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Movement Of Capsule Through The

Digestive System

DATA COMPUTER
RECORDER

Data Acquisition & Storage Of Data


On Computer
Data Recorder with pick up
antennae & a Computer.

A view of Data Recorder being


mounted on a belt pack tied
to the patient’s waist.
 Crohn's Disease.

 Celiac Disease.

 Malabsorption Disorders.

 Tumors of the small intestine & Vascular Disorders.

 Ulcerative Colitis

 Medication Related To Small Bowel Injury.


Capsule image of
Bowel stricture in a
patient with
Crohn’s disease
M2A Endoscopy Procedure

 Capsule is swallowed by the patient like a conventional pill.

 It takes images as it is propelled forward by peristalsis.

 A wireless recorder, worn on a belt, receives the images


transmitted by the pill.

 A computer workstation processes the data and produces a


short video clip or still images.
Components Of M2A Endoscope

LIGHTING LENS CMOS


DEVICE IMAGE SENSOR

TRANSMITTING
ELECTRODE
Inside The M2A

5 7

ASIC
BATTERY
ANTENNA
CMOS
ILLUMINATING
LENS
OPTICAL
LENS
TRANSMITTER
IMAGE
HOLDER
DOME
SENSOR
LED’S
Specifications

 Diameter of 10 mm and a Length of 20 mm.

 Bullet shape - This shape and its diameter are critical for mapping th
small intestine.

 Uses Silver oxide button batteries - high energy density & disposable

 Made up of biocompatible material.


Optical Dome

The
This
TheOptical
shape results
Optical Dome
Domeis inthe
easy
front
contains orientation
part
the of the
Light of capsule
the capsule
Receiving & is axis
Windowbullet
. It
shaped.
along the
is made ofcentral axis of small
non conductor intestine
material whichand so helps to
is harmless
propel theThe
the body. capsule
windowforward
alongeasily.
with the container are sealed
to prevent infiltration of digestive fluids inside the
capsule.
Lens Holder

The Lens Holder is that part of the capsule which


accommodates the lens. The lens is tightly fixed to the
holder so that it doesn’t get dislocated anytime.
Lens

The Lens is an integral component of the capsule. It is


arranged behind the Light Receiving Window. Light
passes through this window and falls on the lens. The
Light is then focused on the CMOS Image Sensor
arranged behind the lens.
Illuminating LED’s

Non-reflection
Around the Lenscoating
& CMOS is performed
Image Sensor,
on the
four
inner
LED’s
and
(Light
outer
Emitting of
surfaces Diodes)
the Light
are present.
ReceivingThese
Window
plural
so that
lighting
light
devices
are arranged
irradiated from
in the
donut
LED’s
shape.
may pass through the light
receiving window smoothly and illuminate an object.
CMOS Image Sensor

During
It CMOS
has 140º
an(Complementary
eight
field hour
of view
procedure,
and
Metal
canOxide
detect
the camera
Semiconductor)
objectsobtains
as small as 0.1
mm.
approximately
Image
It isSensor
so precise
57,000
is the
that
most
high
it can
quality
important
see images
apolyp
part(a
at
ofgrowth
athe
rate
capsule.
of
that
2 can
It
lead
frames
is highly
to per
cancer)
sensitive
second.
that is
andtinier
produces
than 0.1
very
millimeter
high quality
(0.004
images.
inch),
something an endoscope can't do.
CMOS Image Sensor

PIXEL READ CODING SWITCHING


ARRAY CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT

CURRENT
OSCILLATING CONTROL LIMITING
CIRCUIT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT
Battery

Silver
Battery
Oxide
used
primary
in thebatteries
capsule isare
button
usedshaped
(Zinc/Alkaline
and are two
Electrolyte/Silver
in number as shown.
Oxide).
TheSuch
batteries
a battery
are arranged
has a even
together
discharge
just behind
voltage,
the CMOS
disposable
Image Sensor.
and doesn’t cause harm to
the body.
ASIC Transmitter

The ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit)


Transmitter is arranged behind the Batteries as shown.
Two Transmitting Electrodes are connected to the outlines
of the ASIC Transmitter.
These electrodes are electrically isolated from each
other.
Antennae

As shown,
The dome
Antennae
containing
the receives
Antennae
the
the
is
Antennae
arranged
data fromis
at
the
made
theASIC
end
of Transmitter
non
of the
capsule.
conducting
and sends
It it
material
to the Data
which Recorder
is harmless
tiedtotothe
thehuman
patient’s
body.
is enclosed
waist.
Parylene coated
in a dome
onto polyethylene
shaped chamber.
or polypropylene is
used.
Advantages

 Painless, no side affects or complications.

 Miniature size, so can move easily through the digestive system.

 Accurate, precise & low power consumption.

 Images taken are of very high quality which are sent almost
instantaneously
to the data recorder for storage.

 Made of bio compatible material, doesn’t cause any harm to the


body.
Disadvantages

 Gastrointestinal obstructions and swallowing disorders prevent free


flow of capsule through the digestive system.

 Patients with pacemakers, pregnant women and all pediatrics have


to
be monitored continuously while taking the capsule.

 The M2A procedure is not a replacement for Colonoscopy.

 Very expensive.

 It is not reusable.
Future Improvements

 Equipping the capsule with a LASER.

 Adding additional features like Zooming & Auto Focus.

 Can be used in Restorative Surgery & Pharmacological Interven

 Further reduction in size using Nano Technology.

 Making it cost effective.


Conclusion

The Given® M2A Endoscopy capsule is a pioneering


concept for Medical Technology of the 21st century.
The endoscopy system is the first of its kind to be able to
provide non-invasive imaging of the entire small intestine.
It has revolutionized the field of diagnostic imaging to a
great extent and has proved to be of great help to
physicians all over the world.