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Case Study

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La Rance Tidal Power Plant

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La Rance (240 MW) has been successful as the first full scale tidal power plant (1967) , located in northern France on the La Rance River. The dam itself is 2460 feet (750 meters) long, and 43 feet (13 meters) high. The turbines used in La Rance are Bulb Turbines (24*10 MW), weigh 470tons, Diameter 17 feet. The plant is also equipped with pumps that www.themegallery.comto be allow water 55

Barrage was large enough to create a road with two double lanes, saving local citizens an eighteen mile drive. The unique nature of the power station has also increased tourism in the area. La Rance attracts over 300,000 visitors every year. Despite the high initial cost, the power station has been working for over thirty years, generating enough electricity for around 300,000 homes.
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Severn Barrage

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The Severn Barrage is a proposed tidal power station to be built across the Bristol Channel (Severn Estuary). The River Severn has a tidal range of 14 metres - the second highest in the world - making it perfect for tidal power generation. 20 billion pound ($US30bn) Severn Barrage would involve the construction of a 10 mile long barrage (dam) between Lavernock Point south of Cardiff, Wales, and Brean Downwww.themegallery.com England. in Somerset, 1010

The 216 tubular turbines would be located in the central portion of the barrage, and each would drive a 40 megawatt generator, resulting in an estimated 17TWh each year (Tidal Files). The proposed scheme has a lifetime of at least 120 years (Taylor, 2002). Ship locks were also included in the scheme because the Severn has many important ports that would be located in the tidal basin if the barrage was built. www.themegallery.com 1111

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Introduction

The tide induces periodical currents which are particularly strong in some seas, in particular along the English Channel. The kinetic energy of the currents can be harnessed by submarine tidal turbines. The physical phenomena involved must be investigated before designing the suitable equipment. www.themegallery.com 1313 The actual resource on a given site

The tidal stream resource

As a first approach, the power of the water stream through a tidal turbine rotor follows a cubic law similar to the power law of a wind turbine: W = . r. U3 - W: power (W.m-2) - r: water density = 1024 kg.m-3 - U: water velocity (m.s-1) This equation shows that tidal stream energy is attractive where the tide creates strong currents. The suitable www.themegallery.com 1414 zones are found where the coast

Map of the tidal currents in the English Channel. Maximum velocity during a mean spring tide

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Race have strongest current about at the moment of the high and the low tide, with velocities exceeding 3 to 4 m.s-1 on large areas.

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The mean spring tide has a coefficient of 95, while the mean neap tide coefficient is 45.
120 110

Tidal amplitude (coefficient)

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361

Day of the year

17Variation of the www.themegallery.com the year 2001 at tide coefficient during Brest

25 20 Power (kW/m) 15 10 5 0 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Hours relative to local high tide time


Ouessant spring tide Ouessant neap tide

Power inflow variation during a mean spring tide and a mean neap tide

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Power (kW/m)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000

Cumulative time per year (hours)

Cumulative distribution of the power inflow on a site with a maximum velocity of 3 m.s-1 during mean spring tide

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25000 Theoretical energy resource (kWh/year/m) 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0 5 10 15 20 Nominal power input rating (kW/m)

Relationship between the power input rating and the annual theoretical energy resource

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4000

Number of hours per year

Hours at full load Equivalent hours of production

3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2 4 6

10

12

Nominal input power (kW/m)


Relationship between the nominal power rating and the hours of production per year

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The Marenergie tidal turbine

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Designing parameter of tidal turbine

The turbine must work in a submarine environment where maintenance is very difficult, so the machinery must be made as simple as possible All marine operations for installation and maintenance must take into account the strong currents prevailing in the areas of interest A compromise must be found www.themegallery.com 2323

Solution of design of turbine

The rotor is maintained fixed in the space and the water flows alternatively in both directions during flood and ebb flows. The number of moving parts exposed to the sea water is kept to a minimum. The blades are fixed and welded onto the hub. The only moving part in sea water requiring some attention is the seal of the www.themegallery.com 2424 rotor shaft on the nacelle front face.

choices

The rotor turns in both directions following the current direction The blades are symmetrical: Both ends are alternatively leading and trailing edges.

