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Contents

Durkhiems Functionalist perspective Introduction Types Global Division of Labour Modern Debates on Division of Labour Sexual Division of Labour Advantages Disadvantages

Durkheims Functionalist Perspective


It was mile Durkheim who developed the It was mile Durkheim who developed the theory of DIVISION OF LABOUR from a theory of DIVISION OF LABOUR from a functional point of view. Durkhiem tried to functional point of view. Durkhiem tried to determine the social consequences of the determine the social consequences of the division of labour in modern societies in his division of labour in modern societies in his book. He had stressed in all his major works book. He had stressed in all his major works the importance of shared social norms and the importance of shared social norms and values in maintaining social cohesion and values in maintaining social cohesion and solidarity. He agreed that the nature of this solidarity. He agreed that the nature of this solidarity depends on the extent of the division solidarity depends on the extent of the division of labour. of labour.

Emile Emile Durkhiem Durkhiem 185818581917 1917

Introduction
Division of labour is a kind of Specialization. As our resources are scare, to satisfy the largest possible number of wants, we have to organize them by division of labour ~~ a way that yields the greatest volume of output.. .

DIVISION OF LABOUR AS SOCIO- ECONOMIC SYSTEM DIVISION OF LABOUR AS SOCIO- ECONOMIC SYSTEM
Division of Labour is one of the basic socio-economic institutions Division of Labour is one of the basic socio-economic institutions of human society. Division of labour and specialisation are the of human society. Division of labour and specialisation are the hallmarks of modern complex society. hallmarks of modern complex society. Even human society, however, large or small, establishes some Even human society, however, large or small, establishes some division of labour among its members. The division of labour division of labour among its members. The division of labour occurs in all societies, because it is highly functional. It helps them occurs in all societies, because it is highly functional. It helps them to become experts in their assigned activities. In this way, division to become experts in their assigned activities. In this way, division of labour contributes to the efficiency of economic life, but it may of labour contributes to the efficiency of economic life, but it may have other far reaching effects to. have other far reaching effects to.

Types of Division of labour


There are three types of division of labour :

Simple division of labour Complex division of labour


Regional and international division of labour

Simple division of labour


A person specializes in producing a particular product or service. It is more common in a primitive society. E.g. farming

Complex division of labour


A person specializes in a sub-process of the production of a good or service. It is more common in modern society
Click for examples Click for examples

Regional and international division of labour


Different countries specialize in certain types of products.
E.g. production E.g. production of garments in HK of garments in HK

Country B

Country A

Global Division of Labour


There exist, as yet, few comprehensive There exist, as yet, few comprehensive studies of the global division of labour (an studies of the global division of labour (an intellectual challenge for researchers), intellectual challenge for researchers), although theILOand national statistical although theILOand national statistical offices can provide plenty of data on request offices can provide plenty of data on request In one study,those who wish to try. that In one study,those who wish to try. that for Deon Filmer estimated for Deon Filmer estimated 2,474 million people participated in the 2,474 million people participated in the global non-domestic labour force in the global non-domestic labour force in the mid-1990s. Of these, around 15%, or 379 mid-1990s. Of these, around 15%, or 379 million people, worked in industry,a third, million people, worked in industry,a third, or 800 million worked in services, and or 800 million worked in services, and over 40%, or 1,074 million, in agriculture. over 40%, or 1,074 million, in agriculture.

In the modern world, those specialists most preoccupied In the modern world, those specialists most preoccupied in their work with theorizing about the division of labour in their work with theorizing about the division of labour are those involved inmanagementandorganization. In are those involved inmanagementandorganization. In view of the global extremities of the division of labour, view of the global extremities of the division of labour, the question is often raised about what division of labour the question is often raised about what division of labour would be most ideal, beautiful, efficient and just. would be most ideal, beautiful, efficient and just. It is widely accepted that the division of labour is to a It is widely accepted that the division of labour is to a great extent inevitable, simply because no one can do all great extent inevitable, simply because no one can do all tasks at once. Labourhierarchyis a very common feature tasks at once. Labourhierarchyis a very common feature of the modern workplace structure, but of course the of the modern workplace structure, but of course the way these hierarchies are structured can be influenced way these hierarchies are structured can be influenced by a variety of different factors. by a variety of different factors. It is often agreed that the most equitable principle in It is often agreed that the most equitable principle in allocating people within hierarchies is that of true (or allocating people within hierarchies is that of true (or proven) competency or ability. This important Western proven) competency or ability. This important Western concept ofmeritocracy could be read as anexplanation concept ofmeritocracy could be read as anexplanation or as a justification of why a division of labour is the way or as a justification of why a division of labour is the way it is.

