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PATROLLING FUNDAMENTALS

CS1101
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DEFINITION OF A PATROL

A patrol is a detachment of ground, sea or air forces sent out for the purpose of gathering information or carrying out a destructive, harassing, mopping-up or security mission
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THE PURPOSE OF PATROLLING


Gain current information about enemy/terrain Destroy enemy installations Capture enemy personnel Perform security missions Prevent the enemy from gaining information
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TYPES OF PATROLS
CLASSIFIED INTO TWO GROUPS

MISSION MEANS OF MOVEMENT


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PATROL TYPES
Reconnaissance Gather information about enemy, terrain, and/or resources Relies on stealth rather than combat strength Fight only when necessary to accomplish mission/defend themselves
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RECONNAISSANCE PATROLS

Route Obtain info on a specified route and associated terrain Area Obtain info on enemy, terrain, and/or resources in a given area (e.g., a village)
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RECONNAISSANCE PATROLS
Zone - Info concerning all routes, obstacles (to include chemical/ radiological contamination), terrain, and enemy forces within a zone defined by boundaries

PATROL TYPES
Combat Fighting patrol; may engage enemy Contact Establishes and maintains contact with friendly or enemy force Ambush Surprise attack from a concealed position
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COMBAT PATROLS CONT.


Raid Executes a limited objective, surprise attack on an enemy force or installation and then conducts a planned withdrawal Security - Prevents infiltration and or surprise attacks
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PATROL CLASSIFIED BY MEANS OF MOVEMENT


Foot Most common; limited range Motorized Greater range; limited by terrain Waterborne Used as entry for patrol Helicopterborne Where terrain or situation precludes use of vehicles
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PATROL ORGANIZATION
Organization of a patrol is a two-step process. General organization- entire patrol Task organization- patrol units The major subdivisions of patrols are called elements
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GENERAL ORGANIZATION
Typical patrol elements: Headquarters Support element Security element Assault element
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TASK ORGANIZATION
Patrols are further subdivided into teams Each team performs essential, designated tasks Patrol members must know how to perform tasks assigned to all members
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INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Assistant Patrol Leader - Assists the PL; takes charge in absence of PL Radio Operator Maintains communication; reports incoming transmissions to PL Navigator Maintains direction of movement in accordance w/ patrol route
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INDIVIDUAL TASKS
Pace Man Assists PL in determining distance patrol has traveled
Flanks Helps prevent a surprise attack to the patrols flanks

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GATHERING INFORMATION
A commander often acts on information furnished by scouts and patrols.
While scouting or patrolling, information may be gathered through direct enemy observation or through the interpretation of signs and tracks.
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DIRECT OBSERVATION
Most common method: Listening Posts and/or Observation Posts (LP/OPs) Typically used in a defensive position Can also be observed by any member of a patrol All members must report their sightings
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SIGNS AND TRACKS


Footprints and bivouac site can indicate number of enemy troops Condition of bivouac site indicates morale, discipline and the type of withdrawal Vehicle tracks indicate enemy equipment Wheels vs. tracks

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METHODS OF REPORTING INFORMATION


Distinguish between facts and opinions Answer: Who? What? Where? When?
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VERBAL MESSAGES
Radio is fastest for verbal reporting Messenger used when radio is unavailable Always repeat message out loud Report information obtained along route If captured, do not reveal information in the message
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WRITTEN MESSAGES
Preferred to verbal messages Should be brief, accurate, and clear Should include overlay/sketch of situation observed or interpreted May be posted as a formal report

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PYROTECHNICS
Flares, colored smoke, and grenades may be used for reporting information Meaning of signal must be established in advance of operation Example: Green star cluster = enemy approach
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SALUTE REPORT
Size/strength Activity/Actions Location/direction Unit identification Time and date Equipment/weapons
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SALUTE REPORT
Information about observer must include: Location at time of observation Intention of originator and/or observer Remain in position? Continue with mission?

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SAMPLE SALUTE REPORT

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SAMPLE SALUTE REPORT


S-Four enemy fighters A-Vehicle-mounted patrol L-GC 783209 moving east U-Local Taliban militia T-Observed 20020106 at 1545 E-Traditional clothing, AK-47s, red Toyota truck
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10 MINUTE BREAK

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CONTROL MEASURES
Used as a means of controlling the movement of a patrol and aid the patrol leader in keeping a patrol organized

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CHECKPOINTS
Predetermined point used to control movement Means of control between the parent unit and the patrol Higher can follow progress of patrol without transmitting coordinates
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RALLY POINTS
Easily identifiable point on the ground where units can reassemble. It should: Provide cover and concealment Be defensible for a short time Be easily recognized and known to all patrol members
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INITIAL RALLY POINTS


Within friendly lines where patrol can rally if it becomes separated before departing friendly area May be the assembly area Location must be coordinated with forward unit commander
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EN ROUTE RALLY POINTS


Between the initial rally point and objective rally point (ORP) Between ORP and re-entry rally point Determined as patrol passes through a suitable area

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OBJECTIVE RALLY POINT


Where patrol makes final preparations before approaching the objective and reassembles after completing mission Must be suitable to perform activities accomplished prior to actions on objective
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INDIVIDUAL ACTIONS AT CONTROL MEASURES


Checkpoints Actions will vary depending on how unit uses CPs Patrol may pass CP and radio information to higher unit Patrol may halt at CP to change directions, study the map, etc.
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INDIVIDUAL ACTIONS AT CONTROL MEASURES CONT.


Rally Point Actions Planned actions must provide for:
Continuation of patrol, if possible Recognition signals for assembly Min. members and max. waiting time Instructions for members who are alone
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INDIVIDUAL ACTIONS AT CONTROL MEASURES CONT.


