Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

Pendahuluan

Permasalahan DAS

Jumlah DAS Kritis? (1980 22 DAS, 1990 36 DAS, 2000 69 DAS)

Multi Stakeholder............
Ego sektoral..........

Pendahuluan - lanjutan

Siapa Main Stakeholders Pengelolan DAS terpadu?

PU

Peraturan Pemerintah RI No 42 Tahun 2008 tentang Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Air. Peraturan Pemerintah RI No 12 tahun 2008 tentang Dewan Sumberdaya Air. (PU) PPDAS Terpadu tentang Forum DAS (Dephut)

DEPHUT

DEPTAN DEPDAGRI .

Apa yg dimaksud Teknologi (dalam) pengelolaan DAS?


Teknologi Tepat Guna dan sustainable atau Best management practices (BMP) (no singgle recipe): Memenuhi target ekologi Replicable Financially beneficial (teknologi menyangkut aspek fisik dan sosial-ekonomi)

Memformulasikan Teknologi Tepat Guna > perlu proses perencanaan (watershed planning process).

Watershed Planning Process


The watershed planning process is iterative, holistic, geographically defined, integrated, and collaborative. Holistic Process

Watershed Planning Process


The watershed planning process is iterative, holistic, geographically defined, integrated, and collaborative. Holistic Process : watershed plans that incorporate a full range of other resource management activities, such as source water protection for drinking water, forest management planning, agricultural resource management systems, and parkland or greenspace management, etc Geographically Defined: address a geographic area large enough to ensure that implementing the plan will address all the major sources and causes of impairments and threats to the waterbody under review.

Watershed Planning Process


The watershed planning process is iterative, holistic, geographically defined, integrated, and collaborative. Integrated: many federal, state, tribal, and local planning efforts are occurring simultaneously with your watershed planning effort. We should integrate them into your watershed planning effort through stakeholder participation, data sharing, and implementation of management measures. Collaborative and Participatory Process: The Center for Watershed Protection conducted research that showed that implementation of a watershed plan has the greatest chance of success when stakeholders are brought into the process at the very beginning of the watershed planning effort

Komponen Watershed Planning Process

Chapter 1: Introduction includes the purpose of the handbook, intended audiences,


and guidelines on how to use the information provided.

Chapter 2: Overview of Watershed Planning Process provides an overview of the


watershed planning process and highlights common features of typical watershed planning processes. Chapter 3: Build Partnerships provides guidance on initial activities to organize and involve interested parties, such as identifying stakeholders, integrating other key programs, and conducting outreach. Chapter 4: Define Scope of Watershed Planning Effort discusses the preliminary activities you undertake to start scoping out your planning effort. It includes information on defining issues of concern, developing preliminary goals, and identifying indicators to assess current conditions. Chapter 5: Gather Existing Data and Create an Inventory discusses the first step in watershed characterization gathering existing information and creating a data inventory.It includes collecting information from existing reports and datasets.

Ch 2

Although each watershed plan emphasizes different issues and reflects unique goals and management strategies, some common features are included in every watershed planning process. The watershed planning process is iterative, holistic, geographically defined, integrated, and collaborative. Watershed Planning Is an Iterative and Adaptive Process

Iterative and adaptive

Watershed assessment, planning, and management are iterative and that targeted actions might not result in complete success during the first or second cycle. It is expected, however, that through adjustments made during the management cycles.

Ch 4

Regardless of the approach, the important point to remember is that quantification is the key to remediation. If you cant somehow measure the problems youre facing, it will be almost impossible to know whether youre making any headway in addressing them. For watershed planning purposes, indicators should be quantitative so that the effectiveness of management measures can be predicted

Ch 4

Ch 5 Karakterisasi Umum DAS

Ch 5 Karakterisasi Spesifik DAS

Permasalahan Sumber permasalahan

Chapter 6: Identify Data Gaps and Collect Additional Data if Needed discusses how to identify data gaps and collect additional data if needed. This chapter includes a
discussion on quality assurance/quality control procedures and the development of sampling plans.