Modern Debates on Division of Labour

The clearest exposition of the principles of sexual division of labour The clearest exposition of the principles of sexual division of labour across the full range of human societies can be summarized by a across the full range of human societies can be summarized by a large number of logically complementary implicational constraints of large number of logically complementary implicational constraints of the following form: if women of childbearing ages in a given the following form: if women of childbearing ages in a given community tend to do X (e.g., preparing soil for planting) they will community tend to do X (e.g., preparing soil for planting) they will also do Y (e.g., the planting) while for men the logical reversal in this also do Y (e.g., the planting) while for men the logical reversal in this example would be that if men plant they will prepare the soil .. example would be that if men plant they will prepare the soil Sexual division of Labour by White, Brudner and Burton, using Sexual division of Labour by White, Brudner and Burton, using statistical entailment analysis, shows that tasks mor e frequently statistical entailment analysis, shows that tasks mor e frequently chosen by women in these order relations are those more convenient in chosen by women in these order relations are those more convenient in relation to childrearing. This type of finding has been replicated in a relation to childrearing. This type of finding has been replicated in a variety of studies, including modern industrial economies. These variety of studies, including modern industrial economies. These entailments do not restrict how much work for any given task could be entailments do not restrict how much work for any given task could be done by men (e.g., in cooking) or by women (e.g., in clearing forests) but done by men (e.g., in cooking) or by women (e.g., in clearing forests) but are only least-effort or role-consistent tendencies. To the extent that are only least-effort or role-consistent tendencies. To the extent that women clear forests for agriculture, for example, they tend to do the women clear forests for agriculture, for example, they tend to do the entire agricultural sequence of tasks on those clearings. In theory, these entire agricultural sequence of tasks on those clearings. In theory, these types of constraints could be removed by provisions of child care, types of constraints could be removed by provisions of child care, but ethnographic examples are lacking. but ethnographic examples are lacking.

Sexual Division of Labour

Sexual Division of Labour

Practice makes perfect Choosing the best person to do a job Economy of time Economy of capital goods Possibility of mechanization Less Physical and Mental Strain Improved Quality of Goods

Repetition of the same task means practice makes perfect , it develops skills in the particular job , it increases labour productivity

With different talent, workers perform different jobs. It can be able to handle the job more easily.
Efficiency of labour total output

Save time in training workers save time in changing tools from one task to another
increase labour productivity

Increase duplication of tools and equipment increase capital goods needed

decrease average cost of


production

Mass production means possible to employ machines to replace the workers increase labour productivity increase total output

As the Worker is asked to do a small part of the work continuously for a long period, he becomes accustomed to it. This reduces physical and mental strains.

Under Division of Labour the quality of the product is improved and the cost of producton of the same reduced.

Work becomes dull & monotonous Greater degree of interdependence Greater risk of unemployment Decline in the quality of craftsmanship

Work becomes dull and Monotonous


Worker repeats the same job every day Work becomes dull and monotonous Worker lose interest Decline in productivity

Greater Degree of Interdependence


Different departments are more interdependent because the output of one department is the input of another department

Different industries are more dependent on each other for the raw materials produced
rubber plantations automobile industry

Greater Degree of Interdependence

tyre-making industry

Greater Degree of Interdependence


Countries become more dependent on each other
eg.HK depends on Singapore for refined petroleum Singapore depends on imported crude oil for refining

It is often difficult for a worker trained for a particular task or profession to change over to another job

Greater risk of unemployment

Decline in the quality of craftsmanship Mass production method

used in modern factories results in highly standardized products Fewer people will specialize in the hand-made products Overall quality of craftsmanship will drop

Loss of Responsibility and Pride in Work


Here an article is not entirely made or produced by single worker. Each workers contribution to final product is very less. Hence he losses the sense of responsibility and pride in work.

MADE BY:
DARSHAN B. JAIN DARSHAN B. JAIN SHWETA R. MERCHANT SHWETA R. MERCHANT SHABBIR Z. JARIWALA SHABBIR Z. JARIWALA BENITA KAPADIA BENITA KAPADIA RAJENDRA JAIN RAJENDRA JAIN NIRAJ MALAVIYA NIRAJ MALAVIYA