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Lco|ogy and Lcosystem

W 1he nlLrogen cycle ls Lhe seL blogeochemlcal processes by whlch

nlLrogen undergoes chemlcal reacLlons changes form and moves
Lhrough dlfference reservolrs on earLh lncludlng llvlng organlsms
W nlLrogen ls requlred for all organlsms Loo llve and grow because lL ls
Lhe essenLlal componenL of unA 8nA and roLeln Powever mosL
organlsms cannoL use aLmospherlc nlLrogen Lhe largesL reservolr
W 1he flve processes ln Lhe nlLrogen cycle flxaLlon upLake
mlnerallzaLlon nlLrlflcaLlon and denlLrlflcaLlon are all drlven by
W Pumans lnfluence Lhe global nlLrogen cycle prlmarlly Lhrough Lhe
use of nlLrogenbased ferLlllzers
W nlLrogen (n) ls an essenLlal componenL of
unA8nA and 8C1lLnS Lhe bulldlng blocks of
W All Crganlsms requlre nlLrogen Lo llve and grow
AlLhough Lhe ma[orlLy of Lhe alr we breaLhe ls n

mosL of Lhe nlLrogen ln Lhe aLmosphere ls
unavallable for uslng by organlsms
W 1hls ls because Lhe sLrong Lrlple bond beLween
Lhe n aLoms ln n
molecules makes lL relaLlvely
W ln facL ln order for planLs and anlmals Lo be
able Lo use nlLrogen n
gas musL flrsL be
converLed Lo more a chemlcally avallable form
such as ammonlum (nP
) nlLraLe (nC

) or
organlc nlLrogen (eg urea (nP
W 1he lnerL naLure of n
means LhaL blologlcally
avallable nlLrogen ls ofLen ln shorL supply ln
naLural ecosysLems llmlLlng planL growLh and
blomass accumulaLlon
W nlLrogen ls an lncredlbly versaLlle elemenL
exlsLlng ln boLh lnorganlc and organlc forms as
well as many dlfferenL oxldaLlon sLaLes
W 1he movemenL of nlLrogen beLween Lhe
aLmosphere blosphere and geosphere ln
dlfferenL forms ls descrlbed by Lhe nlLrogen cycle
one of Lhe ma[or blogeochemlcalcycles
W Slmllar Lo Lhe carbon cycle Lhe nlLrogen cycle
conslsLs of varlous sLorage pools of nlLrogen and
processes by whlch Lhe pools exchange nlLrogen
1he nlLrogen cycle ?ellow arrows lndlcaLe human sources of nlLrogen Lo Lhe
envlronmenL 8ed arrows lndlcaLe mlcroblal LransformaLlons of nlLrogen 8lue arrows
lndlcaLe physlcal forces acLlng on nlLrogen And green arrows lndlcaLe naLural non
mlcroblal processes affecLlng Lhe form and faLe of nlLrogen Lcology LcosysLem
nlLrogen cycle
W lve maln processes cycle nlLrogen Lhrough
Lhe blosphere aLmosphere and geosphere
nlLrogen flxaLlon nlLrogen upLake (organlsm
growLh) nlLrogen mlnerallzaLlon(decay)
nlLrlflcaLlon and denlLrlflcaLlon
Mlcroorganlsms parLlcularly bacLerla play
ma[or roles ln all of Lhe prlnclpal nlLrogen
W As mlcroblal medlaLed processes Lhese
nlLrogen LransformaLlons Lend Lo occur fasLer
Lhan geologlcal processes llke plaLe moLlon a
very slow purely physlcal process LhaL ls a parL
of Lhe carbon cycle
W lnsLead raLes are affecLed by envlronmenLal
facLors LhaL lnfluence mlcroblal acLlvlLy such
as LemperaLure molsLure and resource
-trogen faton
W n
nlLrogen flxaLlon bacLerla ls Lhe process
whereln n
ls converLed Lo ammonlum essenLlal
because lL ls Lhe only way LhaL organlsms can
aLLaln nlLrogen dlrecLly from Lhe aLmosphere
W CerLaln bacLerla for example Lhose among Lhe
genus kblzoblom are Lhe only organlsms LhaL flx
nlLrogen Lhrough meLabollc processes
W nlLrogen flxlng bacLerla ofLen form symbloLlc
relaLlonshlps wlLh hosL planLs 1hls symbosls ls
wellknown Lo occur ln Lhe legume famlly of
planLs (eg beans peas and clover)
W ln Lhls relaLlonshlp nlLrogen flxlng bacLerla
lnhablL legume rooL nodules and recelve
carbohydraLes and a favorable envlronmenL from
Lhelr hosL planL ln exchange for some of Lhe
nlLrogen Lhey flx
W 1here are also nlLrogen flxlng bacLerla LhaL exlsL
wlLhouL planL hosLs known as freellvlng nlLrogen
flxers ln aquaLlc envlronmenLs bluegreen algae
(really a bacLerla called cyanobacLerla) ls an
lmporLanL freellvlng nlLrogen flxer
W ln addlLlon Lo nlLrogen flxlng bacLerla hlgh
energy naLural evenLs such as llghLnlng foresL
flres and even hoL lava flows can cause Lhe
flxaLlon of smaller buL slgnlflcanL amounLs of
nlLrogen (lgure 3)
W 1he hlgh energy of Lhese naLural phenomena can
break Lhe Lrlple bonds of n
molecules Lhereby
maklng lndlvldual n aLoms avallable for chemlcal
W JlLhln Lhe lasL cenLury humans have become as
lmporLanL a source of flxed nlLrogen as all naLural
sources comblned
W 8urnlng fossll fuels uslng synLheLlc nlLrogen
ferLlllzers and culLlvaLlon of legumes all flx
W 1hrough Lhese acLlvlLles humans have more Lhan
doubled Lhe amounL of flxed nlLrogen LhaL ls
pumped lnLo Lhe blosphere every year Lhe
consequences of whlch are dlscussed below
-trogen faton
W uurlng Lhls process a slgnlflcanL amounL of
Lhe nlLrogen conLalned wlLhln Lhe dead
organlsm ls converLed Lo ammonlum
W Cnce ln Lhe form of ammonlum nlLrogen ls
avallable for use by planLs or for furLher
LransformaLlon lnLo nlLraLe (nC

