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WA1Lk CLLU1AN1S

LUIS MLNLNDL2 GAkCIA


Llblag 18 of november of 2010
J@L8 CLLu@n@
CCN1LN1S
1 Genera| def|n|t|on
2 1ypes of water po||utants
3 1he causes of water po||ut|on
4 1he effects of water po||ut|on
S Act|ons to prevent water po||ut|on
6 Laws and convent|on to prevent water po||ut|on
7 Agenc|es and organ|sat|on to prevent water
po||ut|on
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omprlslng over 70 of Lhe LarLh's surface waLer ls undoubLedly Lhe mosL
preclous naLural resource LhaL exlsLs on our planeL JlLhouL Lhe seemlngly
lnvaluable compound comprlsed of hydrogen and oxygen llfe on LarLh would
be nonexlsLenL lL ls essenLlal for everyLhlng on our planeL Lo grow and
prosper
lLhough we as humans recognlze Lhls facL we dlsregard lL by polluLlng our
rlvers lakes and oceans ubsequenLly we are slowly buL surely harmlng our
planeL Lo Lhe polnL where organlsms
are dylng aL a very alarmlng raLe ln addlLlon Lo lnnocenL organlsms dylng off
our drlnklng waLer has become greaLly affecLed as ls our ablllLy Lo use waLer
for recreaLlonal purposes ln order Lo combaL waLer polluLlon we musL
undersLand Lhe problems and become parL of Lhe soluLlon
1 Genera| def|n|t|on
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JaLer polluLlon can come from a number of dlfferenL sources lf Lhe polluLlon
comes from a slngle source such as an oll splll lL ls called polnLsource polluLlon
lf Lhe polluLlon comes from many sources lL ls called nonpolnLsource polluLlon
MosL Lypes of polluLlon affecL Lhe lmmedlaLe area surroundlng Lhe source
omeLlmes Lhe polluLlon may affecL Lhe envlronmenL hundreds of mlles away
from Lhe source such as nuclear wasLe Lhls ls called Lransboundary polluLlon
21 urface waLer polluLlon
22 CroundwaLer
23 Mlcroblologlcal
24 Cxygen depleLlng
23 nuLrlenLs
26 uspended maLLer
27 hemlcal
2 1ypes of water po||utants
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urface waLers are Lhe naLural waLer resources of Lhe LarLh @hey are found on
Lhe exLerlor of Lhe LarLhs crusL and lnclude
W Cceans
W 8lvers
W Lakes
@hese waLers can become polluLed ln a number of ways and Lhls ls called surface
waLer polluLlon
21 Surface water po||ut|on
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loL of Lhe LarLhs waLer ls found underground ln soll or under rock sLrucLures
called aqulfers Pumans ofLen use aqulfers as a means Lo obLaln drlnklng waLer
and bulld wells Lo access lL Jhen Lhls waLer becomes polluLed lL ls called
groundwaLer polluLlon CroundwaLer polluLlon ls ofLen caused by pesLlclde
conLamlnaLlon from Lhe soll Lhls can lnfecL our drlnklng waLer and cause huge
problems
22 Groundwater
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Mlcroblologlcal waLer polluLlon ls usually a naLural form of waLer polluLlon caused
by mlcroorganlsms Many Lypes of mlcroorganlsms llve ln waLer and cause flsh
land anlmals and humans Lo become lll Mlcroorganlsms such as
8acLerla
vlruses
roLozoa
erlous dlseases such as cholera come from mlcroorganlsms LhaL llve ln waLer
@hese dlseases usually affecL Lhe healLh of people ln poorer counLrles as Lhey do
noL have Lhe faclllLles Lo LreaL polluLed waLer
23 M|crob|o|og|ca|
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Mlcroorganlsms LhaL llve ln waLer feed on blodegradable subsLances Jhen Loo much
blodegradable maLerlal ls added Lo waLer Lhe number of mlcroorganlsms lncrease and use
