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1 Sofia Hedenstierna

Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health


3D Modeling of Cervical Musculature
and its Effect on Neck Injury Prevention
DIVISION OF
NEURONIC ENGINEERING
Defence of Doctoral Thesis
Sofia Hedenstierna
2 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
With combined knowledge
of medicine and engineering
improve the prevention of
head and neck injuries
?
Division of Neuronic Engineering
Neurotrauma + Mechanics
3 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Neck Injury Prevention
Experimental Research and Development
Davidsson et al. (1998)
4 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Neck Injury Prevention
Existing numerical models of the cervical musculature
Eindhoven (MADYMO)
(Van der Horst 2002)
France (RADIOSS)
(Frechede et al. 2006)
KTH (LS-DYNA)
(Brolin et al. 2005)
Duke (LS-DYNA)
(Chancey et al. 2003)
JAMA (LS-DYNA)
(Ejima et al. 2005)
5
The KTH FE Neck Model
Intervertebral Disks
and Ligaments
Vertebrae
Muscles
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Numerical Modeling
6 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Solid model:
Improved Boundary Condition for Injury
Prediction in Cervical Column
3D geometry
Inertia forces
Compressive stiffness
Output from Muscle Tissue for Muscle
Injury Analysis
Strain
Cross sectional forces
Strain energy
Passive force
Active force
Discrete model:
Numerical Modeling
7
better understand the contribution from musculature on the stability
of the head neck complex,
improve the injury prediction of the cervical spine e.g. vertebra and
ligament,
enable analysis of strain in the muscle elements to predict injury in the
muscle tissue.
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Objectives
Main objective: To develop a 3D finite element model of the cervical
musculature using solid elements, in order to:
8
Introduction
Method
Geometry
Material Modeling
Evaluation
Results From Papers
Conclusions
Future Work

3D Modeling of Cervical Musculature and
its Effect on Neck Injury Prevention
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
9 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Geometry of the Cervical Musculature
The FE Muscle Model Geometry created from MRI
1. Segmented from MRI
(50
th
percentile)
2. Interpolated into 3D
surfaces
10 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
1. Segmented from MRI
(50
th
percentile)
2. Interpolated into 3D
surfaces
3. Positioned relative the
KTH neck model in line
with the literature
Geometry of the Cervical Musculature
The FE Muscle Model Geometry created from MRI
11
25 individual muscle pairs
Rigid body insertions to the
vertebrae
One muscle can have multiple
origins/insertions
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Geometry of the Cervical Musculature
The FE Muscle Model Geometry created from MRI
12 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Geometry of the Cervical Musculature
Anterior: Hyoid, SCM Lateral: SCM, TZ
Posterior: TZ, SplCap Posterior: Suboccipital
13
Introduction
Method
Geometry
Material Modeling
Evaluation
Results From Papers
Conclusions
Future Work
3D Modeling of Cervical Musculature and
its Effect on Neck Injury Prevention
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
14
The Active force is generated voluntarily or
by reflex. It has a maximum at optimal
muscle length L
opt
and decreases rapidly
as the muscle is shortened or extended.
Force
Length
Passive
Active
Total
Isometric
contraction
L
opt

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health

The Passive force depends on the stiffness
on the muscle tissue and increase
nonlinearly with the length.
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue
The Total force is the sum of passive and
active forces.
Material response: passive stiffness and active contraction
15 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue
v=1/s
10/s
25/s
[Myers et al 1995]
[Davis et al 2003]
Material formulations: Passive
16
Material formulations: Passive
Nonlinear elastic
( )

= =
+ =
3
1 1
2
) 1 (
2
1
1
i
n
j
i
j
j
J K W
j
o

Ogden Rubber Energy Potential


Parameters obtained from and validated for study on the rabbit
Tibialis Anterior muscle [Davis et al 2003]
[Ogden 1972]
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue
Unidirectional stress

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
i
i
1
2
1
1
o
o
o
e
17
Material formulations: Passive
Nonlinear elastic
Viscoelastic
( )

= =
+ =
3
1 1
2
) 1 (
2
1
1
i
n
j
i
j
j
J K W
j
o

Ogden Rubber Energy Potential

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

i
i
i
i
1
2
1
1
o
o
o
[Ogden 1972]
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue
Unidirectional stress

=
n
i
t
i
i
e G t G
1
) (
|
Viscoelasticity
}
c
c
c
=
t
kl
ijkl
V
ij
t G
0
) ( t
t
c
t o
e V
o o o + =
Prony Series
18 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue
Material formulations: Passive
v=1/s
10/s
25/s
Ogden
19
The Hill-type element
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Material formulations: Active
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue
CE CE
Active force

