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FORM II CHEMISTRY

IGCSE C8

Acids, Bases and Salts


The characteristic properties of acids and bases Types of oxides Preparation of salts Identification of ions and gases

What are acids?


Acids are a group of
chemicals that: Form solutions containing hydrogen ions (H+). Have a pH below 7 and turn universal indicator yellow, orange or red. Turn litmus red. Hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid (vinegar) are examples of acids.

Weak and strong acids


Acids can also arranged into groups according
to the extent they split into ions when put in water.

WEAK ACIDS: Partially dissociate (split up) into ions e.g. ethanoic acid, citric acid, carbonic

STRONG ACIDS: Completely dissociate (split up) into ions e.g. sulphuric acid,

What are bases?


Bases are another group of chemicals, that:
Absorbing hydrogen ions (H+). Have a pH above 7 and turn universal indicator blue or purple. Turn litmus blue. Can neutralize acids. Oxides, hydroxides and carbonates of metals are examples of solubleAmmonia is a base Some bases are bases. bases that doesthese are in water, not contain a metal. (react with acids) called alkalis. All alkalis contain alkalis (soluble hydroxide ions (OH ). bases) The more OH ions in

Weak and strong bases


Bases can also arranged into groups
according to the extent they split into ions when put in water.

WEAK BASES: Partially dissociate (split up) into ions e.g. sodium bicarbonate, soap,

STRONG BASES: Completely dissociate (split up) into ions e.g. sodium

Acids and Bases: True or false?

What are indicators?


Indicators are
chemicals that change colour in the presence of an acid or a base (alkali). There are many different indicators. Lots of them come from plants, like red cabbage. Different indicators turn different colours. Geranium plants grown

Litmus and Universal Indicator


Litmus paper and litmus solution are
examples of indicators. Litmus is used to show if a solution is acid or basic. Litmus does not show if the acid or base is weak or strong. LITMUS LITMUS
IS RED IN ACIDS IS BLUE IN BASES

Universal indicator is a mixturestronger alkali of indicators. stronger acid

It has a range of colours that show how weak or strong the acid or base is.
weak acid neutral weak base strong base

strong acid

What is the pH scale?


The strength of an acid or alkali is measured
by the pH scale. The pH scale runs from 0 to 14: A pH < 7 represent acidic conditions. A pH = 7 represent neutral conditions. A pH > 7 represent basic (alkaline) conditions. stronger alkali stronger acid

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 10 11 12 13 14 weak strong acid weak acid


alkali neutral

strong alkali

What is neutralization?
The chemical reaction between an acid and a
base (an alkali ) is called neutralization.

acid

base (alkali)

a salt

water

The pH value of the reaction mixture during


neutralisation becomes closer to 7.

A bee sting is acidic.

A wasp sting is alkaline.

Why can bicarbonate of soda (pH 9) be used to treat a bee

Why can vinegar (pH 3) be used to treat a wasp sting?

What are Salts?


In chemistry, the word salt describe any
metal compound that can be made from acids. When we replace the hydrogen in an acid by a metal, we get a salt. We can prepare salts by 4 (main) methods:
ACID + METAL HYDROXIDE SALT + WATER ACID + METAL OXIDE SALT + WATER ACID + METAL CARBONATE SALT + CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER ACID + METAL SALT + HYDROGEN

Important Note
METAL HYDROXIDE:

METAL (OH)x
METAL OXIDE:

METAL (O)x
METAL CARBONATE:

METAL (CO3)x

IS THE SALT SOLUBLE OR INSOLUBLE?

INSOLUBLE

MIX SOLUTIONS OF TWO SUITABLE SALTS TO PRECIPITATE THE INSOLUBLE SALT

FILTER OFF THE SALT

SOLUBLE
ADD EXCESS METAL TO THE ACID THEN FILTER OFF THE EXCESS METAL

DOES THE METAL REACT WITH DILUTE ACIDS?

YES

IS IT SAFE?

YES

NO

NO NO
YES

IS THE METAL OXIDE OR CARBONATE SOLUBLE IN WATER?

ADD EXCESS METAL OXIDE OR METAL CARBONATE TO ACID THEN FILTER OFF THE EXCESS SOLID

CRYSTALLISE THE SALT FROM THE FILTRATE

TITRATE THE METAL HYDROXIDE WITH ACID

Video iron element

Keywords
1. Metal. 2. Non-metal. 3. Reduction. 4. Alloy. 5. Reactivity. 6. Malleable. 7. Ductile. 8. Flame. 9. Brass. 10.Bronze.

11. Steel. 12. Ores. 13. Native. 14. Furnace. 15. Corrosion.

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