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Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Communication

Behavior in Organizations, p.289


Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

The Role of Communication in Organizations


key purposes: direct action: to get others to behave in desired fashion achieve coordinated action
systematic sharing of information + interpersonal side with the focus on interpersonal relations between people
Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Communication

the social glue that continues to keep the organization tied together the essence of organization a key process underlying all aspects of organizational operations

properly managing communication processes is central to organizational functioning


Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Organizational Structure: Directing the Flow of Messages


Organizational structure:

the formally prescribed pattern of interrelationships existing between the various units of an organization

dictating who may and may not communicate with whom

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Organizational Charts

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Formal Communication

the process of sharing official information with others who need to know it, according to the prescribed patterns depicted in an organization chart

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Formal Communication
President

Instructions and directives

Information

Vice President

Vice President

Manager

Manager

Manager

Manager

Efforts at coordination
Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Formal Communication

downward communication:

instructions, directions, orders feedback data required to complete projects status reports suggestions for improvement, new ideas coordination of cooperation

upward communication:

horizontal communication:

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Centralized Networks

One central person Unequal access to information Central person is at the crossroads of the information flow

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Communication Structures Centralized

Y
Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Communication Structures Centralized

Wheel
Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Communication Structures Centralized

Chain

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Decentralized Networks

Information can flow freely No central person All members play an equal role in the transmittal of information

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Communication Structures Decentralized

Circle

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Communication Structures Decentralized

Comcon

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Communication Networks

Behavior in Organizations, p.305 Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Network Performance

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

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Informal Communication
information shared without any formally imposed obligations or restrictions if an organizations formal communication represents its skeleton, its informal communication constitutes its central nervous system grapevine An organizations informal channels of communication, based mainly on friendship or acquaintance

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Informal Networks
K

E G F

C H I B X J

D J

D
C B

G F H J A K I A Probability

C
B

I D

Gossip A Chain

F A

Cluster

McGraw-Hill

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Formal Structure vs Informal Networks


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Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Grapevine
1.

A secret means of spreading or receiving information

2.

The informal transmission of (unofficial) information

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Grapevine Characteristics

Oral mostly undocumented Open to change Fast (hours instead of days) Crossing organizational boundaries

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Grapevine Characteristics
(continued....)

inaccuracy:

deletion of crucial details Exaggeration of the most dramatic details

while the grapevine generally carries the truth but it seldom carries the whole truth

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Factors influencing Grapevine


Employees rely on the grapevine when: they feel threatened, insecure, under stress when there is pending change when communication from management is limited

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Positive Aspects of the Grapevine

Social function Reduction of anxiety Release mechanism for stress Identification of pending problems

Early warning system for organizational change

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Formal Media

Company newsletters Employee handbooks

Company magazines
Formal meetings

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Formal Media

continued.........

Letters
Flyers and bulletins Memos Faxes All-employees mailings

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Informal Media

Face-to-face discussions Telephone Voice messaging (voice mail) E-mail Instant messaging (chat)

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Physical Barriers
Poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems Whilst distractions like background noise, poor lighting or an environment which is too hot or cold can all affect people's morale and concentration

System Design
System design faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organization.

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Attitudinal barriers

Problems with staff in an organization


Poor management Lack of consultation with employees Personality conflicts

Some Common barriers


Different languages and cultures especially for organizations involved in overseas business Physiological barriers may result from individuals' personal discomfort, caused, for example, by ill health, poor eye sight or hearing difficulties.

Ways to Overcome the Barriers


Use Simple Words to Convey the Message Learn the Art of Listening
Listen Attentively Listen Proactively

Keeping Composure While Communicating Constructive Criticism is Important

Essentials of Business Communication


Structure Clarity Consistency Medium Relevancy Primacy/Recency Psychological Rule of 72

Assignment
CNA under two major headings Business Wrap & General News Business Wrap & General News : 4-5 person in one group (Approx. 9-10 slides from each class) Categories for General News: List of CEOs (Exp.), Retail companies (Exp.), GDP/Inflation, Tag lines, Logo Identification (Exp.), Sports, Technological innovations. Date: On 4th (20% Marks)

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

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Details

In the main slide Names of the all the 4 students should be clearly mentioned Each group should prepare Minimum 7-8 slides Add relevant pictures to the slide Logical sequencing of slide should be made Marks would be given based on the above mentioned criteria's
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Formal and Informal Channels of Communication