) Lhrough Lhe
process called nlLrlflcaLlon
W -trfcaton
W nP

Some of Lhe ammonlum produced by

decomposlLlon ls converLed Lo nlLraLe vla a process
called nlLrlflcaLlon
W 1he bacLerla LhaL carry ouL Lhls reacLlon galn energy
from lL
W nlLrlflcaLlon requlres Lhe presence of oxygen so
nlLrlflcaLlon can happen only ln oxygenrlch
envlronmenLs llke clrculaLlng or flowlng waLers and Lhe
very surface layers of solls and sedlmenLs
W 1he process of nlLrlflcaLlon has some lmporLanL
W Ammonlum lons are poslLlvely charged and
Lherefore sLlck (are sorbed) Lo negaLlvely charged
clay parLlcles and soll organlc maLLer
W 1he poslLlve charge prevenLs ammonlum
nlLrogen from belng washed ouL of Lhe soll (or
leached) by ralnfall
W ln conLrasL Lhe negaLlvely charged nlLraLe lon ls
noL held by soll parLlcles and so can be washed
down Lhe soll proflle leadlng Lo decreased soll
ferLlllLy and nlLraLe enrlchmenL of downsLream
surface and ground waLers
W entrfcaton
W nC

+ n
C 1hrough denLlrflcaLlon oxldlzed
forms of nlLrogen such as nlLraLe and nlLrlLe (nC

) are converLed Lo dlnlLrogen (n

) and Lo a lesser
exLenL nlLrous oxlde gas
W uenlLrlflcaLlon ls an anaeroblc process LhaL ls
carrled ouL by denlLrlfylng bacLerla whlch
converL nlLraLe Lo dlnlLrogen ln Lhe followlng


