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Material Selection & Design for Corrosion Control

Design-Limiting Material Properties

General: Cost Density Mechanical Elastic Moduli Strength Toughness Fracture Toughness Damping Capacity Fatigue Endurance Limit Wear Archard Wear Constant

Thermal

Thermal Conductivity Thermal Diffusivity Specific Heat Melting Point Glass Temperature Thermal Expansion Coefficient Thermal Shock Resistance Creep Resistance Corrosion Rate Pitting Resistant High Temperature Oxidation

Corrosion/Oxidation

Material Comparison Tensile Strength

Design for Corrosion

Common Corrosion Threats in Oil & Gas Industry

Design for Corrosion: Corrosion Potential

Avoid obvious design weakness as follows Use more reliable materials, if this entails greater cost. Introduce additional precautions (inhibitors, CP, coating) Establish maintenance/repair teams having detailed procedures and including qualified surveyors, inspectors and supervisors. Ensure that standby products are available, fully labeled and properly stored (using dessicants and noncorrosive packaging)

Design for Corrosion


Shape.
Geometrical form is basic to design.The objective is to minimize or avoid situations that worsen corrosion. These situations can range from stagnation (e.g., retained fluids and/or solids; contaminated water used for hydrotesting) to sustained fluid flow (e.g., erosion/cavitation in components moving in or contacted by fluids, as well as splashing or droplet impingement).

Design for Corrosion


Structural members should be designed to avoid retention of liquids; L-shaped sections should be used with open side down, and exposed seams should be avoided

Storage containers or vessels should allow complete drainage; otherwise, corrosive species can concentrate in vessel bottom, and debris may accumulate if the vessel is open to the atmosphere.

Incorrect trimming or poor design of seals and gaskets can create crevice sites

Drain valves should be designed with sloping bottoms to avoid pitting of the base of the valve

Non-horizontal tubing can leave pools of liquid at shutdown.

Examples of poor assembly that can lead to premature corrosion problems

Design for Corrosion


Movement.
Fluid movement need not be excessive to damage a material. Much depends on the nature of the fluid and the hardness of the material. A geometric shape may create a sustained delivery of fluid or may locally disturb a laminar stream and lead to turbulence. Replaceable baffle plates or deflectors are beneficial where circumstance permit their use; they eliminate the problem of impingement damage to the structurally significant component

Design for Corrosion

Effect of design features on flow

Design for Corrosion


Compatibility.
In plant environments, it is often necessary to use different materials in close proximity. Sometimes, components that were designed in isolation can end up in direct contact in the plant. In such instances, the ideals of a total design concept become especially apparent, but usually in hindsight. Direct contact of dissimilar metals introduces the possibility of galvanic corrosion, and small anodic (corroding) areas should be avoided wherever this contact is apparent.

Design for Corrosion

Design details that can affect galvanic corrosion

Design for Corrosion


Insulation
Insulation represents another area for potential corrosion attack, although most problems arise because of poor installation. Insulation types and properties vary considerably, and expert advice from suppliers is recommended. The most common corrosion problems include crevice corrosion (where insulation and/or adhesives are tightly held against a metal surface, for example when straps or ties are too tight) and pitting corrosion (where moisture condenses on the metal, usually because the insulation barrier was too thin or was improperly installed). Moisture-absorbing tendencies vary from one insulation to another

Design for Corrosion

Corrosion problems associated with improper use of insulation and lagging

Design for Corrosion


Stress.
From a general design philosophy, environments that promote metal dissolution can be considered more damaging if stresses are also involved. In such circumstances, materials can fail catastrophically and unexpectedly. Safety and health may also be significantly affected.

Design for Corrosion

Design details that can minimize local stress concentrations

Design for Corrosion


Surfaces.

Corrosion is a surface phenomenon, and the effects of poorly prepared surfaces, rough textures, and complex shapes and profiles can be expected to be deleterious

Design for Corrosion


Effects of design on effectiveness of cleaning or painting. (a) Poor access in some structures makes surface preparation and painting difficult; access to the types of areas shown should be maintained at a minimum of 45 mm (1 in.), or one-third of the height of the structure. (b) (b) Sharp corners and profiles should be avoided if the structure is to be painted or coated.

Material Selection Guidance


NACE SP0106 - Control of Internal Corrosion in Steel Pipelines and Piping Systems NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156 Metals for Sulfide Stress Cracking and Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance in Sour Oilfield Environment NORSOK M-001 Design Principle Material Selection

Material Selection Guidance


If liquid water is not present in a steel pipeline, corrosion does not occur. The presence of oxygen, CO2 or H2S in a steel in the absence of liquid water does not cause corrosion at temperature below 200 deg C (390 deg F).

Material Selection Guidance


NACE SP0106 - Control of Internal Corrosion in Steel Pipelines and Piping Systems
If no liquid water is present, carbon dioxide (CO2) tend to be non-corrosive. In the presence of liquid water, the partial pressure of CO2 (mole percent of CO2 system pressure in kPa [psi]) is used as a guideline to determine the corrosiveness of CO2.
A partial pressure of CO2 above 207 kPa (30 psi) is usually corrosive in the presence of water. A partial pressure of CO2 between 21 kPa (3 psi) and 207 kPa (30 psi) may be corrosive in the presence of water. A partial pressure of CO2 below 21 kPa (3 psi) is generally considered non-corrosive.

Material Selection Guidance


NACE SP0106 - Control of Internal Corrosion in Steel Pipelines and Piping Systems

Sulfide stress cracking occurs in high strength steels, exposed to moist H2S conditions. Four conditions required for SSC to occur

Presence of H2S Presence of water High strength materials Under tensile or loading stress (residual or applied)

Material Selection Guidance


NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156 Metals for Sulfide Stress Cracking and Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance in Sour Oilfield Environment

Material Selection Guidance


NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156 Metals for Sulfide Stress Cracking and Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance in Sour Oilfield Environment

Conditions for SSC - Minimum H2S Partial Pressure 0.05 psia - Minimum Total Pressure 65 psia - Free Water Exist - Additional condition : Cl- content - accelerator

Material Selection Guidance


The Basics of Sulfide Stress Cracking

CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Komposisi dan Nama Pasar


304/304L

316/316L

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Komposisi Paduan

Nama Pasar

(a) Duplex 22Cr

(b) 28Cr

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR-0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


Carbon Steel Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


Carbon Steel Evaluation for SSC based on NACE MR0175/ISO 15156

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NORSOK M-001

Material Selection Guidance


CRA Evaluation for SSC based on NORSOK M-001

Komparasi Cost Index Unsur Paduan

Plain End Products No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jenis Bahan Baja Karbon L80 Baja Tahan Karat Martensitik Varian 13Cr Baja Tahan Karat Duplex 22Cr Baja Tahan Karat Superduplex 25Cr Paduan Nikel 28Cr Paduan Nikel 825 Rentang Perbandingan Harga 1 (Basis Perbandingan) 3-5 7,5 - 9 9 - 12 13 - 14 17 - 18