator coils in synchronous motors generate high amplitude at Coil Pass Frequency The coil pass frequency will be surrounded by 1X RPM sidebands

Mechanalysis India Limited

ELECTRICAL PROBLEM ELECTRICAL PROBLEM

DC MOTOR PROBLEMS

x x x

DC motor problems can be detected by the higher than normal amplitudes at SCR firing rate These problems include broken field windings Fuse and control card problems can cause high amplitude peaks at frequencies of 1X to 5X Line Frequency Mechanalysis India Limited

ROTOR BAR FREQUENCIES (SLOT NOISE) ROTOR BAR FREQUENCIES (SLOT NOISE)
POLE POLE

MINIMUM

MAXIMUM

MAX

Mechanalysis India Limited

MIN

MOTOR CURRENT ANALYSIS MOTOR CURRENT ANALYSIS

Diagnoses range of ac motor faults Can be integrated with vibration Measurement trending

Mechanalysis India Limited

AC MOTOR FAULTS AC MOTOR FAULTS


winding insulation degradation air gap eccentricity broken rotor bars bent shaft cracked end rings oscillating load poor brazing

loss of phase supply

Mechanalysis India Limited

AC MOTOR CURRENT SPECTRUM AC MOTOR CURRENT SPECTRUM

current clamp

data collector
Mechanalysis India Limited

FAULT DIAGNOSIS FAULT DIAGNOSIS


primary rotor fault sidebands

good motor

bad motor

Mechanalysis India Limited

HOW DOES IT FIT IN A CMP HOW DOES IT FIT IN A CMP


x Approximately

related.

10% of motor failures are rotor

x Significant x Most

threat of secondary damage.

motors are healthy. non-intrusive test.

x On-line x Easy

to do - data collector.
Mechanalysis India Limited

Solving Those Difficult Vibration Problems

Mechanalysis India Limited

OPERATING SHAPE ANALYSIS OPERATING SHAPE ANALYSIS

Foundation problems Static/coupled unbalance Misalignment Resonance Case distortion

Mechanalysis India Limited

ODS MEASUREMENT ODS MEASUREMENT

Mechanalysis India Limited

SHAPE 1 SHAPE 1

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SHAPE 2 SHAPE 2

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SHAPE 3 SHAPE 3

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SHAPE 4 SHAPE 4

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SHAPE 5 SHAPE 5

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SHAPE 6 SHAPE 6

Mechanalysis India Limited

SHAPE 7 SHAPE 7

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SHAPE 8 SHAPE 8

Mechanalysis India Limited

SHAPE 9 SHAPE 9

Mechanalysis India Limited

SHAPE 10 SHAPE 10

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SHAPE 11 SHAPE 11

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SHAPE 12 SHAPE 12

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SHAPE 13 SHAPE 13

Mechanalysis India Limited

SHAPE 14 SHAPE 14

Mechanalysis India Limited

SHAPE 15 SHAPE 15

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SHAPE 16 SHAPE 16

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SHAPE 17 SHAPE 17

Mechanalysis India Limited

SHAPE 18 SHAPE 18

Mechanalysis India Limited

SOUND SOUND

ENTEK IRD

Mechanalysis India Limited

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS BASIC CHARACTERISTICS


Sound is a pressure oscillation in a fluid. Which moves radially away from the source that produces it. Sound radiates by, or is propagated by, wave motion through the fluid or medium. The four characteristics of the wave motion are: Amplitude, Frequency, velocity and wavelength.

Mechanalysis India Limited

VELOCITY VELOCITY
The velocity of sound is essentially fixed. It is constant for the medium in which it travels In air it travels at 1120 feet per second and 340 metres per sec in air. Changes slightly due to temperature and pressure variations.

