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Stuck pipe and fishing

2009

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Stuck pipe
Stuck pipe is a very good example of prevention is better than cure". The recovery from a stuck pipe situation can be very time consuming, hence expensive, and in the limit may lead to the loss of the well with the resultant necessity to redrill it. It may alternatively result in what in the long term may be even worse - a poor quality well. The routine application of normal good practice while drilling the well also goes a long way towards avoiding problems. Stuck pipe will usually lead to fishing operations, but it is only one type of fish. Fishing may carried out to recover any type of undesirable material from the borehole, stuck or free.

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Fishing
A "fish" in oilfield terminology is a piece of equipment, or other material, which is in the well and which satisfies two conditions:
it was not placed deliberately in its current situation it does not extend all the way to surface

Fishing is the name given to the process of getting hold of, and removing, such material.

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Fishing Operations
Cardinal Rules Pipe Sticking Determining the Stuck Point
Mechanical sticking Keyseat Cement sticking Pipe sticking Differential sticking Blow out sticking Lost circulating sticking

Parting the Pipe String Catch Tools Jarring Wash-over Loose-Junk Mills and Rotary Shoes Wireline Fishing Stuck Packers Fishing in Cavities

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Cardinal Rules
Evaluate the situation
Communicate Collect complete information Notify the fishing tool company All parties understand the situation Keep all parties informed OD, ID, length of fishing string Know limitations of fishing string Accurate weight indicator Locate the top of the fish Determine freepoint Leave one to two joints above freepoint

Gather information

Keep track of pipe tallies Do not rotate fishing string Do not pull out of the rope socket

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Pipe sticking
Mud Sticking: dehydration of mud, barite and solids can settle out Sand sticking: hole in the casing

Barite and solids settle out in the annulus causing pipe to become stuck
2009 TCP M1.1 P17 Vers 1 Rev 1 090313 page 6

Mechanical Sticking
Stuck packers: Casing Collapse Crooked pipe Junk in the hole

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Keyseat
Keyseats are often associated with deviation and variation of formation hardness A small-diameter channel worn into the side of a larger diameter wellbore. When larger diameter drilling tools such as tool joints, drill collars, stabilizers, and bits are pulled into the channel, their larger diameters will not pass and the larger diameter tools may become stuck in the keyseat. Preventive measures include keeping any turns in the wellbore gradual and smooth. The remedy to keyseating involves enlarging the worn channel so that the larger diameter tools will fit through it.

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Cement sticking

The cement makes the pipe to be stuck

2009

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Pipe sticking
Under gauge hole

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Differential sticking
These cross-sectional views show a drill collar embedded in mudcake and pinned to the borehole wall by the pressure differential between the drilling mud and the formation. As time passes, if the drillstring remains stationary, the area of contact can increase (right) making it more difficult to free the drillstring.

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Blow out sticking

Sand, shake or other formation

debris and pipe stabilisers, could


be blown up the hole. This debris can bridge over and stick the string of pipe.

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Lost circulating sticking

Occurs when highly permeable or unconsolidated formations are fractured by the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid. In this situation drilling fluid van flow freely into the formation.

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Parting the pipe string


Back off Chemical Cut Jet Cut Mechanical Cut

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Back off
The term back-off defines the operation of separating the free pipe from the stuck pipe at a pipe joint. Blind back off Back off tool
Inside Outside

Sometimes it is impossible to effect a back-off and another method of separating the free portion of the string must be used. Pipe cutting is then the solution. Pipe can be cut mechanically, chemically or by jet.

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Chemical cut
The term chemical cut refers to radically severed pipe that has been cut with a special chemical forced under high pressure through a severing head orifice. The primary advantages of this tool over explosive methods are its ability to sever tubing without:
Damaging the well casing or adjacent tubing Enlarging or leaving a burr on the OD of the cut pipe.

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Jet cut
The jet pipe cutter uses the shaped charge principle.

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Mechanical cut

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Catch Tools
Overshot Basket Grapple Spiral Grapple Spear

Overshot w/ Basket Grapple

Basket Grapple

Spiral Grapple

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Jarring assembly

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Wash over

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Junk Baskets

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Mills and Rotary Shoes

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