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Heart rate increase from 65 to 85 beats per minute


Feel nervous and has high anxiety to win the race.

What is responsible for raising Jimmy's heart and respiratory rate and stimulating sweating just before the race.
Emotion is responsible for raising Jimmys heart and respiratory rate and stimulating sweating just before the race. The race is getting ready to start. Heart rate is increase because his emotion is not in stable condition in which he might feels very stress at that moment. Jimmy is at the start line his nervous system starts to send signals from the brain causing his heart and respiratory rate to increase.




Breathe is increase from 12 to 18 breaths per minute

Why is the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system active just before the race?

SOLUTION Sympathetic division of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) functions in stressful condition and is largely responsible for the fight-or-flight response. These responses occur when Jimmy is going to start the race.

As the race is sooner to start, the nervous system work more intensively.

FACT Well hydrated

IDEA Urinary and digestive system work normally

LEARNING ISSUE What changes do you think are occurring in the digestive and urinary systems at this time?
SOLUTION Increase breathing rate result in a decrease in blood flow to the intestines, diverting blood from digestion, and increase in blood flow to the muscle. Changes occurring within the urinary system as Jimmy sweats. This has caused his kidneys to work over time. The kidneys play a major role in the urinary system at this time because they maintain the electrolytes, water, and acid base balances in the body since he is well hydrated.

LEARNING ISSUE IDEA Blood glucose is in normal level.

Weight is 80 kg

What is happening to Jimmy's blood glucose levels just before the race?

SOLUTION Blood glucose concentration must be maintained at fairly constant level. Since he does not start the race yet, so glucose level in his body in normal level.

SOLUTION Jimmys mouth dry due to the lack of saliva to keep the mouth wet. There is decreased secretion from salivary glands, which results in this condition.

FACT His mouth dry and he took one last sip of water IDEA Less saliva is secreted.

LEARNING ISSUE Why is Jimmy's mouth dry?


FACT Heart rate increases to 201 beats per minute.

IDEA Glucose is metabolise and produces heat as by product.

LEARNING ISSUE Rowing full speed is putting new demands on Jimmy's body. What are these new demands and how does the body respond to them?
SOLUTION As exercises intensity increase the demand on energy and oxygen increase as well. Energy or ATP production involves the liberation of energy through the breakdown of glucose. This process breakdown the glucose through a pathway that involves a sequence of glycolytic enzyme. Blood glucose comes from the digestion of carbohydrate and the breakdown of liver glycogen. Metabolism increases its intensity which in result to the increasing of oxygen uptake from its resting value within 1 to 2 minutes. In the effort to meet the muscles need for oxygen, the rate and depth of respiration increases which will improve the gas exchange in lungs. As a result heart will beat faster and more forcefully to pump more oxygenated blood to muscles. Arterioles dilate to facilitate delivery of blood to muscle capillaries.

FACT 2 breathes per stroke and 34 strokes per minute.

IDEA Muscle contract use oxygen for aerobic respiration.

What changes in Jimmy's muscles promote unloading of O2 from haemoglobin for use by the muscle cells?

During the intense exercise, the contraction of muscle increase the oxygen contain in blood to 17 until 18 ml per 100 ml of blood. During the activity more oxygen is unloaded to active muscles because the partial pressure of oxygen in muscle is lower then in arteriole blood.


Body temperatur e increases to 37.5C and feel burning on muscles.



The muscle cells are lack of oxygen supply and accumulatio n of lactic acid in the muscles occurs.

Why do Jimmy's muscles feel like they are burning?


Jimmys muscles feel like they are burning because of the accumulation of lactic acid during intense exercise. This might be cause by tissue edema such result from the shifting of fluid from blood plasma into tissue. In the other hand, the feeling of burning muscle is occur due to the anaerobic respiration conducted by the cells give rise to lactic acid and a chemical that actually helps in burning the muscles.


Sweating more

IDEA The conflict is whether blood vessel needs to become large to transport more blood under skin and produce sweat or the blood is filtered by kidney.

LEARNING ISSUE What conflict is produced between Jimmy's need to keep his body cool and his need to remove nitrogenous wastes from his blood? What did he do before the race to help alleviate this conflict?

SOLUTION The conflict is between the blood vessel and kidney. In the blood vessel, in other to keep his body cool, blood vessels become larger and closed to the skin. Heat is readily removed from blood to skin as sweat. While, in kidney, water is filtered to make urine in order to removed nitrogenous waste. Water also reduced heat in order to make body cool. To alleviate this conflict before the race, he must drink plenty of water so that have sufficient water for metabolic process.


FACT Heart rate decreases 180 beats per minute. Since the end of the first minute, Jimmy has decreased the demands his muscles are making. How has he done this? And why has he done this?

SOLUTION By the end of the first minute, Jimmy had decreased the demands his muscles were making as this can be explained by the fact that the "fight and flight" message from the brain had slowed down with less production of adrenaline. Hence less energy demands from the muscle.