nC n
C n

W nlLrlc oxlde and nlLrous oxlde are boLh envlronmenLally

lmporLanL gases nlLrlc oxlde (nC) conLrlbuLes Lo smog
and nlLrous oxlde (n
C) ls an lmporLanL greenhouse
gases Lhereby conLrlbuLlng Lo global cllmaLe change
W Cnce converLed Lo dlnlLrogen nlLrogen ls unllkely Lo be
reconverLed Lo a blologlcally avallable form because lL
ls a gas and ls rapldly losL Lo Lhe aLmosphere ue
nlLrlflcaLlon ls Lhe only nlLrogen LransformaLlon LhaL
removes nlLrogen from ecosysLems (essenLlally
lrreverslbly) and lL roughly balances Lhe amounL of
nlLrogen flxed by Lhe nlLrogen flxers descrlbed above
man a|teraton of the - cyc|e and ts envronmenta|
W Larly ln Lhe 20Lh cenLury a Cerman sclenLlsL named rlLz Paber
flgured ouL how Lo shorL clrculL Lhe nlLrogen cycle by flxlng nlLrogen
chemlcally aL hlgh LemperaLures and pressures creaLlng ferLlllzers
LhaL could be added dlrecLly Lo soll 1hls Lechnology has spread
rapldly over Lhe pasL cenLury and along wlLh Lhe advenL of new
crop varleLles Lhe use of synLheLlc nlLrogen ferLlllzers has led Lo an
enormous boom ln agrlculLural producLlvlLy 1hls agrlculLural
producLlvlLy has helped us Lo feed a rapldly growlng world
populaLlon buL Lhe lncrease ln nlLrogen flxaLlon has had some
negaLlve consequences as well Jhlle Lhe consequences are
perhaps noL as obvlous as an lncrease ln global LemperaLures or a
hole ln Lhe ozone layer Lhey are [usL as serlous and poLenLlally
harmful for humans and oLher organlsms
W noL all of Lhe nlLrogen ferLlllzer applled Lo agrlculLural flelds sLays Lo
nourlsh crops Some ls washed off of agrlculLural flelds by raln or
lrrlgaLlon waLer where lL leaches lnLo surface or ground waLer and
can accumulaLe ln groundwaLer LhaL ls used as a drlnklng waLer
source excess nlLrogen can lead Lo cancer ln humans and
resplraLory dlsLress ln lnfanLs
W 1he uS LnvlronmenLal roLecLlon Agency has esLabllshed a
sLandard for nlLrogen ln drlnklng waLer of 10 mg per llLer nlLraLen
unforLunaLely many sysLems (parLlcularly ln agrlculLural areas)
already exceed Lhls level 8y comparlson nlLraLe levels ln waLers
LhaL have noL been alLered by human acLlvlLy are rarely greaLer
Lhan 1 mg/L
W ln surface waLers added nlLrogen can lead Lo nuLrlenL over
enrlchmenL parLlcularly ln coasLal waLers recelvlng Lhe lnflow from
polluLed rlvers 1hls nuLrlenL overenrlchmenL also called
euLrophlcaLlon has been blamed for ln
W creased frequencles of coasLal flshklll evenLs
lncreased frequencles of harmful algal blooms
and specles shlfLs wlLhln coasLal ecosysLems
W 8eacLlve nlLrogen (llke nC

and nP
) presenL ln
surface waLers and solls can also enLer Lhe
aLmosphere as Lhe smogcomponenL nlLrlc oxlde
(nC) and Lhe greenhouse gas nlLrous oxlde (n
LvenLually Lhls aLmospherlc nlLrogen can be
blown lnLo nlLrogensenslLlve LerresLrlal
envlronmenLs causlng longLerm changes
or example nlLrogen oxldes comprlse a
slgnlflcanL porLlon of Lhe acldlLy ln acld raln
whlch has been blamed for foresL deaLh and
decllne ln parLs of Lurope and Lhe norLheasL
unlLed SLaLes
lncreases ln aLmospherlc nlLrogen deposlLlon
have also been blamed for more subLle shlfLs
ln domlnanL specles and ecosysLem funcLlon
ln some foresL and grassland ecosysLems
W CurrenLly much research ls devoLed Lo
undersLandlng Lhe effecLs of nlLrogen enrlchmenL
ln Lhe alr groundwaLer and surface waLer
SclenLlsLs are also explorlng alLernaLlve
agrlculLural pracLlces LhaL wlll susLaln hlgh
producLlvlLy whlle decreaslng Lhe negaLlve
lmpacLs caused by ferLlllzer use 1hese sLudles
noL only help us quanLlfy how humans have
alLered Lhe naLural world buL lncrease our
undersLandlng of Lhe processes lnvolved ln Lhe
nlLrogen cycle as a whole
W hLLp//wwwvlslonlearnlngcom/llbrary/module_v
lewerphp?mld98mcldl 13/10/10
W ln 1938 aLmospherlc carbon dloxlde aL Mauna
Loa was abouL 320 parLs per mllllon (ppm)
and ln 2010 lL ls abouL 383ppm
W uLure CC
emlsslon can be calculaLed by Lhe
kaya ldenLlLy
W 1he envlronmenLal sulphur cycle lnvolves many physlcal chemlcal
and blologlcal agenLs
W As such Lhe flgure lndlcaLes Lhe relaLlonshlps beLween sulphur S
hydrogen sulphlde P
S sulphur dloxlde SC
and Lhe sulphaLe lon