Chapter 7: Analyze Data to Characterize the Watershed and Pollutant Sources discusses the primary data analyses needed to identify problems and support
development of the plan. It includes information on the types of data analyses that can be conducted and the tools used. It also discusses how to link the impairments to the causes and sources of pollutant loads.

Chapter 8: Estimate Pollutant Loads provides guidance on using watershed models and other tools to estimate pollutant loads. It discusses computer models,
identifies the types of models available, and tells how to select appropriate models for your watershed study.

Chapter 9: Set Goals and Identify Load Reductions discusses how to set management and water quality goals, develop management objectives, and determine
the load reductions needed to meet the goals. It provides guidance for identifying critical areas to which management efforts can be targeted.

Ch 7

7.3 Evaluate Data Analysis Results to Identify Causes and Sources Together with the input from stakeholders and your local knowledge of the watershed, analyzing your data should lead you to an understanding of where and when problems occur in your watershed and what could be causing the problems. Ideally the data analysis phase will progress in such a manner that each analysis leads to greater understanding of the problems, causes, and sources. 7.3.1 Grouping Sources for Further Assessment

Chapter 10: Identify Possible Management Strategies gives an overview of various management measures that might be selected, discusses how to identify existing
management efforts in the watershed, and provides considerations for selecting management options.

Chapter 11: Evaluate Options and Select Final Management Strategies discusses how to screen and research candidate management options, evaluate possible
scenarios, and select the final management measures to be included in your watershed management plan.

Chapter 12: Design Implementation Program and Assemble Watershed Plan provides guidance on establishing milestones and implementation schedules and
identifying the technical and financial resources needed to implement the plan, including information/education (I/E) activities and monitoring and evaluation components. It discusses how to use various analyses and products to assemble and document the watershed plan.

Chapter 13: Implement Watershed Plan and Measure Progress provides guidance on using adaptive management techniques to make changes to your watershed plan
and on analyzing the monitoring data to determine whether milestones are being met. It also provides guidance on using a watershed plan to develop annual work plans.

CH 8

8.1 How Do I Estimate Pollutant Loads? Early in the watershed characterization process, you identified and gathered available data and information to assess the watershed and created a data inventory. Then you conducted a preliminary data review, identified gaps, and collected additional data if needed. Finally, you analyzed the data to characterize the waterbody conditions and identify causes and sources, using the techniques discussed in chapter 7. Your next step is to estimate pollutant loads from watershed sources to target future management efforts. This step is essential to eventually satisfy element b (i.e., necessary load reductions) of the nine minimum elements. ( Identifying load reductions is discussed in chapter 9.) This element is the component most often missing from current and past watershed plans, although it is one of the most important. Without knowing where the pollutants are coming from, you cant effectively control them and restore and protect your watershed.

8.2 Using Monitoring Data or Literature Values to Estimate Pollutant Loads Commonly used approaches for estimating pollutant loads in watersheds involve using instream monitoring data or literature values (e.g., land use loading rates). These simple approaches can vary in detail or scope depending on the needs of the analysis and the available data. In most cases, they provide a coarse estimate of the pollutant loads entering a waterbody, without great detail on the contributing source or areas of concern. 8.3 Watershed Modeling Models provide another approach for estimating loads, providing source load estimates, and evaluating various management alternatives. A model is a set of equations that can be used to describe the natural or man-made processes in a watershed system, such as runoff or stream transport. By

DESIGN RUN-OFF
PENDUGAAN RUNOFF MERUPAKAN TAHAP PERTAMA DALAM DISAIN BANGUNAN PENGONTROL EROSI DAN SEDIMEN.

DIMENSI SALURAN PEMBUANGAN AIR (SPA) DAN BANGUNAN PENAHAN SEDIMEN TERGANTUNG DARI JUMLAH DAN DEBIT RUNOFF. DIMENSI YANG TERLALU KECIL TIDAK TAHAN LAMA, SEDANGKAN DIMENSI YANG TERLALU BESAR AKAN TERLALU MAHAL.

