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# DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Name of the faculty : D Saritha
Designation : Lecturer
Branch : D.A.E.I.E
Institute : Govt Polytechnic, Kothagudem
Year/Semester : IV Semester
Subject : Process Instrumentation –II
Sub-Code : AEI-405
Topic : Level Measurement
Duration : 100 min
Sub-Topic : Capacitive Type of Level Indicator
Teaching Aids : Diagrams
AEI-405.51 TO 52 1
Objectives

## Upon the completion of this topic you would be

• Capacitive type of level Indicators

• Principle of operation

## • Construction and working principle

AEI-405.51 TO 52 2
Recap

## In last class we have discussed about

• Inductive type level transducer

AEI-405.51 TO 52 3
Capacitive type of level indicator

## • This is an electrical method for measuring and

indicating liquid level in industries

## • Variable Dielectric Constant Method

AEI-405.51 TO 52 4
Principle
The operation is based upon the familiar equation of a
parallel plate capacitor given by

C = ε A/D

## Where , C = Capacitance , in farad

ε = Dielectric Constant

A = Area of plate, in m²

## D = Distance between two plates, in m

AEI-405.51 TO 52 5
Principle

## constant, and this principle is used in the capacitance

level indicators.

AEI-405.51 TO 52 6
Variable area method

## • Used for measurement of levels of both solids and

liquids

AEI-405.51 TO 52 7
Construction

## • A metal rod completely covered by insulating material is

placed inside the container

• The metal rod and the container walls form the two plates
of the capacitor

## • The insulating material forms acts as the dielectric

medium

AEI-405.51 TO 52 8
Working
• When the level of liquid in the tank rises the
capacitance varies linearly with the height of the
material
• The relationship between level of a liquid and the
capacitance is given by :
C = 2πεh/logе(d2/d1)
Where ε = permittivity of the insulator;F/m
h = height of the material ; m
d1 = diameter of the metal rod ; m
d2 = diameter of the insulator ; m
AEI-405.51 TO 52 9
Working

## • The increase or decrease of the capacitance is

measured and is displayed on the indicator calibrated
in terms of liquid level

AEI-405.51 TO 52 10
Capacitive voltage divider method

AEI-405.51 TO 52 11
Construction
• The liquid surface acts as one electrode for liquids
whose conductivity is high

## • The other electrode is a fixed reference plate parallel to

the surface of the liquid

## • An auxiliary electrode P1 is placed at a fixed distance

above the reference electrode P2.

AEI-405.51 TO 52 12
Construction

from each other

## • An ac voltage is applied between the liquid and the

electrode P1

AEI-405.51 TO 52 13
Working
• As the level of the liquid in the tank varies the

## • The potential of electrode P2 with respect to earth

E0 = Ei C1/(C1+C2) Volts

AEI-405.51 TO 52 14
Working

## • Therefore , a non-linear relationship exists between

them.

AEI-405.51 TO 52 15
Variable dielectric constant method

## • If the liquid is non-conducting it is used as a dielectric in

a capacitor

AEI-405.51 TO 52 16
Construction

## material if the liquid is non-conductive

AEI-405.51 TO 52 17
• If the liquid is conductive in nature,

• The metal rod and the liquid form the plates of the

capacitor

## • The insulation between them is the dielectric medium

AEI-405.51 TO 52 18
Working
• The capacitance of this capacitor depends upon the
height of the dielectric between the plates i,e the liquid
level.
• As the level of the liquid increases the capacitance
increases.
• Thus, the capacitance is proportional to the height of
the liquid in the tank
• The capacitance thus measured is an indication of
liquid levels.
AEI-405.51 TO 52 19
AEI-405.51 TO 52 20

## • Useful in small system.

• Very sensitive
• Moving parts are not exposed to fluid
• Suitable for continuous indication and/or control
• Remote adjustment of span and zero is possible
• Good for use with slurries
• Probe materials for most corrosive fluids are available

AEI-405.51 TO 52 21

## • Performance is severely affected by dirt and other

contaminants as they change the dielectric constant
• Changes in temperature affects the sensitivity
• Measured fluids must have proper dielectric strength
• Recalibration is required if measured materials changes
in composition or moisture content
• Probe length and mounting must suit the tank

AEI-405.51 TO 52 22
Summary

## We have discussed about :

• Capacitance type of level indicator
• Variable area method

## • Variable dielectric constant method

AEI-405.51 TO 52 23
Quiz

## 1. The performance of capacitance level indicator is

severely affected by dirt, because they change the

a) Area of plate

## b) Distance between two plates

c) Dielectric constants

## d) None of the above

AEI-405.51 TO 52 24
1. The variable area method of capacitive type level
indicator is used for measurement of level of

a) Only solids

b) Only liquids

## d) None of the above

AEI-405.51 TO 52 25
1. In capacitive voltage divider method of liquid level
measurement , with rise of level the output voltage

a) Decreases

b) Increases

c) Remains constant

## d) None of the above

AEI-405.51 TO 52 26
1. Explain the principle of a capacitance type of level
indicator

## 2. Explain the working of a variable area capacitance

type of level indicator with a neat sketch

## 3. Explain the working of a capacitive voltage divider type

of level indicator with a neat sketch