Damper

Passive force
20
0.0
1.0
0 1 2
Lrel
n
o
r
m

F
f
TL
(Lr)
Act(t)
F
max
PCSA
Peak muscle stress of 50
N/cm
2
[Winters and Stark 1988]
The Hill-type element
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Material formulations: Active
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue
CE
F
CE
= FmaxPCSAAct(t)f
TL
(Lr)
CE
Active force
21
CE
The Hill-type element
Discrete Muscle Model Continuum Muscle Model
Hill-type contractile
element
+
CE
Active force

Damper

Passive force
Active force

Damper

Passive force
CE
Nonlinear elastic
Viscoelastic
Continuum elements
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Super-positioned Muscle Finite Element (SMFE)
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue
22 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Passive Muscle
Active Muscle
50N
50N
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue
23
Introduction
Method
Geometry
Material Modeling
Evaluation
Results From Papers
Conclusions
Future Work
3D Modeling of Cervical Musculature and
its Effect on Neck Injury Prevention
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
24 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Evaluation of Muscle Models
Discrete Muscle Model
DMM
Continuum Muscle Model
CMM
SMFE Muscle Model
SMFEMM
25
Rear end ~4G
[Ono et al 1999 and Davidsson et al 1999]
Evaluation of Muscle Models
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
26
Frontal~15G
[Ewing et al 1977]
Lateral ~7G
[Ewing et al 1977]
Evaluation of Muscle Models
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
27
Introduction
Method
Geometry
Material Modeling
Evaluation
Results From Papers
Conclusions
Future Work
3D Modeling of Cervical Musculature and
its Effect on Neck Injury Prevention
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
28 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Paper Aim Method Result
I
Analyze importance of
muscle activation
FE spring neck muscle
model (DMM)
II
Measure muscle activation
schemes on volunteers
Experimental EMG
III
Define material description
of passive and active
muscle tissue
FE solid rabbit muscle
model (SMFE)
IV
Create a 3D muscle
geometry with continuum
elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (CMM)
V
Evaluate the muscle load
response in the solid neck
muscle model
FE solid neck muscle
model
(CMM passive)
VI
Create an active neck
muscle model with
continuum elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (SMFEMM)
Papers
Measure muscle activ.
schemes on volunteers
Analyze importance of
muscle activation
29
Paper I: The importance of muscle tension on the
outcome of impacts with a major vertical component.
Aim: To analyze how activated cervical musculature protects
the neck during injurious impacts.
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Brolin K., Hedenstierna S., Halldin P., Bass C.R., Alem N. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 13(5): 487-498, 2008.
30
Paper I: The importance of muscle tension on the
outcome of impacts with a major vertical component.
Aim: To analyze how activated cervical musculature protects
the neck during injurious impacts.
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Brolin K., Hedenstierna S., Halldin P., Bass C.R., Alem N. International Journal of Crashworthiness, 13(5): 487-498, 2008.
Conclusion: Muscle activation stabilizes the spinal column
during impacts with a major vertical component,
and reduces the risk of ligament injury at high impact
severities.
31
Paper II: Electromyography of Superficial and Deep
Neck Muscles During Isometric, Voluntary, and
Reflex Contractions.
Aim:To improve knowledge about muscle activation schemes
during voluntary and subjected motions, covering deep
and superficial cervical muscles for multiple directions of
motion.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Siegmund G.P, Blouin J-S, Brault J, Hedenstierna S, Inglis J Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 129(1), 66-77, 2007.
Muscles with EMG electrodes Dynamic sled tests/
Static force generation
32 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Activation
time
Duration
Paper II: EMG in multiple directions
33
Paper II: Electromyography of Superficial and Deep
Neck Muscles During Isometric, Voluntary, and
Reflex Contractions.
Aim:To improve knowledge about muscle activation schemes
during voluntary and subjected motions, covering deep
and superficial cervical muscles for multiple directions of
motion.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Siegmund G.P, Blouin J-S, Brault J, Hedenstierna S, Inglis J Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 129(1), 66-77, 2007.
Conclusion: Muscle activation is directional dependent. All
muscles except Splenius Capitis, acted consistently
with their anatomical location.
34 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Paper Aim Method Result
I
Analyze importance of
muscle activation
FE spring neck muscle
model (DMM)
II
Measure muscle activation
schemes on volunteers
Experimental EMG
III
Define material
description of passive
and active muscle tissue
FE solid rabbit muscle
model (SMFE)
IV
Create a 3D muscle
geometry with continuum
elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (CMM)
V
Evaluate the muscle load
response in the solid neck
muscle model
FE solid neck muscle
model
(CMM passive)
VI
Create an active neck
muscle model with
continuum elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (SMFEMM)
Papers
35
Paper III:Evaluation of a combination of continuum
and truss finite elements in a model of passive and
active muscle tissue.
Aim: To suggest and evaluate a method to model active
muscle tissue with continuum material properties and
active force generation.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Hedenstierna S, Halldin P, Brolin K. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 11(6), 627-39, 2008.
Super-positioned Muscle Finite Element
36 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Eccentric contraction
Concentric contraction
Paper III: SMFE
37
Paper III:Evaluation of a combination of continuum
and truss finite elements in a model of passive and
active muscle tissue.
Aim: To suggest and evaluate a method to model active
muscle tissue with continuum material properties and
active force generation.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Hedenstierna S, Halldin P, Brolin K. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, 11(6), 627-39, 2008.
Conclusion: It is possible to model active muscle tissue
with continuum material properties by combining
passive solid elements and active discrete elements.
38 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Paper Aim Method Result
I
Analyze importance of
muscle activation
FE spring neck muscle
model (DMM)
II
Collect information on
muscle activation
Experimental EMG
III
Define material description
of passive and active
muscle tissue
FE solid rabbit muscle
model (SMFE)
IV
Create a 3D muscle
geometry with
continuum elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (CMM)
V
Evaluate the muscle load
response in the solid neck
muscle model
FE solid neck muscle
model
(CMM passive)
VI
Create an active neck
muscle model with
continuum elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (SMFEMM)
Papers
39
Paper IV: How does a Three-Dimensional Continuum Muscle
Model Affect the Kinematics and Muscle Strains of a Finite
Element Neck Model Compared to a Discrete Muscle Model in
Rear-End, Frontal, and Lateral Impacts.
Aim: To create and validate a solid model of the neck
muscles including nonlinear and viscoelastic material
properties.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Hedenstierna S, Halldin P. Spine, 33(8), E236-45, 2008.
CMM DMM
40
Kinematics: Rear-end Impact
Paper IV: Evaluation of Solid muscle model
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
41
Kinematics: Lateral Impact
Paper IV: Evaluation of Solid muscle model
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
42
Kinematics: Frontal Impact
Paper IV: Evaluation of Solid muscle model
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
43
Paper IV: How does a Three-Dimensional Continuum Muscle
Model Affect the Kinematics and Muscle Strains of a Finite
Element Neck Model Compared to a Discrete Muscle Model in
Rear-End, Frontal, and Lateral Impacts.
Aim: To create and validate a solid model of the neck
muscles including nonlinear and viscoelastic material
properties.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Hedenstierna S, Halldin P. Spine, 33(8), E236-45, 2008.
Conclusion: The continuum element muscle model
stabilizes the vertebral column compared to the
spring muscle model, and improves the biofidelity
of the neck model.