Mechanalysis India Limited

WAVELENGTH WAVELENGTH
The Wavelength is the distance between similar points on two adjacent waves and is determined both by the velocity [c] and the frequency [f] at which the waves are propagated, or: (feet per cycle) = c (feet/cycle) F (cycles/sec)

Mechanalysis India Limited

FREQUENCY FREQUENCY
It is determined by the source causing it. Common source of sound is a vibrating solid. Vibrating or oscillating motion of the solid causes pressure changes. The pressure oscillation frequency is the same as the vibration frequency of the solid. Number of individual components generate different frequency, hence the overall sound will contain an equal number of individual pressure oscillations (or sound) frequencies.

Mechanalysis India Limited

AMPLITUDE AMPLITUDE
Is determined by how much the medium is alternately compressed and rarefied. The amplitude is a measure of the energy imparted to the medium by the source.

The initial energy imparted to the medium dissipates with distance. Energy is imparted by the source to a receiver (such as a microphone, or the ear). Sound amplitude is measured with an instrument in terms of the pressure level changes. Sound amplitude is more commonly called Sound Pressure Level SPL.

Mechanalysis India Limited

SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL


In addition to the sound pressure level, the term sound level is also commonly used in place of sound amplitude. If sound is measured with an instrument that is fully responsive to all frequencies of sound, then the measured value will be in terms of sound pressure level. It will measure what is actually out there or the true pressure level.

Mechanalysis India Limited

SOUND LEVEL SOUND LEVEL


Instruments designed to work the way our ear works. Our ear is responsive to some frequencies but less responsive to others. Such instruments are called sound level reading; that is, they are not meant to measure in terms of actual sound pressure.

Mechanalysis India Limited

NOISE NOISE
The generally accepted definition of noise is simply unwanted sound. This includes everything from the drip of a tap in the middle of the night to the roar of an aircraft engine as it leaves the runway. It can even include music if it interferes with the work or concentration of the listener. To be considered noise all that is desired is that the sound is undesirable to the listener.

Mechanalysis India Limited

GENERATION OF NOISE GENERATION OF NOISE


Sound or noise can be generated in three ways. 1) Vibrations of solid structures such as machines or walls, which alternately compress and rarefy the air in contact with these structures. The rate or frequency at which these structures vibrate determines the frequency of the sound that is radiated. 2) The movement of air over solid structures can also generate sounds. (example is the old type factory whistle or siren.) Fast moving air across the structure create sounds. (example of this is the pipe organ.) The flow of air over ventilation grills or fan blades. 3) Turbulent mixing of fast moving air with relation to slow moving air.(noise is generated by a jet engine.)

Mechanalysis India Limited

DECIBEL DECIBEL
Sound, or noise, is measured in units called decibels. It is abbreviated to dB. Easy to use as compared to microns or millimetres. The levels of a number of common place sources of noise are given to provide this feel.

Mechanalysis India Limited

WHY DECIBEL WHY DECIBEL


Tremendous range of sound levels that the human ear can hear. Sound pressure levels of interest for engineering purposes cover a ratio of one billion to one (109 to 1). Inconvenient to handle with conventional linear units such as lb/in 2or microbars. The decibel provides a logarithmic scale, which compresses that huge linear scale of one billion to one into a decibel (logarithmic) range of only 180 to one.

Mechanalysis India Limited

WHY DECIBEL WHY DECIBEL


Sound pressure level is defined by the following equation:

SPL SPL
=

Sound Pressure Level 20 log 10 Measured Sound Pressure (microbar) Reference Sound Pressure (microbar)

Where Reference Sound Pressure = 0.0002 microbar or 20 micronewtons per square metre). 100 kpa = 1 bar Mechanalysis India Limited

WHICH SCALE IS BETTER WHICH SCALE IS BETTER

Mechanalysis India Limited

TYP. INDUSTRIAL NOISE LEVEL TYP. INDUSTRIAL NOISE LEVEL


Where high noise levels occur in areas of work. Levels are governed by noise which can cause personnel fatigue and efficiency loss. Levels of acceptability for noise in different areas and conditions is different.

