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CSC 2202

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND


DESIGN

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Instructor

Name: Gilbert Maiga


Email: gmaiga@cit.mak.ac.ug

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design 2


Course aim
The course aims to give students an
understanding of the approaches,
methodologies, techniques and steps
involved in analysing, designing,
testing and implementing a computer
information system.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Course Objectives
At the end of the course students should
be able:
1. To apply fundamental information systems
concepts to an information system
problem.
2. To understand and apply Systems
Development Life Cycle (SDLC) concepts.
3. To document the overall structure of data
flow for a business problem.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Objectives (cont)

4. To document requirements and design


of computer generated outputs.
5. To document computer programming
specifications for a system.
6. To organize & present the
documentation for a system on a
technical report.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Course outline
The topics covered include:
• Course overview
• Introduction to information systems
analysis and design.
• The system development lifecycle
• Preliminary Investigation and
Feasibility study
• Requirements determination

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Course outline - continued
6. Information gathering techniques
7. System analysis tools and techniques
8. System design
9. System Implementation, Evolution and
Review
10.Information systems project management
11.Case Studies

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Pedagogy
Teaching / Learning approach :
 The teaching and learning approaches will
combine classroom lectures, group
discussions, quizzes and take home
assignments. Take home assignments and
quizzes shall form part of the coursework.
The material presented in class will overlap
that of the text but will contain additions and
variations.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Materials
 References are given at the end of this
chapter
 The Blackboard has
 PowerPoint Slides
 Assignments and Solutions
 Course Outline and Description

Announcements

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Students Performance Evaluation

 Students Are Evaluated Through:


 Coursework (40%) consisting of :
1. Individual Assignments and Tests
2. Class Quiz
 Final examination (60%)

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Quiz

 Quiz:
 At least one Quiz during
semester

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Class Attendance & Participation
 How to be an active participant?
 Attend all classes and be always on time
 Complete scheduled readings before class
 Do class exercises

 Each student is encouraged to be an active


participant by expressing his/her ideas and
opinions

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Course Policies
 Assignments Due Dates

Late submissions shall not be accepted

No student homework for a particular
assignment will be accepted after the
grades for that assignment are
turned back to class

If you have problems that prevent you
from meeting the preparation and
assignment schedule, you must let
me know in advance

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Course Policies
 Missed Quiz
 A missed quiz will receive a grade of zero

 No make up quiz will be given to the


students missing a quiz without an excuse
verified by the instructor

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Course overview
 This is an introduction course to the
theory and application of information
systems analysis and design.
 It is an introduction to information
systems and the development life cycle.
 Tools and techniques for documenting
information systems are presented.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Course overview (cont)
 Classical and structured tools for describing
data flows, data structures, process flows, file
design, input and output design and program
specification are explained.
 The primary theme of the course is the use of
systems analysis and design techniques to
develop and document effective computer
based information systems.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Course overview (cont)
 Systems analysis and systems design
are primarily done by the systems
analyst.
 Systems analysis, design, and
implementation are processes used by
professionals to develop or maintain
Information systems.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


1. Introduction

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


What is systems analysis and
design?
Systems analysis
 Analysis is the separation of a substance into

parts for study and interpretation; detailed


examination (oxford dictionary). (Substance =
business system).
 System analysis is the study of an

organization's problem or situation and the


specification of business requirements for an
improved system.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


What is systems analysis and
design?

Systems design
Is the detailed specification of a computer
based solution to the business requirements.
The design includes the programming
specifications.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


What is systems analysis and
design?
 Systems Analysis ad Design covers the
entire systems development process
from planning to implementation,
maintenance, and evolution.
 It includes all activities performed to
produce an automated IS.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Justification for systems
analysis and design
Why Systems analysis?
 Projects do not succeed by chance

 Successful IT projects follow a

systematic “analysis and design”


process

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Information
Systems
 Almost all of
our daily
transactions are
recorded on an
Information
System
somewhere.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Systems and subsystems
 System Definition:
It is a set of interrelated, interacting
components that function together to
achieve specific results
 An effective system is Synergistic - the
whole is worth more than the sum of the
separate parts