44 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Paper Aim Method Result
I
Analyze importance of
muscle activation
FE spring neck muscle
model (DMM)
II
Collect information on
muscle activation
Experimental EMG
III
Define material description
of passive and active
muscle tissue
FE solid rabbit muscle
model (SMFE)
IV
Create a 3D muscle
geometry with continuum
elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (CMM)
V
Evaluate the muscle
load response in the
solid neck muscle model
FE solid neck muscle
model
(CMM passive)
VI
Create an active neck
muscle model with
continuum elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (SMFEMM)
Papers
45
Paper V: Neck Muscle Load Distribution in Lateral,
Frontal and Rear-end Impact; a 3D Finite Element
Analysis.
Aim: To study how the load distribution in the cervical
muscles varies as a function of impact severity and
impact direction, using the model developed and
described in Paper IV.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Hedenstierna S, Halldin P, Siegmund G.P. Submitted for publication, 1-16
Green Effective Strain Internal Energy Cross Sectional Force
46 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Paper V: Cross Sectional Forces vs. EMG activity
FRONTAL
LATERAL
REAR-END
Kumar
Schldt
47
Cross Sectional Force
REAR-END IMPACT
t=0.13
t=0.072
Paper V: Muscle Load during impact
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
48
Green Effective Strain
REAR-END IMPACT
Paper V: Muscle Load during impact
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
49
Paper V: Neck Muscle Load Distribution in Lateral,
Frontal and Rear-end Impact; a 3D Finite Element
Analysis.
Aim: To study how the load distribution in the cervical
muscles varies as a function of impact severity and
impact direction, using the model developed and
described in Paper IV.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Hedenstierna S, Halldin P, Siegmund G.P. Submitted for publication, 1-16
Conclusion: The muscle load predicted by the model is
sensitive to load direction and severity.
The resulting local strains and global energies/forces
predicts different load distributions.