up Lhe avallable oxygen @hls ls called oxygen depleLlon
Jhen oxygen levels ln Lhe waLer are depleLed relaLlvely harmless aeroblc mlcroorganlsms
dle and anaeroblc mlcroorganlsms begln Lo Lhrlve ome anaeroblc mlcroorganlsms are
harmful Lo people anlmals and Lhe envlronmenL as Lhey produce harmful Loxlns such as
ammonla and sulfldes
24 Cxygen dep|et|ng
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nuLrlenLs are essenLlal for planL growLh and developmenL Many nuLrlenLs are
found ln wasLewaLer and ferLlllsers and Lhese can cause excess weed and algae
growLh lf large concenLraLlons end up ln waLer
2S Nutr|ents
W @hls can conLamlnaLe drlnklng
waLer and clog fllLers
W @hls can be damaglng Lo oLher
aquaLlc organlsms as Lhe algae use
up Lhe oxygen ln Lhe waLer leavlng
none for Lhe surroundlng marlne
llfe
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ome polluLanLs do noL dlssolve ln waLer as Lhelr molecules are Loo blg Lo mlx beLween
Lhe waLer molecules @hls maLerlal ls called parLlculaLe maLLer and can ofLen be a cause of
waLer polluLlon
W @he suspended parLlcles evenLually seLLle and cause a Lhlck sllL aL Lhe boLLom @hls
ls harmful Lo marlne llfe LhaL llves on Lhe floor of rlvers or lakes
W 8lodegradable subsLances are ofLen suspended ln waLer and can cause problems
by lncreaslng Lhe amounL of anaeroblc mlcroorganlsms presenL
W @oxlc chemlcals suspended ln waLer can be harmful Lo Lhe developmenL and
survlval of aquaLlc llfe
26 Suspended matter
Water LurbldlLy ls aLLrlbuLable Lo suspended matter
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lndusLrlal and agrlculLural work lnvolves Lhe use of many dlfferenL chemlcals LhaL can run
off lnLo waLer and polluLe lL
27 Chem|ca|
W MeLals and solvenLs from lndusLrlal work can polluLe
rlvers and lakes @hese are polsonous Lo many forms
of aquaLlc llfe and may slow Lhelr developmenL
make Lhem lnferLlle or even resulL ln deaLh
W esLlcldes are used ln farmlng Lo conLrol weeds
lnsecLs and fungl 8unoffs of Lhese pesLlcldes can
cause waLer polluLlon and polson aquaLlc llfe
ubsequenLly blrds humans and oLher anlmals may
be polsoned lf Lhey eaL lnfecLed flsh
W eLroleum ls anoLher form of chemlcal polluLanL
LhaL usually conLamlnaLes waLer Lhrough oll spllls
when a shlp rupLures Cll spllls usually have only a
locallsed affecL on wlldllfe buL can spread for mlles
@he oll can cause Lhe deaLh of many flsh and sLlck Lo
Lhe feaLhers of seablrds causlng Lhem Lo lose Lhe
ablllLy Lo fly
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@he posslble causes of waLer polluLlon are
31 ewage and wasLewaLer
32 lndusLrlal wasLe
33 Cll polluLlon
34 Lmospherlc deposlLlon
33 Marlne dumplng
36 8adloacLlve wasLe
37 underground sLorage leakages
38 Clobal warmlng
39 LuLrophlcaLlon
3 1he causes of water po||ut|on
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omesLlc households lndusLrlal and agrlculLural pracLlces produce wasLewaLer LhaL can
cause polluLlon of many lakes and rlvers
ewage ls Lhe Lerm used for wasLewaLer LhaL ofLen conLalns faeces urlne and laundry
wasLe
@here are bllllons of people on LarLh so LreaLlng sewage ls a blg prlorlLy
ewage dlsposal ls a ma[or problem ln developlng counLrles as many people ln Lhese
areas don'L have access Lo sanlLary condlLlons and clean waLer
unLreaLed sewage waLer ln such areas can conLamlnaLe Lhe envlronmenL and cause