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Systems and subsystems
 Business systems are composed of:
People, facilities, equipment, materials
and methods of work
that function together to provide goods
or services

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Subsystems
 Subsystems - exist where main system
becomes complex
 Manufacturing example:

input o/p o/p output


Fabricating Finishing Shipping
i/p i/p

SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM SUBSYSTEM


A B C

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Typical business systems
Interaction
of major
Purchasing Sales
systems

Inventory Marketing

Shipping Personnel
Finance

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Typical business systems and
subsystems

Subsystems for
the finance General Finance
system Ledger

Credit Payroll

Accounts
Receivable Accounts
Payable

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Main types of information systems

 1. Transaction Processing System (TP)


 2. Office Automation Systems (OAS)
 3. Management Information System (MIS)
 4. Decision Support System (DSS)
 5. Strategic Information System (SIS) or
(EES)
 6. Expert System (ES)

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Transaction processing
system
 Controls routine daily activities of an
organisation
 Typically large volumes of data
 Transaction is an event that affects the
organisation
 Transaction processing cycle includes:
recording, processing, updating, output,
report
CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design
Transaction processing
system
 Examples of transactions include ...
 receive payment
 place order
 refund purchase

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Office Automation Systems (OAS)
 At the “knowledge” level of an
organisation
 Use information for analysis
 Familiar aspects of OAS include:
 word processing, desktop publishing
 spreadsheets, scheduling
 voice mail, electronic mail

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Management Information System
 Deals with summary
information from TP
system
 Exception conditions
require closer attention
 (where special action is
required) are reported

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Decision Support System (DSS)
 Strategic Planning
 Set long-term goals
 Uses internal results from TPS and MIS
 Also uses external (statistical) data
 Build model for future state of the business

 Group Decision Support System (GDSS)


 uses group problem solving

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


5. Strategic Information System (SIS) or
Executive Support System (ESS)
 Designed to give a firm competitive advantage within
an industry
 Michael Porter identified 5 ways:
 Build barriers against potential competitors

 Enhance customer loyalty

 Favourably alter balance of power with suppliers

 change the basis of competition within an industry

 develop new products

 Example: American Airlines - first to create


on-line ticket reservation system

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Expert System (ES)
 Part of the field of Artificial Intelligence
 Computer system which guides user
through tasks requiring special
knowledge
 Contains “knowledge base” which
includes both data and decision rules
 Examples: medical diagnosis, oil
exploration
CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design
Organizational Levels

➠ Four organizational levels


➠ Operational personnel
➠ Lower management
➠ Middle management
➠ Top management
➠ Responsibilities, decision-making styles, and
information system requirements
➠ Empowerment of operational personnel

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Organisation Levels and IS requirements

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Organisation levels and IS requirements

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Organizational goals and information
systems
 Examples of organisational goals:
 Maximise profit
 Increase market share or sales volumes
 Operate in an environment-friendly manner
 Purpose of an Information system is to
help achieve organisational goals
 In many cases (not always) technology /
computers can assist

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


System boundary
 Need to draw the system boundary line
somewhere System Boundary

Interactions
Interactions

SYSTEM

Interactions

ENVIRONMENT
Interactions
CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design
System boundary…cont

A boundary (scope)
 What is the perimeter or border of the system

– elements, features, options, that will be


included in the system.
 What is the area under investigation?

 What is the boundary of the system?

 What parts of the organization are off limits?