Initial and En Route Rally Points As personnel return to RP, senior Marine will take charge and follow instructions as outlined during patrol order

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WARNING ORDER
Issued as soon as practical Contains sufficient information to assist patrol members in preparation Posted in unit area Everyone is responsible for reading it Uses modified 5-paragraph order
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WARNING ORDER CONT.


Situation: Enemy and friendly situation Mission: Exactly as the PL received it Everyone must remember and understand the patrols mission
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WARNING ORDER CONT.


General instructions General and special organization Uniform and equip common to all Weapons, ammo, and equipment Chain of command Time schedule for patrols guidance
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WARNING ORDER CONT.


Specific instructions To subordinate leaders: Information about drawing gear Personnel to accompany PL on reconnaissance (if necessary) Guidance on special preparation
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WARNING ORDER CONT.


Specific instructions To special purpose teams or key individuals Address reqs of designated
personnel/teams

Remind individuals/team leaders to check the equipment


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PATROL ORDER
Follows a warning order Detailed description of how patrol will accomplish mission All patrol members should be present Usually given over a terrain model Begins with an orientation
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SITUATION
Contains information on overall status of friendly and enemy forces Enemy SALUTE, DRAW-DG Friendly Higher, adjacent, and supporting units missions Attachments and Detachments
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MISSION
Clear and concise statement of what patrol is to accomplish Expresses unit's primary task and purpose (5 Ws) PL should also specify whether mission or time has priority
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EXECUTION
Commander's Intent End state Concept of Operations Conduct of patrol Tasks Missions of subordinate units Coordinating Instructions Tasks common to all.
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ADMIN & LOGISTICS


Info for subordinate units to coordinate tasks Beans Bullets Batteries Band-Aids Bad Guys
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COMMAND & SIGNAL


Information relating to command and communications (control) functions: Radio frequencies and brevity codes Challenge and password Succession of command PL and APL locations during patrol
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INSPECTIONS
Initial: Completeness and correctness of uniform and equipment Rehearsals are conducted as realistically as possible w/all required gear and equipment
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REHEARSALS
Familiarizes members with actions to take during patrol Conducted in similar conditions All actions should be rehearsed Most critical phases have priority

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FINAL INSPECTION
Final: All equipment is still in working order Discrepancies have been corrected Unit is ready to embark on mission
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FINAL INSPECTION CONT.


Uniform and equipment: Camouflage Identification tags and cards Prescribed equipment is serviceable Equipment has been silenced No unnecessary equipment
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FINAL INSPECTION CONT.


Each member knows and understands: MISSION! Planned routes Individuals role Roles of the other members Signals and other pertinent details
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NOISE AND LIGHT DISCIPLINE AND CAMOUFLAGE


Light is easily detected at night.
Noise will compromise your position. During the day or night, the eye will pick up unusual shapes, color, and movement.
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LIGHT DISCIPLINE
Expose nothing that reflects light Cover/remove reflective items Do not use light sources No smoking allowed at anytime PL will designate what kind of light to be used during halts
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NOISE DISCIPLINE
Ensure all gear is properly secured Silence gear to reduce unwanted noises Top off canteens before step off Stop frequently during patrol to listen Do not speak unless necessary Use hand and arm signals
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CAMOUFLAGE
Shiny areas dark paint Shadow areas light paint Field expedient means only as last resort
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CONCEALMENT
Blend in with surroundings Remain motionless when observing If it goes with you-it comes back with you
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10 MINUTE BREAK

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EXITING FRIENDLY LINES


Out side small arms range Conduct Short Security Halt Conduct Head count

- Conduct security halt - Continue patrol

(Max range of small arms)


CONDUCT HEAD COUNT

XXXXXXXXX x x x x x x x xXXXXXX x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x XXXXX

xX x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXX x x x x

Antipersonnel minefield FEBA FEBA

APERS MINEFIELDS

Dispersed file formation


RANGER FILE FORMATION

FEBA

FEBA
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CONTACT GUIDE

SECURITY
Scouts used as eyes and ears of the patrol Front-Investigates route of advance Flanks-One or two used for squad sized patrol Rear-Maintains rear security
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SECURITY HALTS
Used: To observe and listen for enemy activity. Also; When reaching a danger area After departing and before entering friendly areas When sending a message, checking direction, or making a reconnaissance
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SHORT SECURITY HALT


Take a knee or get in prone behind cover and concealment All-round security is established Patrol Leader ensures all members move out when patrol resumes movement

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LONG SECURITY HALT


Used when patrol must halt for an extended period of time Move to an area that provides security from enemy detection Consists of passive and active security measures.
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PASSIVE SECURITY MEASURES


Select a remote area Avoid suspected enemy positions Avoid ridgelines, topographic crests, valleys, lakes, streams, roads, and trails Avoid open woods and clearings Select areas offering dense vegetation
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ACTIVE SECURITY MEASURES


Establish security Establish communications with posted security Plan for withdrawal in the event of discovery Establish an alert plan
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RE-ENTRY OF FRIENDLY LINES


Conducts a long security halt at RRP Listens and looks for enemy presence PL requests permission to reenter friendly lines PL takes radioman and security team to link up w/guide(s) at contact point
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RE-ENTRY OF FRIENDLY LINES CONT.


PL initiates far recognition signal and guide responds PL approaches, guide initiates near recognition signal and PL responds 2 Marines return to patrol APL moves patrol to contact point
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RE-ENTRY OF FRIENDLY LINES CONT.


Guide(s) lead patrol from contact point into passage point At passage point, PL (w/security) counts members into passage lane PL provides FUC w/ SALUTE report PL takes patrol to S-2 for debrief
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DEMONSTRATION

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PRACTICAL APPLICATION

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SUMMARY

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