ln mlneral form sulphur may be presenL as sulphldes (eg

pyrlLe eS
chalcopyrlLe eSCuS pyrrhoLlLe eS) and/or sulphaLes
(eg gypsum CaSC
C barlLe 8aSC
) Sulphur ln mlnerals may
move Lhrough Lhe cycle as a resulL of Lhe oxldaLlon of sulphldes Lo
sulphaLe and/or Lhe dlssoluLlon of sulphaLes or example
oxldaLlon of pyrlLe Lo sulphurlc acld may be lmmedlaLely followed
lo slto by acld neuLrallzaLlon by calclum carbonaLe (calclLe) Lo form
calclum sulphaLe (gypsum) 1he reacLlon of hydrogen sulphlde wlLh
dlssolved meLal lons may preclplLaLe meLalllc sulphldes whlch are
chemlcally lndlsLlngulshable from naLurally occurrlng sulphlde
W AL some mlnes sulphur ls added Lo Lhe cycle as
sulphur dloxlde ln processes such as Lhe lnco/SC
process for cyanlde desLrucLlon ln Lhe LreaLmenL
of Lalllngs 1hls added sulphur ls oxldlzed Lo
sulphaLe lon (lngles ScoLL 1987) mosL of whlch
remalns free buL some of whlch comblnes wlLh
llme CaC ln Lhe Lalllngs Lo form gypsum
W or lnformaLlon on Lhe sulphur cycle wlLh respecL
Lo waLer quallLy monlLorlng see Canadlan Councll
of LnvlronmenL MlnlsLers (1987)
W @he ko|e of Mcroorgansms n the S|phr Cyc|e
W Mlcroorganlsms (mosL frequenLly bacLerla) are ofLen
lnLegrally lnvolved ln Lhe chemlcal alLeraLlon of mlnerals
Mlnerals or lnLermedlaLe producLs of Lhelr decomposlLlon
may be dlrecLly or lndlrecLly necessary Lo Lhelr meLabollsm
1he dlssoluLlon of sulphlde mlnerals under acldlc condlLlons
(A8u) Lhe preclplLaLlon of mlnerals under anaeroblc
condlLlons Lhe adsorpLlon of meLals by bacLerla or algae
and Lhe formaLlon and desLrucLlon of organomeLalllc
complexes are all examples of lndlrecL mlcroorganlsm
parLlclpaLlon Jhere mlnerals are avallable as soluble Lrace
elemenLs serve as speclflc oxldlzlng subsLraLes or are
elecLron donors/accepLors ln oxldaLlonreducLlon reacLlons
Lhey may be dlrecLly lnvolved ln cell meLabollc acLlvlLy
W 1here are Lhree caLegorles of oxldaLlonreducLlon reacLlons for mlnerals wlLh mlcroorganlsms
W CxldaLlon by auLoLrophlc (cell carbon from carbon dloxlde) or mlxoLrophlc (cell carbon from carbon
dloxlde or organlc maLLer) organlsms Lnergy derlved from Lhe oxldaLlon reacLlon ls uLlllzed ln cell
W LlecLron accepLance by mlnerals (reducLlon) for heLeroLrophlc (cell carbon from organlc maLLer) and
mlxoLrophlc bacLerla Chemlcal energy ls used Lo creaLe new cell maLerlal from an organlc
W LlecLron donaLlon by mlnerals (oxldaLlon) for bacLerlal or algal phoLosynLhesls (reacLlon ls fuelled by
phoLon energy)
W -atra| Cdaton n the S|phr Cyc|e
W CxldaLlon of sulphur or sulphldes for energy producLlon ls resLrlcLed Lo Lhe bacLerlal genus
@bloboclllos Lhe genus @blomlctosplto and Lhe genus 5olfolobos 1hese bacLerla all produce
sulphurlc acld (le hydrogen lons P
and sulphaLe lons SC