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Components of an information
system
 Input - data, the raw material
 Process - transform data into useful
information
 Output - product or result
 Feedback - for quality control, evaluate
results
 Adjustments - where corrections are
necessary
CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design
Components of an information system-
a general example

Input
Output
Source Processing Destination

Adjustments
Feedback

Control

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Components of an Automated
Information system
I S is an arrangement of interdependent
human and machine components that
interact to support the operational,
managerial, and decision-making
information needs of the business’s end-
users. It is made up of :
Hardware, Software, People, Data,
procedures

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


An automated information system
*

Data People

Software Procedures

Hardware

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Characteristics of an Information
System

 Data – are either


 Input via some data entry device,
 OR already in the system and stored
on a storage device, or
 Displayed or printed on an output
medium.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Characteristics of an Information
System
 Function (process, method) – is a
transformation or action taken by the IS.
Functions carry out and enforce
business policies, rules, and
procedures.
 Behaviour – is the observable effects
of a request.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Basic Characteristics of an IS

Data Functions

Behaviour
 Data: input, stored, or output
 Function: business activity performed
 Behaviour: the observable effects of a
request
CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design
The Systems Development Process
(Overview)

The system development process


comprises of :
1. Techniques
2. Methods
3. Strategies.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Techniques, methods and
strategies

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Techniques
 Are at the lowest level of the process.
 Are designed to do a particular task within the
analysis and design process.
 Several techniques may be applied for a
given method/methodology/approach.
 Examples include:
 Data flow diagrams, Flow charts, Logical data
structures, Context diagrams, Decision tables,
Gantt charts, Tree diagrams.
CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design
Methods/Methodology

A system analysis method embodies a


number of techniques each chosen for its
appropriateness to a particular task within
a method/ methodology. Several methods
May be combined for a given computer
systems development strategy.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Methodologies

Examples of methods/methodologies:
2. Structured Systems Analysis & Design
Methodology.
3. Jackson Structured programming(JSP)
4. Soft Systems Methodology.
5. Object Oriented Methodology.
6. The Traditional SDLC
7. Prototyping
CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design
The Systems Development
Process (Overview)
 SA & D takes a much broader
perspective and focuses on:
• Systems Planning – performing
planning and initial feasibility activities
to determine which IS projects take
priority over others.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


The Systems Development Process
(Overview)

2. Systems Analysis – understanding


and documenting the requirements of
a specific problem domain.
A problem domain refers to the
business problem or function being
planned, analysed, designed, and
ultimately implemented as an
automated IS.
CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design
The Systems Development Process
(Overview)

3. Systems design – designing an


appropriate solution for the problem
domain based on the documented
requirements from SA.
4. Systems Implementation –
constructing, testing and installing the
information system and having the
users use the IS.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


The Systems Development
Process (Overview)
5. Systems Evolution – maintaining and
enhancing an IS so that it continues to
meet the needs of the business.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


The system analyst

 She or he performs
Systems Analysis
 Usually employed in
the Information
Systems department
 Has Wide ranging
skills

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


The system analyst..(cont)

A system analyst studies the


problems and needs of an
organisation to determine how people,
methods, and computer technology
can best accomplish improvements
for the business.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Role of a systems analyst

1. Investigate how information is used,


handled and manipulated in an
organization.
2. Identify inefficiencies in the current system
used by the organization e.g delays, high
operating costs,huge clerical effort.
3. Analyze the results of the investigation that
will lead to designing the system.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Role of a systems analyst (cont)

4. Design a specification of a new system


which overcomes the inefficiencies
and meets the organization objectives.
5. Oversees the process of testing during
the testing of the system.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Role of a systems analyst (cont)
6. The analyst acts as a facilitator.
He/She interfaces among many
different types of people and facilitates
the development of computer
applications through these people.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Stakeholders of an information system

Users

Steering
Managers
Committee
Systems
Analyst
Database
Administrators Vendors
Programmers
& Technical
Staff

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Stakeholders of an information system

NB. These teams in the diagram will be created


and disbanded as projects are started and
completed or cancelled.
 The analyst may well be the only
individual who sees the big picture of
the system.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Tasks of a systems analyst
Systems analyst tasks include
 Investigation

 Planning

 Understanding

 Communication

 Documentation

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Qualities of a systems analyst

1. Working knowledge of IS Techniques and


Technology.
2. Computer Programming Knowledge
3. Problem-solving skills (creativity)
4. Interpersonal Relations skills (confidence,
persistent, patience)
5. Interpersonal communication skills
6. Ongoing interest in updating one’s knowledge in
IT.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Systems Analyst skills -
Behavioural &Technical