dlseases such as dlarrhoea
ewage ln developed counLrles ls carrled away from Lhe home qulckly and
hyglenlcally Lhrough sewage plpes
ewage ls LreaLed ln waLer LreaLmenL planLs and Lhe wasLe ls ofLen dlsposed lnLo Lhe
sea
ewage ls malnly blodegradable and mosL of lL ls broken down ln Lhe envlronmenL
ln developed counLrles sewage ofLen causes problems when people flush chemlcal
and pharmaceuLlcal subsLances down Lhe LolleL Jhen people are lll sewage ofLen
carrles harmful vlruses and bacLerla lnLo Lhe envlronmenL causlng healLh problems
31 Sewage and wastewater
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lndusLry ls a huge source of waLer polluLlon lL produces polluLanLs LhaL are exLremely
harmful Lo people and Lhe envlronmenL Many lndusLrlal faclllLles use freshwaLer Lo carry
away wasLe from Lhe planL and lnLo rlvers lakes and oceans olluLanLs from lndusLrlal
sources lnclude
sbesLos @hls polluLanL ls a serlous healLh hazard and carclnogenlc sbesLos flbres
can be lnhaled and cause lllnesses such as asbesLosls mesoLhelloma lung cancer
Lead @hls ls a meLalllc elemenL and can cause healLh and envlronmenLal problems lL
ls a nonblodegradable subsLance so ls hard Lo clean up once Lhe envlronmenL ls
conLamlnaLed Lead ls harmful Lo Lhe healLh of many anlmals lncludlng humans as lL
can lnhlblL Lhe acLlon of bodlly enzymes
Mercury @hls ls a meLalllc elemenL and can cause healLh and envlronmenLal
problems lL ls a nonblodegradable subsLance so ls hard Lo clean up once Lhe
envlronmenL ls conLamlnaLed Mercury ls also harmful Lo anlmal healLh as lL can
cause lllness Lhrough mercury polsonlng
32 Industr|a| waste
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nlLraLes @he lncreased use of ferLlllsers means LhaL nlLraLes are more
ofLen belng washed from Lhe soll and lnLo rlvers and lakes @hls can cause
euLrophlcaLlon whlch can be very problemaLlc Lo marlne envlronmenLs
hosphaLes @he lncreased use of ferLlllsers means LhaL phosphaLes are
more ofLen belng washed from Lhe soll and lnLo rlvers and lakes @hls can
cause euLrophlcaLlon whlch can be very problemaLlc Lo marlne
envlronmenLs
ulphur @hls ls a nonmeLalllc subsLance LhaL ls harmful for marlne llfe
Clls Cll does noL dlssolve ln waLer lnsLead lL forms a Lhlck layer on Lhe
waLer surface @hls can sLop marlne planLs recelvlng enough llghL for
phoLosynLhesls lL ls also harmful for flsh and marlne blrds
eLrochemlcals@hls ls formed from gas or peLrol and can be Loxlc Lo marlne
llfe
32 Industr|a| waste
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33 C|| po||ut|on
Cceans are polluLed by oll on a dally basls from oll spllls rouLlne shlpplng run
offs and dumplng
W Cll spllls make up abouL 12 of Lhe oll LhaL enLers Lhe ocean @he resL
come from shlpplng Lravel dralns and dumplng
W n oll splll from a Lanker ls a severe problem because Lhere ls such a huge
quanLlLy of oll belng spllL lnLo one place
W Cll spllls cause a very locallsed problem buL can be caLasLrophlc Lo local
marlne wlldllfe such as flsh blrds and sea oLLers
W Cll cannoL dlssolve ln waLer and forms a Lhlck sludge ln Lhe waLer @hls
suffocaLes flsh geLs caughL ln Lhe feaLhers of marlne blrds sLopplng Lhem
from flylng and blocks llghL from phoLosynLheLlc aquaLlc planLs
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Lmospherlc deposlLlon ls Lhe polluLlon of waLer caused by alr polluLlon