50 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Paper Aim Method Result
I
Analyze importance of
muscle activation
FE spring neck muscle
model (DMM)
II
Collect information on
muscle activation
Experimental EMG
III
Define material description
of passive and active
muscle tissue
FE solid rabbit muscle
model (SMFE)
IV
Create a 3D muscle
geometry with continuum
elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (CMM)
V
Evaluate the muscle load
response in the solid neck
muscle model
FE solid neck muscle
model
(CMM passive)
VI
Create an active neck
muscle model with
continuum elements
FE solid neck muscle
model (SMFEMM)
Papers
51
Paper VI: Development of an active solid neck
muscle FE model and its influence on neck injury
prediction.
Aim: To study the effect of incorporated active muscle forces
in the solid element model of the cervical musculature on
neck kinematics, using the materials described in Paper
III in the solid musculature model described in Papers IV
and V.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Hedenstierna S. Manuscript, 1-15
SMFEMM CMM
52
Paper VI: Active Continuum Muscle Model with SMFE
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
CMM SMFEMM
53
Paper VI: Active Continuum Muscle Model with SMFE
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
CMM SMFEMM
54
Global Vertebral Rotations: Rear-end
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Paper VI: Active Continuum Muscle Model with SMFE
55
Paper VI: Development of an active solid neck
muscle FE model and its influence on neck injury
prediction.
Aim: To study the effect of incorporated active muscle forces
in the solid element model of the cervical musculature on
neck kinematics, using the materials described in Paper
III in the solid musculature model described in Papers IV
and V.

Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Hedenstierna S. Manuscript, 1-15
Conclusion: The SMFEMM gives a more realistic
response than the CMM and DMM, and the
kinematics are closer to volunteer data.

56
Introduction
Method
Geometry
Material Modeling
Evaluation
Results From Papers
Conclusions
Future Work
3D Modeling of Cervical Musculature and
its Effect on Neck Injury Prevention
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
57
Conclusions
The solid elements stabilizes and restricts the
motion of the vertebral column compared to the
spring muscle model
The load distribution between muscles reflects the
different impact directions and severities applied
The solid muscle model visualizes muscle
dynamics and strains in an easy perceptual way
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
58
Introduction
Method
Geometry
Material Modeling
Evaluation
Results From Papers
Conclusions
Future Work
3D Modeling of Cervical Musculature and
its Effect on Neck Injury Prevention
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
59
Future Work
Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Boundary
conditions
The stability of the
SMFE
Myotendinous-
junctions/insertion
Muscle activation
A female version

60 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health

THANK
YOU!
61 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
I. The importance of muscle tension on the outcome of impacts with a major vertical
component. Brolin K., Hedenstierna S., Halldin P., Bass C.R., Alem N. International Journal of Crashworthiness,
13(5): 487-498, 2008.

II. Electromyography of Superficial and Deep Neck Muscles During Isometric, Voluntary,
and Reflex Contractions. Siegmund G.P., Blouin J.S., Brault J.R., Hedenstierna S., Inglis J.T. Journal of
Biomechanical Engineering, 129(1), 66-77, 2007.

III. Evaluation of a combination of continuum and truss finite elements in a model of
passive and active muscle tissue. Hedenstierna S., Halldin P., Brolin K. Computer Methods in Biomechanics
and Biomedical Engineering, 11(6), 627-39, 2008.

IV. How does a Three-Dimensional Continuum Muscle Model Affect the Kinematics and
Muscle Strains of a Finite Element Neck Model Compared to a Discrete Muscle Model in
Rear-End, Frontal, and Lateral Impacts. Hedenstierna S., Halldin P. Spine, 33(8), E236-45, 2008.

V. Neck Muscle Load Distribution in Lateral, Frontal and Rear-end Impact; a 3D Finite
Element Analysis. Hedenstierna S., Halldin P., Siegmund G.P. Submitted for publication, 1-16

VI. Development of an active solid neck muscle FE model and its influence on neck injury
prediction. Hedenstierna S. Manuscript, 1-15
Papers
62 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Flexion 15g: Passive CMM and active SMFE
Passive
Active
63 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Extension 4g: Passive CMM and active SMFE
Passive
Active
Passive DMM
64 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Lateral 7g: Passive CMM and active CMM
Passive
Active
Passive DMM
65
v(t)
Frontal impact
Muscle Activation
Degree of activation over time
66 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Activation
time
Duration
Paper II: EMG in multiple directions
67 Sofia Hedenstierna
Division of Neuronic Engineering, School of Technology and Health
Peak head
rot (deg)
DMM pas 80
CMM pas 67
CMM act 49
SMFEMM 46
Peak Head rotation relative T1