) as a meLabollc producL LxLenslve

revlews of Lhese bacLerla and Lhelr behavlour have been wrlLLen by 8rlerley (1978) and 1rudlnger
W lL ls Lhese bacLerla LhaL are known Lo acceleraLe Lhe generaLlon of Acld 8ock uralnage (A8u) from
pyrlLlc and pyrrhoLlLlc rocks under sulLable condlLlons Lvangelou Zhang (1993) reporL LhaL
sulphlde oxldaLlon caLalysed by bacLerla may have reacLlon raLes slx orders of magnlLude (le
1000000 Llmes) greaLer Lhan Lhe same reacLlons ln Lhe absence of bacLerla hoLomlcrographs 1 2
and 3 from Le8oux norLh Jllson (1973) lllusLraLe Lhe shape and appearance of @ fettooxlJoos
1he bacLerla develop flagella only lf Lhey are requlred for moblllLy ln accesslng energy sources
W hLLp//Lechnologylnfomlnecom/envlromlne/ard/mlcroorganlsms/roleofhLm
Cxygen cycle
AlmosL all llvlng Lhlngs need oxygen 1hey use Lhls oxygen durlng
Lhe process of creaLlng energy ln llvlng cells
@he f|ow of s|phr componds n or envronment
Scheme L|mar Uherek adapted and modfed from an water cyc|e
||straton of the Center for Space kesearch Unv of Astn @eas
|ease c|ck the pctre for a |arger vew! (1S0 k)
W Je flnd many sulphur compounds on LarLh
W 1hese lnclude sulphur dloxlde elemenLal sulphur sulphurlc acld salLs of
sulphaLe or organlc sulphur compounds such as dlmeLhylsulphlde and
even amlno aclds ln our body
W All Lhese chemlcal compounds do noL lasL forever 1hey are LransporLed by
physlcal processes llke wlnd or eroslon by waLer by geologlcal evenLs llke
volcano erupLlons or by blologlcal acLlvlLy
W 1hey are also Lransformed by chemlcal reacLlons 8uL noLhlng ls losL
Changes ofLen Lake place ln cycles Such cycles can be chemlcal cycles ln
whlch a sulphur compound A reacLs Lo form 8 8 Lo C C Lo u and u Lo A
W AL Lhe same Llme Lhere are spaLlal / geographlcal cycles Cne example ls
when sulphur compounds move from Lhe ocean Lo Lhe aLmosphere are
LransporLed Lo Lhe land come down wlLh Lhe raln and are LransporLed by
rlvers Lo Lhe ocean agaln
W Cdaton and redcton
W ln chemlcal cycles sulphur ls usually oxldlsed ln Lhe alr
from organlc sulphur or elemenLal sulphur Lo sulphur
oxldes llke SC
and SC
endlng up as sulphaLe ln
sulphaLe salLs M(ll)SC
or sulphurlc acld
1he sulphaLe compounds dlssolve very well ln
waLer and come down agaln wlLh Lhe raln elLher as
salLs or as acld raln
W ln chemlcal cycles oxldlzed compounds musL also be
reduced agaln 1hls process does noL Lake place ln Lhe
aLmosphere buL on Lhe ground and ln Lhe oceans and ls
carrled ouL ln compllcaLed chemlcal reacLlons by
bacLerla 1he mosL lmporLanL producLs are elemenLal
sulphur hydrogen sulphlde (P
S) whlch smells awful
and ls very unhealLhy and organlc sulphur compounds
W Sulphur compounds play a blg role for our
envlronmenL and Lhe cllmaLe sysLem Cn Lhe one
hand Lhey conLrlbuLe Lo acld raln
W 8uL Lhey are also lmporLanL for Lhe formaLlon of
clouds lnally a loL of sulphur ls broughL lnLo Lhe
alr by volcanlc erupLlons
W lf lL was a sLrong erupLlon Lhe emlLLed parLlcles
can go up Lo Lhe sLraLosphere (9 12 km of
alLlLude) and cool down half our planeL by 12C
hosphorous Cycle
W lnlLlally phosphaLe weaLhers from rocks lL can
be found on earLh waLer soll and sedlmenLs clay
surface and organlc maLLer unllke oLher
compounds phosphaLe cannoL be found ln alr ln
Lhe gaseous sLaLe llke oLher cycles AL normal
LemperaLure and pressure lL ls ln llquld sLaLe
W Perblvores obLaln phosphorous by eaLlng planLs
and carnlvores by eaLlng herblvores Perblvores
and carnlvores excreLe phosphorous Lhrough
urlne and feces hosphorous release back Lo Lhe
soll when planLs and anlmal maLLer decomposes
W Lco|ogca| Sccesson
1he organlsms survlval depends on gradual
growLh no organlsm exlsLs lndependenLly
1hey survlve on communlLles 1he
communlLles of organlsms do noL sprlng lnLo
exlsLence suddenly buL develop gradually
Lhrough serles of sLages unLll reaches sLaLe of
maLurlLy 1hls process of communlLy
developmenL ls called ecologlcal successlon
W 1he successlon ls Lhe replacemenL of one
communlLy by Lhe oLher as Lhe condlLlon wlLhln
hablLaLlon change
W Lcologlcal nlche
W 1he lnLeracLlon of each specles of anlmals and
planLs wlLh oLher specles ln Lhe envlronmenL ls
spoken of as lLs ecologlcal nlche
W A zone of vegeLaLlon spreadlng or separaLlng Lwo
dlfferenL Lypes of communlLy ls called ecoLone
where Lhe varleLy of one specles ls larger Lhan ln
any oLher one of Lhe ad[acenL communlLy