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ACCEPTANCE CHART ACCEPTANCE CHART


Noise Level dB(A)

Communication Required

Typical activity or working area

110 100 90 85

Communication nearly impossible. Maximum shouting required at a distance of one foot or less Shouting required. Communication difficult even at one foot distance.

Deafening

Inside a workshop or machinery area

Shouting required at one foot. Maximum level at which a telephone can be used.

Very loud

Raised voice can be understood at two feet.

All working areas; For most tasks, worker efficiency is affected above this level.

70 65 55 50 30

Telephone use not a problem up to this level. Normal voice can be understood at three feet distance.

Machine shop, restaurants, busy department store

Secretarial offices

Normal voice can be understood at 12 feet distance

Conference room, class room

Private office, drafting room, where close exacting work is required

Broadcast studio

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WORKING OF THE EAR WORKING OF THE EAR


It functions over an extremely wide range of amplitudes and frequencies Can detect very small changes or differences in amplitude and frequency. With experience can judge the actual frequency (or tone) of a specific sound. In judging loudness, the ear tends to respond poorly to frequencies near to low and high ends of a range of 20 Hz to 10 kHz. i.e. from about 200 Hz down to 20 Hz. Sounds having frequencies between the range of 200 Hz and 6000 Hz are heard essentially as their actual levels (or even amplified slightly). Another factor in this poor response characteristic of the ear is that as sound pressure level increases the response improves. For example, at 20 Hz an 80 dB SPL will be heard as a 20 dB sound (response error of 60 dB), whereas a 130 dB SPL will be heard as a 100 dB sound (an error of only 30 dB).

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A, B & C WEIGHTING A, B & C WEIGHTING


Sound is often measured in conjunction with a problem related to human hearing. It has been found desirable in many cases to use instrumentation which measures sound in a manner similar to the human ear. To do this, sound level meters and analysers are electronically tuned to hear poorly at low and high frequencies and hear best at around 4 kHz. The electronics which generate this kind of response are called A, B and C weightings.

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WHEN TO USE A, B & C WEIGHTING WHEN TO USE A, B & C WEIGHTING


The ear responds differently to sounds to sounds of different levels. For low level sounds (below 50 dB), the A weighting best approximates the human ear. From 55 to 85 dB the C weighting. For data recording it is necessary to specify what weighting is being used. For example, the sound levels are recorded: 50 dB (A) or 75 dB(B) or 92 dB(C) etc. Regardless of the level of sound. Most environmental requirements ask for the A weighting to be applied.

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WHEN TO USE A, B & C WEIGHTING WHEN TO USE A, B & C WEIGHTING


The selection is generally governed by the standard under which the noise measurement is being made. Most environmental standards use the A weighting. If the requirement is that the degree to which communication is hindered or impaired has to be assessed then the A weighting is used. If the requirement is to assess or track down the noise from machinery then the C weighting is used. This weighting is also used for measuring the sound outputs of musical instruments or sound systems. The B weighting is rarely used and is sometimes not available in sound level meters.

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A PAPER ON

INTRINSIC
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INTRINSIC SAFETY & IMPORTANCE INTRINSIC SAFETY & IMPORTANCE


Generally referred to as an energy limitation protection technique. Used in areas where gasses, volatile chemicals and fine dusts are processed and used. The smallest spark of electrical energy can set off a dangerous explosion. Instruments used in these environments must be incapable of generating energy sufficient to cause ignition. In earlier days instruments installed in these hazardous areas were off pneumatic design. Semiconductor, (Integrated Circuits) have insufficient power to ignite most of the gases. Intrinsically safe devices help us from segregating the instruments in purged, explosion-proof containers as done in the past and were found to be extremely costly in terms of design, installation, and serviceability.

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IGNITION TEMPERATURE IGNITION TEMPERATURE


It is the point at which an air/gas mixture will self-ignite. All operations / instrumentation in this zone must operate without generating temperatures at or near the minimum ignition temperature. Instruments are typically classified by a T Class rating

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FLASH POINT FLASH POINT


Is the temperature at which volatile liquids give off ignitable fumes, or gasses. Instruments operating at temperatures above the flash point of substances present in the process must be intrinsically safe.

