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Introduo ao Cluster de Computadores

Prof. Arago

What Is a Cluster?
An integration of independent network servers working together as a single-server system

Cluster

Shared Storage

Node 1

Interconnect

LAN

Clients
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Node 2

Cluster Elements
Four Basic Elements High-Performance, Server High-Availability Interconnects Servers Shared Storage Cluster-Enabling Software

Plus many of the same components found in high-availability servers


Hot-pluggable components Uninterruptible power supplies Redundant components

Advantages of Clustering

High availability of resources


Scalability for growth requirements Centralized administration Load balancing

Customer Analysis
Business-critical applications Client/server transaction processing Site or remote site inputs Multiple servers Applications that span multiple servers Oracle, SQL, Informix, or other database servers

How Clusters Are Being Used


Clusters support business-critical systems in everyday business environments
File/print server node clustered with another

file/print server node


Database server node clustered with another

database server node


File/print server node clustered with a database

server node
Database server node clustered with a standby

server node

Example 1 File/Print Server Node Clustered with Another File/Print Server Node
If the HR server fails,

file and print services are transferred to the Marketing server


Clients may

Human Resources File/Print

Marketing File/Print

experience a slight disruption of service


Performance may

diminish slightly

Example 2 Database Server Node Clustered with Another Database Server Node
If the Market Research

server fails, its database fails over to the HR Database server Market
Marketing clients have

a slight disruption of service while:


Research Database

Human Resources Database

Database resources are failed over Database transaction log is rolled back Information in the database is validated

Performance may

diminish slightly
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Example 3 File/Print Server Node Clustered with a Database Server Node


Order Entry Database

Departmental File/Print

Fails over to departmental file/print server


Clients experience a slight disruption Database transaction log is rolled back Application brought back online on file/print server

Does not fail over to order entry database File/print services are offline until problem is resolved Departmental File/Print (Not

Performance may diminish slightly Departmental File/Print (Not

(Business-Critical)

Order Entry Database

Business-Critical)

(Business-Critical)

Order Entry Database

Business-Critical)

Example 4 Database Server Node Clustered with a Standby Server Node


If Order Entry server

fails, critical applications and all their resources are Order Entry failed over to the Database standby server (Business-Critical) Standby server becomes active

Standby Server

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Increasing Levels of Protection


The higher the cost of downtime

Continuous Availability The greater the Fault-Tolerant System degree of availability Fault Resilient Cluster required Hot Standby RAID Disk Redundant Hardware ECC Memory UPS System Cold Standby Spare Parts Inventory Off-Site Storage Regular Backups

Cost of Downtime

Degree of Availability
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Cluster Planning
To design a cluster environment for greatest efficiency, determine:
Workload failover requirements

Separate failover from non-failover workload

Applications that should run together on the

same machine
Groups for multiple applications Failover model for groups Resource requirements for applications Aggregate resource requirements for groups Aggregate resource requirements for servers

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Goals
Data protection

Regular backups with off-site storage Real-time mirroring of critical I/O to remote site RAID technology to protect databases from disk failure

Site protection

UPS Fire-proof storage Disaster site recovery plan

Server protection

Clusters for site recovery from server crash On-site or off-site spares, or fast-response service contract
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Active/Active Configuration
Both servers are actively processing while the

cluster is in its normal state


Can be configured so that

Applications and services fail over from each node to its partner node Applications and services fail over from just one node to its partner node

Server capacity requirements


Node A
Operating system (Windows 2003 and Cluster Server) Non-clustered applications and services Node A clustered applications and services Node B clustered applications and services (if set up to fail over to Node A)
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Node B
Operating system (Windows 2003 and Cluster Server) Non-clustered applications and services Node B clustered applications and services Node A clustered applications and services (if set up to fail over to Node B)

Active/Standby Configuration
Only one server actively runs applications and

services
Other server is in an idle (standby) state Server capacity requirements

Node A (Active)
Operating system (Windows 2003 and Cluster Server) Server) Non-clustered applications and services Node A clustered applications and services

Node B (Standby)
Operating system (Windows 2003 and Cluster Node A clustered applications and services

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Redundant Fibre Channel Configuration


Server HBA HBA Fibre Channel Array

Fibre Channel Host Controllers (PCI / PCI-e)

Storage Hubs (FC-AL)

Fiber Channel Array Controllers

HBA
HBA Server

Storage

Two Host Controllers per server, two Hubs and two Array

Controllers Active/active only to separate storage systems


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Este material foi parte integrante do curso de Alta Disponibilidade da Compaq Computer Corporation.

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