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INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIOLOGY
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INTRODUCTION
Microbiology

- the study of microorganisms Organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye
except in large groups

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Effects

of large numbers often

visible
1.

2.

3.

e.g., chemical reactions in soil horizons e.g., toxin and gas production in incompletely sterilised food cans e.g., disease in animals and plants
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MICROBIAL WORLD
Viruses Bacteria

(Eubacteria) and Archaeabacteria Fungi (Yeasts and Molds) Protozoa Microscopic Algae
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BENEFITS
Maintain

balance of environment (microbial ecology) Basis of food chain Nitrogen fixation Photosynthesis Digestion, synthesis of vitamins Manufacture of food and drink
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BENEFITS
Genetic

engineering Synthesis of chemical products Recycling sewage Bioremediation: use microbes to remove toxins (oil spills) Use of microbes to control crop pests Normal microbiota
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HARMFUL EFFECTS
Cause

disease (basis for bioterrorism)

Food

spoilage
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PIONEERS OF MICROBIOLOGY
Robert Hooke, UK (1665) Proposed the Cell Theory Observed cork with crude microscope All living things are composed of cells Spontaneous generation Some forms of life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter

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PIONEERS OF MICROBIOLOGY

Francesco

Redi, IT (1668) Redis experiments first to dispprove S.G.

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PIONEERS OF MICROBIOLOGY
Antoni

van Leeuwenhoek, DE

(1673) First observed live microorganisms (animalcules)

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Schleiden

and Schwann, DE Formulated Cell Theory: Cells are the fundamental units of life and carry out all the basic functions of living things Pasteur, FR and Tyndall, UK (1861) Finally disproved S.G.
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PIONEERS OF MICROBIOLOGY
Louis 1. 2. 3. 4.

Pasteur (1822-1895), Chemist Fermentation (1857) Pasteurization: heat liquid enough to kill spoilage bacteria (1864) Vaccine development rabies Proposed the germ theory of disease
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1.

Proposed aseptic techniques (prevent contamination by unwanted microbes Director of Pasteur Institute, Paris (1894)

2.

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PIONEERS OF MICROBIOLOGY
Joseph

Lister, UK (1867) 1. Used phenol (carbolic acid) to disinfect wounds 2. First aseptic technique in surgery Robert Koch, DE (1876) 1. Postulates Germ theory (1876) 2. Identified microbes that caused anthrax (1876), tuberculosis (1882) and Cholera (1883)
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Developed

microbiological media & streak plates for pure culture (1881)

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KOCHS POSTULATES
The

specific contributory agent must be found in every case of the disease

The

disease organism must be isolated from the lesions of the infected case and maintained in pure culture

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The

pure culture, vaccinated into a susceptible or experimental animal, should produce the symptoms of the disease. The same bacterium should be reisolated in pure culture from the intentionally infected animal.
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BRANCHES OF MICROBIOLOGY
Bacteriology:

Study of bacteria Mycology: Study of fungi


Immunology:

Study of

immunity
Edward

Jenner, UK: Developed vaccination (1798)


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Metchnikoff,

RU: discovered phagocytes (1884)

Paul

Ehrlich, DE: theory of immunity (1890)


study of viruses
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Virology:

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Beijerinck,

NE: Discovered intracellular reproduction of TMV; coined the term virus (1899)

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Parasitology

Study of protozoa and parasitic worms


Chemotherapy
Treatment

of disease by using chemical

means Antibiotics produced naturally Synthetic drugs


Paul

Ehrlich (1878)

Used arsenic compounds to fight disease magic bullet


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Chemotherapy
Alexander

Fleming, Scotland (1928) discovered penicillin Selman Waksman, Ukraine (1944) discovered streptomycin

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Recombinant DNA Technology

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Recombinant DNA Genetically engineered DNA prepared by transplanting or splicing genes from one species into the cells of a host organism of a different species

Such DNA becomes part of the host's genetic makeup and is replicated.
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Genetic engineering/biotechnology
Biotechnology

is a general term used to describe practical uses of living organisms. Genetic engineering is considered an area of biotechnology that induces cell alterations in organisms including microorganisms, plants, animals and humans.
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This

technology is based on the artificial handling and transfer of genetic material from one organism to another. In the case of plants, the transfers have included plant-to-plant, bacteria-toplant, and virus-to-plant.

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The

cells coded with the new genetic information will pass those selected traits onto their offspring.

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Microbial

genetics mechanism by which microbes inherit genes Molecular biology structure and function (expression) of genes

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Molecular

epidemiology/diagnostics

The branch of medicine that deals with the study of the causes, distribution, and control of disease in populations.

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Biotechnology
GMOs/GEMs

for industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural applications (GMO) genetically modified organism (GEM) genetically engineered microorganism Improvements of agriculture (plants and animals)
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Gene

therapy: inserting a missing gene or replacing a defective one in human cells

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