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Introduction to Theory in Occupational Therapy

Reference: Cole & Tufano, Chapter 4

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Theory in Occupational Therapy


Philosophy a fundamental belief Paradigm (Thomas Kuhn) a shared vision of the profession which defines the scope of practice (in a profession) Model a standard or example for imitation or comparison (Websters dictionary), an image diagramming the interrelationship of concepts (M. Cole)
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Paradigm of OT
Paradigm is the organizing principle for OT knowledge. Everything we have learned in school is filtered through practice models. We will call these applied theories
Occupation Based Models Frames of Reference

OTs domain of concern is defined by the OT Practice Framework.


From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Kathlyn Reed
Two types of models in OT: 1. Conceptual Models explain WHY OT works, validate value of OT but tend to be generic and do not address specific areas of practice

(Occupation Based Models)


2. Practice Models explain HOW OT works, gives guidelines for specific types of evaluation and intervention

(Frames of Reference)
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Applied Theories in OT
Represent different levels of theory. Some more well-researched than others. How do we know whether the strategies work in practice (evidence-based interventions)? How do we measure outcomes (assessment tools based on theory)?

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Mosey's Model: Occupational Therapy Loop


PHILOSOPHY ASSUMPTIONS ETHICS ART MODEL RESEARCH PRACTICE DATA
Adapted from Mosey, A. (1981). Occupational Therapy: Configuration of a profession (p. 157). New York: Raven Press.
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

SCIENCE

FRAMES OF REFERENCE

OT Theory Organization
(Cole & Tufano, 2008)
PARADIGM Philosophy, Values & Ethics, Knowledge Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain & Process

OCCUPATION-BASED MODELS (Overarching Theories)

FRAMES of REFERENCE (Practice guidelines in specific domains)

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Frame of Reference, Defined


Mosey's definition of a frame of reference: "a set of interrelated, internally consistent concepts, definitions, and postulates that provide a systematic description of and prescription for a practitioner's interaction within a particular aspect of a profession's domain of concern."
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

How a Frame of Reference is organized:


Focus: Areas addressed in Domain Basic Assumptions: Internally consistent & related concepts, postulates, principles Function-Disability Continuums: Defines the range of strengths and problems within a specific domain of concern Postulates of change: Explains how change occurs within a domain Example: How does change occur within the biomechanical frame of reference?
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Organization, cont.
Evaluation: Each frame of reference has specific tools for evaluating the extent of function/dysfunction. Example: What are some ways to assess range of motion, muscle strength, and endurance (biomechanical frame)?

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Organization, cont.
Interventions (formerly called treatment) Each frame of reference has specific strategies for intervention which have been developed and researched to varying degrees. Example: What are some interventions for biomechanical disabilities (rom, strength, endurance, pain)?
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Research: How do theories become evidence-based?


Theory building Little known about it Inductive reasoning Qualitative & descriptive research Case Studies Ethnography, narrative analysis Themes, categories Theory Testing Well known/researched Deductive reasoning Quantitative, experimental research Assessment of dependent variables Studies of specific concepts/relationships

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Frame of Reference
Focus (domains of concern) Basic Assumptions: Concepts, constructs, relationships, principles, postulates Function/disability continuums: application to individual clients (deductive) Postulates of change: how change occurs provides basis for intervention planning, also includes motivation Evaluations, Interventions Research (evidence, outcomes)
From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.

Applied Theories Covered in this Course


See syllabus as guide disability focus Allens Cognitive Disabilities, next week Cognitive Perceptual (Dynamic Interactional) Cognitive Behavioral Psychodynamic Developmental Sensory Integration Neurodevelopmental motor learning The End

From Cole, M. Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach instructor's manual. Online document, http://www.efacultylounge.com, based on Cole, M. (2008). Applied theories in occupational therapy: a practical approach. Thorofare, NJ: SLACK Incorporated.