CARA SEDERHANA UNTUK MENGHITUNG RUNOFF ADALAH DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODA RASIONAL.

MENDUGA DESIGN RUNOFF DENGAN METODA RASIONAL

TUJUAN MENGHITUNG DESIGN RUN-OFF

MENENTUKAN DIMENSI BANGUNAN AIR PENGONTROL EROSI. MENENTUKAN DIMENSI PENAHAN SEDIMEN (e.g. SEDIMENTATION POND)

Q = 1/360 * C * i * A Q : Debit Puncak (m3/det) C : Koefisien Runoff i : Intensitas Hujan (mm/jam) A : Luas DAS (ha)

METODE RASIONAL

KOEFISIEN RUNOFF ADALAH BAGIAN DARI HUJAN YANG MEJADI RUN-OFF. NILAINYA DIDASARKAN ATAS PERMEABILITAS DAN WHC BERBAGAI PERMUKAAN DAS. NILAI C BERVARIASI DARI 0 s.d. 1.0 PARAMETER C DAN A TERDEFINISI, SEDANGKAN PARAMETER I HARUS DIPILIH. INTENSITAS DAN LAMA HUJAN TERTENTU YANG DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MENDISAIN BANGUNAN AIR DISEBUT DESIGN STORM. JIKA LAMA HUJAN DIDUGA DENGAN Tc MAKA HASIL DARI RUMUS RASIONAL ADALAH Qpeak. CONTOH JIKA Tc ADALAH 10-H, MAKA DESIGN STORM YANG HARUS DIGUNAKAN ADALAH 10-H.

RETURN PERIOD:

RETURN PERIOD : RATA-RATA JUMLAH TAHUN TERJADINYA HUJAN DENGAN INTENSITAS DAN LAMA TERTENTU. CONTOH : JUMLAH HUJAN DI BOGOR YANG LAMANYA 1-H SETIAP 2 TAHUN ADALAH 20 mm, SETIAP 100 TAHUN ADALAH 100 mm. STRUKTUR TIDAK DIDISAIN UNTUK MENGAKOMODASI HUJAN TERBESAR YANG PERNAH TERJADI. KADANG-KADANG LEBIH EKONOMIS MEMBIARKAN OVERFLOW SECARA PERIODIS DARI PADA TIDAK PERNAH OVERFLOW SAMA SEKALI. HUJAN DENGAN RETURN INTERVAL > 50 TAHUN DIGUNAKAN UNTUK DISAIN DIAREAL YANG PENUH RISIKO Un-gauged watershed. Tabel konversi Contoh

TIME OF CONCENTRATION

Skala Hillslope (lereng)


TIME OF CONCENTRATION TERDIRI DARI DUA BAGIAN:

1. WAKTU YANG DIBUTUHKAN ALIRAN PERMUKAAN UNTUK SAMPAI KE SALURAN (OVERLAND FLOW TIME - OFT) LANGKAH-LANGKAH PENETAPAN (OFT) TENTUKAN JARAK TITIK TERJAUH TERHADAP SALURAN TENTUKAN LERENG TENTUKAN NILAI C MASUKKAN PARAMETER TERSEBUT KE NOMOGRAPH 2. CHANNEL FLOW TIME (CFT) CFT = L/60V ; dimana V= Kecepatan yang ditentukan dengan rumus Manning LANGKAH-LANGKAH PENETAPAN CFT LIHAT CONTOH APLIKASI DI BAWAH

Skala DAS

KLASIFIKASI TEKNOLOGI P-DAS

TEKNOLOGI

STRUKTURAL VEGETATIF AGRONOMIS

PERUBAHAN LAND USE


INSENTIF CREDIT (CFC) PROJEK KELOMPOK TANI

PENDEKATAN

LOKASI PENERAPAN TEKNOLOGOI

1. ON-SITE

ON-FARM

NVS TERAS Infiltration trench

OFF-FARM

DPI DPN Check Dam RIPARIAN STRIP

2. OFF-SITE

CONSTRUCTED/Rehabilitasi WETLANDS