W ln Lhe aLmosphere waLer parLlcles mlx wlLh carbon dloxlde sulphur dloxlde and
nlLrogen oxldes Lhls forms a weak acld
W lr polluLlon means LhaL waLer vapour absorbs more of Lhese gases and
becomes even more acldlc
W Jhen lL ralns Lhe waLer ls polluLed wlLh Lhese gases Lhls ls called acld raln
W Jhen acld raln polluLes marlne hablLaLs such as rlvers and lakes aquaLlc llfe ls
harmed
34 Atmospher|c depos|t|on
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umplng of llLLer ln Lhe sea can cause huge problems LlLLer lLems such as 6pack rlng
packaglng can geL caughL ln marlne anlmals and may resulL ln deaLh lfferenL lLems Lake
dlfferenL lengLhs of Llme Lo degrade ln waLer
3S Mar|ne dump|ng
ardboard @akes 2 weeks Lo degrade
newspaper @akes 6 weeks Lo degrade
hoLodegradable packaglng @akes 6 weeks Lo
degrade
loam @akes 30 years Lo degrade
Lyrofoam @akes 80 years Lo degrade
lumlnlum @akes 200 years Lo degrade
lasLlc packaglng @akes 400 years Lo degrade
Class lL Lakes so long Lo degrade LhaL we don'L
know Lhe exacL Llme
J@L8 CLLu@n@
nuclear wasLe ls produced from lndusLrlal medlcal and sclenLlflc processes LhaL use
radloacLlve maLerlal nuclear wasLe can have deLrlmenLal effecLs on marlne hablLaLs
nuclear wasLe comes from a number of sources
W CperaLlons conducLed by nuclear power sLaLlons produce radloacLlve wasLe nuclearfuel
reprocesslng planLs ln norLhern Lurope are Lhe blggesL sources of manmade nuclear wasLe
ln Lhe surroundlng ocean 8adloacLlve Lraces from Lhese planLs have been found as far away
as Creenland
W Mlnlng and reflnlng of uranlum and Lhorlum are also causes of marlne nuclear wasLe
W JasLe ls also produced ln Lhe nuclear fuel cycle whlch ls used ln many lndusLrlal medlcal
and sclenLlflc processes
36 kad|oact|ve waste
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Lank or plplng neLwork LhaL has aL leasL 10 percenL of lLs volume underground
ls known as an underground sLorage Lank (u@% @hey ofLen sLore subsLances
such as peLroleum LhaL are harmful Lo Lhe surroundlng envlronmenL should lL
become conLamlnaLed Many u@'s consLrucLed before 1980 are made from
sLeel plpes LhaL are dlrecLly exposed Lo Lhe envlronmenL Cver Llme Lhe sLeel
corrodes and causes leakages affecLlng surroundlng soll and groundwaLer
37 Underground storage |eakages
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n lncrease ln waLer LemperaLure can resulL ln Lhe deaLh of many aquaLlc organlsms and
dlsrupL many marlne hablLaLs lor example a rlse ln waLer LemperaLures causes coral
bleachlng of reefs around Lhe world @hls ls when Lhe coral expels Lhe mlcroorganlsms of
whlch lL ls dependenL on @hls can resulL ln greaL damage Lo coral reefs and subsequenLly
all Lhe marlne llfe LhaL depends on lL
@he rlse ln Lhe LarLhs waLer LemperaLure ls caused by global warmlng
W Clobal warmlng ls a process where Lhe average global LemperaLure lncreases due Lo Lhe
greenhouse effecL
W @he burnlng of fossll fuel releases greenhouse gasses such as carbon dloxlde lnLo Lhe
aLmosphere
W @hls causes heaL from Lhe sun Lo geL 'Lrapped' ln Lhe LarLhs aLmosphere and consequenLly
Lhe global LemperaLure rlses
38 G|oba| warm|ng
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LuLrophlcaLlon ls when Lhe envlronmenL becomes enrlched wlLh nuLrlenLs @hls can be a
problemln marlne hablLaLs such as lakes as lL can cause algal blooms
W lerLlllsers are ofLen used ln farmlng someLlmes Lhese ferLlllsers runoff lnLo
