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WIND ENERGY

Aniruddha Chowkidar

Case Study
Based on web research, comment on the shape of wind energy projects in India and study specific locations state wise. Is there a scope of inter-state investments and power being wheeled to a different location? If so, what are the risks?

Reference Scenario: Most Conservative of all and is based on 2009 World energy outlook. Moderate Scenario: It takes into account all the measures to support renewable energy either enacted or in the planning stages around the world. Advanced Scenario: It examines the extent to which the industry could grow in the best case wind energy vision.

Reference Scenario
IEA( International Energy Agency) Scenario The power market to shrink to about 600 MW per year by 2030 Total Installed capacity merely 24GW by 2020 and 30.5 GW by 2030 Which would produce close to 60TWh year by 2020 and 75TWh year by 2030.

Moderate Scenario
GWEC( Global Wind Energy Council) gave the GWEO( Global wind energy Outlook) scenario By the end of 2015 between 24.7 GW to 29 GW will be installed. Which will give 46 GW by 2020 and 108 GW by 2030. Under this scenario $900 billion will be invested in Wind Energy Employment will also increase to 28,000 to over 84,000 by 2020 and 1,13,000 by 2030

Advance Scenario
GWEO advance Scenario will reach new heights depending on the adequate regulatory support and political will. By 2020 India will have 65GW on wind power. Employing 1,70,000 people saving 173 million tons of CO2 emission. WISE( World Institute of Sustainable energy) says deploying new generation wind turbines could yield potential onshore wind energy capacity

Scope of Wind Energy

Wind Power Resource


Centre of Wind Power Energy Technology(C-WET) Has a benchmarked criterion for establishing Wind farms in India, areas with average wind density of 200 Watts/m2 at 50 m above ground level (MAGL). Potential Sites with mean wind power density ranging from 200 W/m2 to 500 W/m2. Most of the site fall with an average of 200 250 W/m2. Estimated wind power installable potential as 49, 130 MW

State wise Installed Capacity

Interstate Investments and Wheeling of Power

National Policy And Regulatory Act


Electricity Act 2003
The Act provides for policy formulation by the Government of India and mandates the State Electricity regulatory Commissions (SERCs) to take steps to promote renewable and non conventional sources of energy within their jurisdiction. Under Section 61(h), promotion of cogeneration and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy has been made the explicit responsibility of SERCs, which are bound by law to take these considerations into account while drafting their terms and conditions for tariff regulations.

As mandated under section 86 1(e) of the Electricity Act (2003), 22 SERCs have fixed quotas (in terms of % of electricity being handled by the power utility) to procure power from renewable energy sources. The mandate, which is called a Renewable Purchase Specification. The state regulators determine the tariff for all RE projects in the states and ensure connectivity to the grid through extension of power evacuation from the RE project sites, which are generally at remote locations and away from major load centre's.

Key Policies and Related Regulations


I. National Electricity policy (2005) II. National Tariff policy (2006) III. Rural Electrification policy (2006)

National Electricity Policy,2005


Clause 5.12 of the NEP stipulates several conditions to promote and harness renewable energy sources. Efforts need to be made to reduce the capital cost of projects. Adequate promotional measures would also have to be taken for development of technologies and a sustained growth of these sources. SERCs should provide suitable measures for connectivity with grid and sale of electricity to any person Tariffs have to be determined by the SERCs at the earliest. SERCs may promote arrangements between the co-generator and the concerned distribution licensee for purchase of surplus power from such plant

National Tariff Policy,2006


National Tariff policy (2006) framed under the Section 3 of the EA 2003: Elaborates the role of regulatory commissions Mechanism for promoting use of renewable energy Time for implementation Fix a minimum percentage for purchase of energy from such sources taking into account of its impact on retail tariffs. Such procurement by Distribution licensees for future requirements shall be done, as far as possible, through competitive bidding process under Section 63 of the Act

Rural Electrification Policy, 2006


The policy under its Section 3 (3.3) for the first time provided policy framework for decentralized distributed generation of electricity based on either conventional or non-conventional resources or methods of generation. Thereby providing the relevant regulatory direction for off-grid/ stand-alone small-scale wind farms. The central government shall also formulate a national policy, in consultation with the state governments and the state commissions, for rural electrification and for bulk purchase of power and management of local distribution in rural areas through panchayat institutions, users associations, co-operative societies, non-governmental organizations or franchisees.

Wheeling Of Power
Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) has proposed that wind power should be freely tradable across the country. Renewable Energy Certificate which allows the certificate holder to sell the power to the required states, individuals or other trading companies. A national registry under National Load Despatch Centre where the producer could register, which would monitor the supply of power to various states. This system would encourage competition and create market for power across the State.

Problems
Wind Farms are located in rural areas. Weak transmission and distribution network, its difficult to transmit wind power to load despatch centres. Increased ownership separation between grid operators and power generators the need for defining the technical requirements governing the relationship between them becomes essential. Forecasting and Scheduling of wind power. With accurate prediction of wind power generation, grid operators can plan effectively for the available power.

Smart Grid
Smart Grid, which in simple terms means intelligent power generation, transmission, distribution and management, as well as increasingly sophisticated levels of load management. The grid must be designed to be able to manage power flows from variable and geographically distributed generators to dispersed load centres. particularly in the case of RE sources (such as hydro, solar and wind) the generating resource could be distant from the load centre and power has to be transmitted across a national grid to dispersed load centres.

Thank You