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The peripheral velocity is kept at a relatively low level (7m.s-1 ) in order to avoid cavitation phenomena on the blades. The optimum velocity decreases when the number of blades is increased, and a correct velocity is obtained with 6 blades. The preliminary studies indicate the benefit of a circular belt at the rotor periphery. This enhances the blade efficiency and eliminates most of the potential vibrations. It should also limit the emission of low frequency noise at the blade tips. The outside diameter of a 200 kW rotor is typically 10 meters for a nominal current velocity of 3 m.s-1. The actual design of the base depends on the soil nature. The rotor may be surrounded by a duct2626 if required. www.themegallery.com Several turbines can be arranged in arrays

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the power is cancelled for a rotation speed called free wheeling speed, slightly higher than the optimum speed.
450 400 350
1.5 m/s 2 m/s 2.5 m/s 3 m/s 3.5 m/s ELECTRICAL OUTPUT

Power (kW)

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0

Rotor rotation speed (rpm)

10

15

20

Typical characteristics of a Marenergie tidal turbine www.themegallery.com 2828

Typical characteristics of a Marenergie tidal turbine

It is not advisable to use the maximum hydraulic power of the turbine when the current is particularly strong. The electrical generator is designed with a nominal power of 200 kW. When the current is sufficient, the power output is kept at this level. The rotor is then stabilized at a rotation speed corresponding to the equivalent hydraulic power. Figure www.themegallery.com 10 shows that this operation2929 mode is

Wave current interaction

The water is put into movement not only by the tidal streams, but also by the wave action. The combination of both movements is a complex problem. In particular, it is known that a current flowing against the swell increases the wave height while the waves are attenuated when both phenomena are in the same www.themegallery.com 3030 direction.

The distance between two successive crests is the wave length L which can be calculated by the following implicit relation: gT 2 d
L= 2 tanh(2 L )

where g is the acceleration of gravity (9.81 m.s-2) and d is the water depth in the absence of waves. The amplitude of the wave movement decreases with the depth z below )the surface. The horizontal 2 (d z Cosh ( ) velocity Vx induced Lby the wave action is given by H Vx = sin( 2 (t / T x / L)) the formula: Cosh ( 2d ) T
L

Vx is 0 zero7 = V (d / z)1/ In the absence of wave, the current velocity on the seabed and highest at the surface. The www.themegallery.com 3131 velocity profile is generally approached by the

Influence of the swell (H= 2m - T = 9s) on the velocity profiles Water depth = 30m
Depth below normal surface (m)
5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 0 1 2 3 4 5

Crest passage Trough passage

Water velocity (m/s)

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Behavior of the tidal turbine: Current = 3 m.s-1 - Swell: H= 2m T= 9s


250.0 200.0 150.0 100.0 50.0 0.0 0 5 10 15 20
Output (kW) Rotor velocity (rotations per minute x10)

Time (s)

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Typical power output of a single turbine with waves aligned with the current
250

Electrical output (kW)

200 150 100 50 0 0

H=0 H = 2m H = 4m H = 6m H = 8m

-T -T -T -T

= 9s = 10s = 12s = 13s

Tidal current velocity (m/s)

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Average output of an array of turbines ideally spaced along the wave length
250

Electrical output (kW)

200 150 100 50 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

H=0 H = 2m H = 4m H = 6m H = 8m

- T = 9s - T = 10s - T = 12s - T = 13s

Tidal current velocity (m/s)

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Conclusions

Tidal streams offer an abundant energy resource along the English Channel. Tidal turbines can be optimized according to the local conditions prevailing on the different sites. The Marenergie tidal turbine is designed as simple as possible. Variable speed generators are required, similar to the types used in www.themegallery.com 3636 modern wind turbines.

Advantage Disadvantage It is very cheap It changes the to maintain coastline completely and There is no the estuaries are waste or flooded so any pollution mud flats or Very reliable habitats that We can predict birds or animals when tides will live on are be in or out destroyed The barrage can Initial building help to reduce cost is very the damagewww.themegallery.com of 3737 expensive

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