nearby waLer causlng an lncrease ln nuLrlenL levels
W @hls causes phyLoplankLon Lo grow and reproduce more rapldly resulLlng ln algal
blooms
W @hls bloom of algae dlsrupLs normal ecosysLem funcLlonlng and causes many
problems
W @he algae may use up all Lhe oxygen ln Lhe waLer leavlng none for oLher marlne
llfe @hls resulLs ln Lhe deaLh of many aquaLlc organlsms such as flsh whlch need
Lhe oxygen ln Lhe waLer Lo llve
W @he bloom of algae may also block sunllghL from phoLosynLheLlc marlne planLs
under Lhe waLer surface
W ome algae even produce Loxlns LhaL are harmful Lo hlgher forms of llfe @hls can
cause problems along Lhe food chaln and affecL any anlmal LhaL feeds on Lhem
39 Lutroph|cat|on
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39 Lutroph|cat|on
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osslble effecLs and rlsks LhaL may cause waLer conLamlnanLs can be grouped
lnLo
41 PealLh
42 LnvlronmenL
43 Lconomy
4 1he effects of water po||ut|on
J@L8 CLLu@n@
vlrLually all Lypes of waLer polluLlon are harmful Lo Lhe healLh of humans and
anlmals JaLer polluLlon may noL damage our healLh lmmedlaLely buL can be
harmful afLer long Lerm exposure lfferenL forms of polluLanLs affecL Lhe healLh
of anlmals ln dlfferenL ways
W Peavy meLals from lndusLrlal processes can accumulaLe ln nearby lakes and rlvers @hese are Loxlc
Lo marlne llfe such as flsh and shellflsh and subsequenLly Lo Lhe humans who eaL Lhem Peavy
meLals can slow developmenL resulL ln blrLh defecLs and some are carclnogenlc
W lndusLrlal wasLe ofLen conLalns many Loxlc compounds LhaL damage Lhe healLh of aquaLlc anlmals
and Lhose who eaL Lhem ome of Lhe Loxlns ln lndusLrlal wasLe may only have a mlld effecL
whereas oLher can be faLal @hey can cause lmmune suppresslon reproducLlve fallure or acuLe
polsonlng
W Mlcroblal polluLanLs from sewage ofLen resulL ln lnfecLlous dlseases LhaL lnfecL aquaLlc llfe and
LerresLrlal llfe Lhrough drlnklng waLer Mlcroblal waLer polluLlon ls a ma[or problem ln Lhe
developlng world wlLh dlseases such as cholera and Lyphold fever belng Lhe prlmary cause of
lnfanL morLallLy
W Crganlc maLLer and nuLrlenLs causes an lncrease ln aeroblc algae and depleLes oxygen from Lhe
waLer column @hls causes Lhe suffocaLlon of flsh and oLher aquaLlc organlsms
W ulfaLe parLlcles from acld raln can cause harm Lhe healLh of marlne llfe ln Lhe rlvers and lakes lL
conLamlnaLes and can resulL ln morLallLy
W uspended parLlcles ln freshwaLer reduces Lhe quallLy of drlnklng waLer for humans and Lhe
aquaLlc envlronmenL for marlne llfe uspended parLlcles can ofLen reduce Lhe amounL of sunllghL
peneLraLlng Lhe waLer dlsrupLlng Lhe growLh of phoLosynLheLlc planLs and mlcroorganlsms
41 nea|th
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41 nea|th
J@L8 CLLu@n@
@here are many dlfferenL Lypes of waLer polluLlon and all have a dlfferenL adverse
effecL on Lhe envlronmenL
W Peavy meLals from lndusLrlal processes can accumulaLe ln nearby lakes and rlvers @hese are Loxlc
Lo marlne llfe such as flsh and shellflsh and can affecL Lhe resL of Lhe food chaln @hls means LhaL
enLlre anlmal communlLles can be badly affecLed by Lhls Lype of polluLanL
W lndusLrlal wasLe ofLen conLalns many Loxlc compounds LhaL damage Lhe healLh of aquaLlc anlmals
and Lhose who eaL Lhem ome Loxlns affecL Lhe reproducLlve success of marlne llfe and can
Lherefore dlsrupL Lhe communlLy sLrucLure of an aquaLlc envlronmenL