Parasympathetic division of ANS take place.

FACT Body temperature is 38C and respiratory rate down slightly

IDEA Energy or ATP is still in use. Synthesis of ATP occurs and heat is release as by product.


What are the changes in his conditions as a result?

SOLUTION The changes in his condition include his heart rate decreasing from 201 to 180 beats per minute. His respiratory rate has also decreased slightly. Mentally, Jim changed his thoughts and attempted to shut out pain and any distraction that may have existed. Nervous system changes would include "fight and flight" response which is usually activated in a stressful situation. In the respiratory and cardiovascular system with the physical strain that he is enduring, his heart and lungs have to work over harder. His brain sends signals to the lungs to bread faster and deeper and the heart to beat faster. Increase amounts of blood get pumped to the muscles, carrying oxygen and removing carbon dioxide. All bodily systems work together to withstand the demand of Jim pushing his body to the very limits of its capabilities. Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback to restore Jim's body back to its normal state.


Heart rate increase from 180 to 208 beats per minute and breathe- 80 breathes per minute.

Heart tries to pump oxygenated blood to the muscle cell. Breathing rates is high so that the diffusion of oxygen to the blood capillary in the lung is more rapidly.

Jimmy has stopped rowing and his muscles are now at rest. Why are his heart and breathing rates still so high

His body was returning to normal at the finish line. His muscles relaxed, but his breathing was still high due to the fact that this is the recovery period for the body system. The amount of oxygen "owed" to the body in order to recover is called the oxygen debt. In order to pay back the oxygen debt, jimmy must increase his inspiration and respiration rate to enable more oxygen to get to his lungs. His heartbeat also must be increased to ensure that oxygen from his lungs quickly moves into the blood capillaries.


LEARNING ISSUE Why is he sweating more now than during the race?

SOLUTION Jim is sweating more now at the finish line as a result of accumulated body heat, which is lost to the surrounding through sweat. This is needed to cool his body thus returning it back to its normal state.

Sweats more

IDEA Homeostasis occurs to obtain normal body temperature.




Felt lightheaded

Accumulation of lactic acid in muscle tissues during anaerobic respiration will cause muscle fatigue and lower the pH of muscle cells

What changes have occurred to his blood chemistry since the start of the race? Think about glucose levels, pH, lactate levels, and temperature?


The work of the muscles causes an increase in blood flow to the muscles. As a result of increase in activity in the muscles, there is a reduction in the amount of blood glucose as it is converted to energy. Carbon dioxide level in the blood will increase as it is produced with the use of glucose.The oxygen level will increase as more is needed for energy. The creatinine level will be elevated in the blood as it is an end product of protein metabolism.The pH of the blood will drop to acidic from the slightly alkaline nature of blood due to the formation of carbonic acid from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. There is also an increase in body heat with the use energy.The lactic acid level of the blood will also increase as it is an end product of glucose and glycogen metabolism.


Heart rate and respiratory back to normal

SOLUTION The changes that have occurred in the last ten minutes that allowed Jim's heart and respiratory rates to come down are caused by the positive feedback loop. This loop causes everything to return to "normal" causing his heart and respiratory rates to return to normal.


Muscles and heart in relax condition. Blood flow as normal.

LEARNING ISSUE What changes have occurred in the last 10 minutes to allow Jimmy's heart and respiratory rates to come down?

FACT Weight 76kg.

IDEA Muscle and fat are burning during exercise that cause Jimmy lost his weight.

LEARNING ISSUE Why is Jimmy four pounds lighter than at the start of the race?

SOLUTION During prolonged activity, carbohydrate reserve becomes depleted, and muscle must rely more heavily on the oxidation of fat for energy production. When carbohydrate reserves are low such low of plasma glucose and low muscle glycogen, the endocrine system can accelerate the oxidation of fat called as lipolysis, thus ensuring that muscles energy needs can be meet. From this process, we know that, the losing Jimmys weight is due to the losing fat in his body besides the losing of water, nutrient and glucose.


Body temperature 37.5C Endocrine system will inhibit the secretion of water from body. What effect has this water loss had on his endocrine system?




Exercise and body water loss stimulate the Endocrine system which is posterior pituitary gland to release ADH. This hormone stimulates water reabsorption from the kidneys, which further promotes fluid retention in the body. Thus, the body attempts to compensate for loss of minerals and water during periods of heat stress and heavy sweating by reducing their loss in urine.

LEARNING ISSUE FACT Why did Jimmy only take sips of water after the race? What could happen if he drank as much as he wanted to?

Take small amount of water


IDEA Jimmy take water because his body is dehydrated due to lost a lot of water during exercise.

Since Jim was dehydrated after the race, that is he had a loss of fluid and electrolytes, for Jim to drink only water (hydrolysis) and not restore the electrolytes into his cells, his muscles would have contracted and given him muscle cramping. The small sips also allowed his body to adjust to his state of dehydration.



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