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EUROPEAN AREA CLASSIFICATION EUROPEAN AREA CLASSIFICATION


Zones are generally used in Europe: Zone 0: Flammable gasses are present continuously or for long periods. (Typically more than 1,000 hours per year.) Zone 1: Gasses are likely to occur in normal operation. (Typically between 10 and 1,000 hours per Year.) Zone 2: Gasses unlikely to occur and will occur only for short periods. (Typically between 0.1 and 10 hours per year.)

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EUROPEAN AREA CLASSIFICATION EUROPEAN AREA CLASSIFICATION


European standard EN 50.014 requires that all instrumentation be subdivided into two groups: Group I: To be used in mines; presence of methane and coal dust. Group II: To be used in surface industries; presence of gasses or vapors (Class 1). In Group II, a letter designation is appended indicating the level of ignition energy, A - being the lowest (propane), B - higher (ethylene), and C - the highest (hydrogen, acetylene).

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NORTH AMMERICAN AREA NORTH AMMERICAN AREA CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION


Divisions are generally used in North America Division 1 : Dangers can be present during normal functioning.(>10 Hrs/day)

Division 2 : Dangers can only be present during abnormal functioning.(between 0.1 to 10 Hrs/day)

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NORTH AMMERICAN AREA NORTH AMMERICAN AREA CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION


Further divisions are subdivided into Class 1 : Gases and vapours are grouped by the level of ignition energy D - being the lowest (propane), C - higher (ethylene), and A&B - the highest (hydrogen, acetylene). Class II : Dusts are grouped by the level of ignition energy. G - being the lowest (Grain dust), F - higher (Coal dust), and E - the highest (metal dust). Class III : Fibres are not sub-grouped

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DIFF. BETWEEN NA & ES DIFF. BETWEEN NA & ES


x x

Zone 2 and Division 2 are almost equivalent. While Division 1 includes the corresponding Zones 0 and 1. An instrument designed for Zone 1, however, cannot be directly used in Division 1. In Europe, instruments are certified on the basis of design and construction. In North America, they are classified on the basis of the zone of possible installation.

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AREA CLASSIFICATION AREA CLASSIFICATION

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GAS GROUP CLASSIFICATION GAS GROUP CLASSIFICATION

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GROUP CLASSIFICATION GROUP CLASSIFICATION

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TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION

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TESTING AUTHORITIES TESTING AUTHORITIES

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NON-INCENDIVE AND IS NON-INCENDIVE AND IS


x x

Both are constructed to protect during exposure to hazardous gases. Non-incendive is designed for safe use in areas that may be hazardous under abnormal conditions. (Zone 1 Div 2) Low incidence of the hazard in this zone makes it unlikely that failure will occur while explosive gases are present. Intrinsically safety is required where areas have a hazardous atmosphere intermittently or continuously. (Class 1 div1)

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METHODS OF PROTECTION METHODS OF PROTECTION


x x

Explosion containment (Ex "d") allows the explosion to occur. but confines it in a well-defined place, avoiding propagation to the surrounding atmosphere. Explosion-proof enclosures are part of this method. Segregation attempts to physically separate or isolate electrical parts or hot surfaces from the explosive mixture. Pressurization (Ex "p") and encapsulation (Ex "m") techniques are used in this method. Other related methods worth noting are oil immersion (Ex "o"), powder filling (Ex "q"), and extra heavy-duty design electrical apparatus (Ex "e"). Prevention limits thermic and electric energy to within safe levels. Nonincendive approval (Ex n) assures that under normal operating conditions no explosion will occur. Intrinsic safety approval (Ex ia and ib) assures that no explosion will occur even if faults in the electronic circuitry occur.