W Mlcroblal polluLanLs from sewage ofLen resulL ln lnfecLlous dlseases LhaL lnfecL aquaLlc llfe and
LerresLrlal llfe Lhrough drlnklng waLer @hls ofLen lncreases Lhe number of morLallLles seen wlLhln
an envlronmenL
W Crganlc maLLer and nuLrlenLs causes an lncrease ln aeroblc algae and depleLes oxygen from Lhe
waLer column @hls ls called euLrophlcaLlon and causes Lhe suffocaLlon of flsh and oLher aquaLlc
organlsms
W ulfaLe parLlcles from acld raln change Lhe pP of waLer maklng lL more acldlc Lhls damages Lhe
healLh of marlne llfe ln Lhe rlvers and lakes lL conLamlnaLes and ofLen lncreases Lhe number of
morLallLles wlLhln an envlronmenL
W uspended parLlcles can ofLen reduce Lhe amounL of sunllghL peneLraLlng Lhe waLer dlsrupLlng Lhe
growLh of phoLosynLheLlc planLs and mlcroorganlsms @hls has subsequenL effecLs on Lhe resL of
Lhe aquaLlc communlLy LhaL depend on Lhese organlsms Lo survlve
42 Lnv|ronment
J@L8 CLLu@n@
42 Lnv|ronment
J@L8 CLLu@n@
JaLer polluLlon can be damaglng Lo Lhe economy as lL can be expenslve Lo LreaL and
prevenL conLamlnaLlon JasLe LhaL does noL break down qulckly accumulaLes ln Lhe
LarLhs waLers and evenLually makes lLs way Lo Lhe oceans
JaLer polluLlon can be prevenLed by sLopplng polluLanLs from conLamlnaLlng nearby
waLers @here are a number of waLer LreaLmenLs Lo prevenL polluLlon such as
8lologlcal fllLers
hemlcal addlLlves
and fllLers
@hese slmple Lechnlques cosL money Lo malnLaln buL prevenLlon ls much cheaper Lhan
cleanlng up waLer polluLlon LhaL has already occurred @he cosL of a polluLlon cleanup
depends on many facLors
W @he locaLlon of Lhe polluLlon ls lmporLanL ln deLermlnlng how much Lhe cleanup
wlll cosL lf Lhe conLamlnaLlon ls ln an area LhaL ls easy Lo geL Lo Lhen Lhe clean up
cosL wlll be cheaper
W @he conLamlnaLlon slze also needs Lo be consldered Lhe larger Lhe area of
conLamlnaLlon Lhe more expenslve Lhe cosL of Lhe cleanup
W @he Lype of polluLanL may also have an effecL on Lhe cleanup cosL some
polluLanLs are more dlfflculL Lo clean up Lhan oLhers and Lherefore more
expenslve
43 Lconomy
J@L8 CLLu@n@
43 Lconomy
8||og|ca| f||ter Sand f||ter
J@L8 CLLu@n@
lf you wanL Lo help keep our waLers clean Lhere are many Lhlngs you can do Lo
help ?ou can prevenL waLer polluLlon of nearby rlvers and lakes as well as
groundwaLer and drlnklng waLer by followlng some slmple guldellnes ln your
everyday llfe
W onserve waLer by Lurnlng off Lhe Lap when runnlng waLer ls noL
necessary @hls helps prevenL waLer shorLages and reduces Lhe amounL of
conLamlnaLed waLer LhaL needs LreaLmenL
W 8e careful abouL whaL you Lhrow down your slnk or LolleL onL Lhrow
palnLs olls or oLher forms of llLLer down Lhe draln
W use envlronmenLally household producLs such as washlng powder
household cleanlng agenLs and LolleLrles
W @ake greaL care noL Lo overuse pesLlcldes and ferLlllsers @hls wlll prevenL
runoffs of Lhe maLerlal lnLo nearby waLer sources
W 8y havlng more planLs ln your garden you are prevenLlng ferLlllser
pesLlcldes and conLamlnaLed waLer from runnlng off lnLo nearby waLer
sources
W onL Lhrow llLLer lnLo rlvers lakes or oceans Pelp clean up any llLLer you
see on beaches or ln rlvers and lakes make sure lL ls safe Lo collecL Lhe
llLLer and puL lL ln a nearby dusLbln
S Act|ons to prevent water po||ut|on
J@L8 CLLu@n@
@here are many laws LhaL proLecL Lhe worlds oceans rlvers and lakes from