Diplomacy Being able to say "no" without being " blunt; displaying tact in
dealing with others.
Interviewing Asking the right questions in order to obtain the information
needed.
Directing Giving instructions and communicating user requirements to
programming and support staff.
Patience Continually refining user requirements by requesting -
feedback; tolerating lack of computer literacy and specificity.
Assertiveness Insisting on a course of action or what one believes in, even
though it may be unpopular.
Leadership Getting work done while keeping the team satisfied, effectively
giving rewards and punishment.
Programming Converting system specifications into effective and efficient
computer code.
Speaking Presenting your ideas in a manner easily understood by your
audience, both in group meetings and person to person.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Systems Analyst skills -
Behavioural &Technical
Writing Preparing written documents that accurately communicate
ideas in a manner that is easily understood by intended readers.
Listening Paying attention to and concentrating on what is being said, and
asking questions that refine points about which one is
uncertain.
Empathy Being able to understand how others feel; accurately
determining what someone else thinks about an issue.
Sales Promoting the system you advocate; persuading others to
accept your viewpoint.
Politics Understanding what motivates individuals; determining sources
of power and influence in an organisation.
Management Planning, organising and controlling projects so that they get
done on schedule and within budget.
Training Educating users and other non-technical groups on the
capabilities of computers and systems.
Cooperation Working with others productively; resolving conflict in an
effective manner.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


The Steering Committee
 The steering is committee is formulated
in the organization to oversee the
Systems study and thereafter.
 It usually comprises of cross functional,
senior managers within a business
drawn from the following units of an
organization:

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Steering Committee
(cont)

1. Personnel from IT department


2. Vice presidents / directors
3. Accounts department
4. Administration

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Steering Committee (cont)

5. Data processing department


6. SA team (if it’s from outside)
7. Senior Information Systems
Manager

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Functions of the steering
Committee

1. Main role of this group is to


conduct high-level reviews and
evaluations of proposed IS
development projects and make
recommendations for prioritization
and resources for the projects.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Functions of the steering
Committee.(cont)

2. Study, determine and maintain an IT policy


for the organization.
3. Get views and requirements of the user dept
to be represented as they try to look for
solutions for the entire organization.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Functions of the steering
Committee.(cont)
4. Initiating IT systems development projects.
5. Interviewing and appointment of IT
personnel.
6. Selecting suppliers and negotiating supply
contracts with them and include penalty
clauses.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Vendors
 Vendors are those businesses which
support the IS development effort, such
as consultants, hardware, software
companies, training companies,
telecommunication companies,
documentation companies, and so on.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Where do information
Systems Projects Originate?

New or changed IS development


projects come from problems,
opportunities, and directives and
are always subject to one or more
constraints. Most maintenance of
existing IS projects come from users
discovering real problems with existing IS.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Where do information Systems
Projects Originate?

1. Problems – may either be current,


suspected, or anticipated. Problems
are undesirable situations that prevent
the business from fully achieving its
purpose, goals, and objectives.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Where do information Systems
Projects Originate?

2. An Opportunity – is a chance to
improve the business even in the
absence of specific problems. This
means that the business is hoping to
create a system that will help it with
increasing its revenue, profit, or
services, or decreasing its costs.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Where do information Systems
Projects Originate?

3. A Directive – is a new requirement


that is imposed by management,
government, or some external influence i.e.
are mandates that come from either an
internal or external source of the business.
Constraints are limitations and compromises
that come with the soon to be developed IS.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


Review Questions

Describe the role of a systems analyst in


the systems development process.
Discuss the importance of recognising
system features and system boundaries
as it relates to systems development.
Describe and differentiate at least four
different system types which fall under the
umbrella of ‘information systems’.

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design


References
 Systems Analysis and Design by Don Yeats, Maura
Shields and David Helmy ISBN 0-273-60066-4
 Systems Analysis and Design by Kendall EK and
Kendal JE ISBN 0-13-654229-8
 An introduction to Systems Analysis Techniques by
Mark Lejk and David Deeks; ISBN 0-13-857764-1

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design