x x

x x

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ELECTRONIC IS CIRCUITRY ELECTRONIC IS CIRCUITRY


x

According to CENELEC EN 50.020 no spark or thermal effect, generated during normal functioning and/or

Specific fault condition, is able to ignite a given explosive atmosphere. All parts of a circuit that are able to store energy (inductance and capacitance to operate switches) must release energy that is only lower than the minimum ignition energy of the explosive mixture present in the hazardous location. Mechanalysis India Limited

DIFFERENCE IN ia & ib DIFFERENCE IN ia & ib


x

Under European standards, an instrument of category "ia" should not be able to ignite a dangerous air/gas mixture during normal functioning, in the presence of a single fault, or in the presence of any combination of two faults. An instrument of category ibshould not be able to ignite such a mixture during normal functioning, or in presence of a single fault. Caterory ia guarantees the safety with two faults whereas the category ibguarantees the safety with only one fault.

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THERMOGRAPHY

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Infrared Thermography
x x

Non-contact temperature measurement technique Requires no interruption of production - You dont have to sacrifice productivity to gain productivity Safe monitoring distance Detects potential faults

x x

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Where is thermal imaging used?


x x x x

Electrical inspection Mechanical inspection Refractory/insulation inspection Steam related inspection

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Some typical faults detected


Overheating component provides an early warning of impending component failure Excessive heat loss signifies inadequate thermal insulation

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Electrical Inspection-phase systems

Small change in current flow results in considerable heating difference. Overheating appears as a constant temperature along the length of the conductor

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Electrical Inspection acceptable heating levels


x

Companies specify their own levels Typically three or four levels Most critical requires immediate replacement of a faulty component Least critical requires monitoring and re-inspection at next survey

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Inside Electrical Fuse Box

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Mechanical Inspection
x

Usually involves rotating equipment Excessive heat generated from friction caused by faulty bearings, inadequate lubrication, misalignment, misuse and normal wear

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Mechanical Inspection-Typical components


x x x x x x x x x x

Gears Shafts Couplings V-belts Pulleys Chain Drive Systems Conveyors Air Compressors Vacuum pumps Clutches Mechanalysis India Limited

IR Application - motor and Jaw Coupling

0 Misalignment
105 F

30,000 out Parallel 10,000/inch out angular

62 F 1,000/inch out Angular

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Bearings Before Lubrication

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Bearings After Lubrication

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IR Application Furnace applications

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Refractory/Insulation Inspection
Typical components

x x x x x x x x x

Batch and continuous furnaces Heat treatment furnaces Ovens Dryers Kilns Boilers Ladles Hot storage tanks Insulated pipes Mechanalysis India Limited

Steam Related Inspection Steam line leaks and insulation defects


x

Above the ground steam lines scanned as operator walks underneath Underground inspections more problematic due to the density of the surface material

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Roof Inspection Moisture

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Looking Back

x x

1840: William and John Herschel discovered Infrared spectrum

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Looking Back
1960: 1st real time imager. 10 minutes per scan! 85 pounds Nitrogen-cooled Limited use

x x x x x x

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Looking Back
x x x x

1973: 25 pounds Battery-operated No temperature measurement

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Looking Back

x x x x

1978: Temperature measurement Recording capability 8 more pounds

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Looking Back

x x x

1986: Thermoelectrically-cooled Increased portability

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Looking Back

x x

1990: Self contained unit incorporating recording, temperature calibration, data collection and storage. Even greater portability

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Today
x x x x x

Focal Plane Array Technology Hand-held Higher resolution Light weight Intuitive features

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Third Parties Supply the System Third Parties Supply the System
Emonitor Odyssey imports the bit maps Using Active X the embedded thermographic software is accessed through Emonitor Odyssey From Odyssey a double click on the thermographic image and you are live All windows based systems are suitable

x x x x

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EMONITOR Odyssey - Thermo graphic Data

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Emonitor odyssey information the way you want Emonitor odyssey information the way you want

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ANY QUESTIONS ANY QUESTIONS

THANK YOU

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