unnecessary waLer polluLlon Lach conLlnenL and counLry may dlffer ln whlch laws
Lhey enforce buL Lhey alm Lo have Lhe same overall poslLlve lnfluence
ln Lurope Lhere have been a number laws enforced Lo proLecL Lhe surroundlng
ocean from marlne dumplng
W ln 1989 Lhe dumplng of lndusLrlal wasLe was LermlnaLed ln all counLrles
ln norLhJesLern Lurope aparL from Lhe uk umplng was LermlnaLed ln
Lhe uk ln 1993
W ln 1990 Lhe dumplng of sewage sludge was LermlnaLed ln all counLrles ln
norLhJesLern Lurope aparL from Lhe uk umplng was LermlnaLed ln
Lhe uk ln 1998
W Culdellnes have been developed and are currenLly belng revlewed
regardlng Lhe dumplng of polluLed maLerlals
W umplng of nuclear wasLe ln Luropean waLers has been LermlnaLed slnce
1986
6 Laws and convent|on to prevent water po||ut|on
J@L8 CLLu@n@
@here are a number of dlrecLlves glven ln Lhe Luropean unlon LnvlronmenLal LeglslaLlon
@he proposed waLer framework dlrecLlve alms Lo achleve a number of ob[ecLlves regardlng healLh and
envlronmenLal lssues
W Lnforce sufflclenL drlnklng waLer provlslons
W Lnforce sufflclenL provlslons lf waLer for oLher economlc requlremenLs
W roLecLlon of Lhe envlronmenL from waLer polluLlon
W rovlde allevlaLlon of Lhe adverse lmpacLs of floods and droughLs
W @he dlrecLlve alms Lo achleve a good sLaLus for ground waLers and surface waLers ln Lurope by Lhe year 2010
@he urban wasLe waLer dlrecLlve alms Lo proLecL surface lnland waLers and coasLal waLers from polluLlon
by regulaLlng Lhe collecLlon and LreaLmenL of urban wasLe waLer
@he nlLraLe from agrlculLural sources dlrecLlve alms Lo proLecL waLers agalnsL polluLlon caused by
nlLraLes especlally nlLraLes from agrlculLural sources such as ferLlllsers @hls wlll enable marlne and
freshwaLers Lo be proLecLed from euLrophlcaLlon
@he drlnklng waLer dlrecLlve alms Lo esLabllsh sLrlcL sLandards regardlng Lhe quallLy of drlnklng waLer
@he dlrecLlve provldes parameLers and analysls meLhods Lhese sLandards musL be meL Lo ensure safe
drlnklng waLer
@he surface waLer for drlnklng waLer absLracLlon dlrecLlve and measuremenL and sampllng of surface
waLers dlrecLlve and lnformaLlon exchange declslon are lnLegraLed Lo form a framework LhaL deals wlLh
waLer proLecLlon of all waLers noL [usL Lhose used by humans
@he flsh waLer dlrecLlve and shell waLer dlrecLlve alms Lo proLecL waLers from polluLlon LhaL are
prlmarlly used for flshlng
@he groundwaLer dlrecLlve alms Lo proLecL groundwaLer from dangerous polluLanLs by conLrolllng Lhe
dlrecL and lndlrecL dlscharges of cerLaln subsLances lnLo Lhe groundwaLer
@he baLhlng waLer dlrecLlve alms Lo keep good sLandards ln Lhe quallLy of baLhlng waLer ln freshwaLer
and coasLal waLer areas
6 Laws and convent|on to prevent water po||ut|on
J@L8 CLLu@n@
@here are a number of agencles and organlsaLlons LhaL work Lo prevenL waLer
polluLlon and provlde relevanL lnformaLlon
W dvlsory ommlLLee on roLecLlon of Lhe ea (C% wwwacopsorg
W lean Ccean cLlon wwwcleanoceanacLlonorg
W lrlends of Lhe LarLh wwwfoecouk
W Creenpeace wwwgreenpeaceorg/oceans
W lnLernaLlonal JaLer ssoclaLlon wwwlwahqorguk
W Marlne onservaLlon ocleLy wwwmcsukorg
W ave Cur eas wwwsaveourseasorg
W JeLlands lnLernaLlonal wwwweLlandsorg
W JJl wwwpandaorg
7 Agenc|es and organ|sat|on to prevent water po||ut|on
@hanks for your aLLenLlon
Jork done by
Lul MLnLnLZ C8
Lmall Lexupomuxo[hoLmallcom

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