W 1ypes of LcosysLem
W 1erresLrlal AquaLlc ArLlflclal
oresL Crassland ueserL resh waLer Marlne JaLer
W oresL LcosysLem are four Lypes 1hey are
Conlferous ueclduous
W Lvergreen 1roplcal 8alnforesL
W resh waLer LcosysLem are Lwo Lypes
W SLandlng waLer ls called as Len Llc (Lakes ponds
W 8unnlng JaLer ls called as LoLlc (rlvers sLreams)
W Malnly based on depLh and peneLraLlon of
llghL ln ponds and lakes Lhere are Lhree zones
W LlLLoral shallow waLer zone
W LlmneLlc LlghL peneLraLe open waLer up
W rofound pauclLy of llghL boLLom or deep
waLer zone (no llghL)
W 1he planLs aLLach aL boLLom sedlmenLs or free
1hey geL nuLrlenLs from Lhe sedlmenLs
W LoLlc LcosysLem JaLer currenL ls Lhe ma[or
llmlLlng facLor 1he veloclLy of currenL varles
greaLly dlfferenL parLs of sLreams or rlver As a
resulL of flowlng naLure of Lhe sLreams or rlvers
oxygen Lenslon ls unlform and Lhere ls llLLle or no
Lhermal sLraLlflcaLlon MosL of Lhe planLs are
aLLached flrmly Lo subsLraLes ln order Lo avold
geLLlng carrled away
W 1he anlmals are elLher powerful swlmmers or
Lhey aLLached Lo Lhe subsLraLes by means of
speclal sLrucLures such as suckers or hooks
W Marlne LcosysLem 1he LarLh area 73 ls
covered wlLh oceans 1he ocean waLer ls salLy
1oLal dlssolved solld ln ocean are 73 mg/L
W 1he ocean or sea conslsLs of number of zones
W 1he shallow waLer zone ls called nerlLlc or
conLlnenLal shelf
W 1he zone beLween Lwo Lldes ls called lnLerLldal
W LsLuary LcosysLem 1he esLuary ls parLlally
enclosed coasLal area aL Lhe mouLh of a rlver
where fresh waLer and salLy sea waLer meeL
W LsLuary ls lnfluenced by Lldal acLlon and ln whlch
sea waLer ls consLanLly ln lnLeracLlon wlLh fresh
waLer 1he esLuarles also exporL energy and
nuLrlenLs Lo deeper parLs of Lhe sea 1he
plankLons and nekLons ofLen move beLween boLh
shallow waLer and Lhe deeper parL of esLuarles
nekLon means free swlmmlng organlsms
neusLon means anlmals llvlng are llvlng aL
W ArLlflclal LcosysLem ManlpulaLlon of Lhe
envlronmenLal aLLrlbuLes by man has broughL
ma[or changes ln Lhe ecosysLems whlch have a
resulLed ln arLlflclal ecosysLems le wasLe
LreaLmenL planLs soclal foresLry mechanlzed
agrlculLural farms