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THE HISTORY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

CONTENT
Introduction Origin of Chinese Medicine The Early Medical Activities The Rise and Development of the Theoretical Chinese Medicine System All-round Development in Medicine Great Innovation and Achievement in Medicine Further Development in the Medical Theory and Practice Revolutions in the Recent Hundred-year

INTRODUCTION
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a long and rich history, and is the third oldest form of medicine. TCM has existed for thousands of years, and is still used today is prove to its value as a form of healthcare. It has undergone a long course of development; it encompasses a complete array of medical theories, practical experiences and unique therapeutic techniques. Its original foundation was established over two thousand years ago, but was shaped by accumulative and consolidated knowledge gathered from findings in medical literature of accomplished medical practitioners.

Origin of Chinese Medicine


Antiquity 2000 BC Ancient Chinese gradually discovered medicinal herbs when collecting food Discovery of fire led to the invention of hot compresses and moxibustion The practice of medicine was very much intermixed with witchcraft The founders of TCM, Yellow Emperor and Shen-nong

The Early Medical Activities


Shang 1700- 1100 BC Inscription on Oracle bones describe about several medical instrument, diseases and illnesses Yi Yin, improving decoction methods and extending their applications

The Rise and Development of the Theoretical Chinese Medicine System


Zhou Dynasty 1100-221 BC An organized court officials with different specialities Yi He, introduced the Six factors to explain diseases Bian Que, first recorded physician who established TCM diagnostic procedures Yin, Yang, and also the Five elements were applied to TCM Huang Di Nei Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic)

Qin and Han Dynasties 221 BC-220 AD Wushier Bingfang (The Fifty-two Prescriptions) Shennong Bencaojing (Shen Nong's Classic of Herbal Medicine) Shanghan Zabinglun (Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases) Apprenticeships were a common means of educating new physicians during this time. Examinations to recruit qualified physicians were introduced Hua Tuo, He pioneered the use of an anesthetic drug and devised gymnastic exercises known as "the play of the five animals" to help Chinese keep fit and healthy

The Chinese Middle Ages 220-581 AD Wang Shuhe, wrote Maijing (Pulse Classic) Huang Fumi, wrote Zhenjiu Jiayijing (Systemic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) Ge Hong, wrote Zhouhou Jiuzufang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergencies) Lei Xiao, wrote Leigong Paozhilun (Lei's Treatise on Medicinal Processing) Gong Qingxuan, wrote Liuquanzi Guiyifang (Liu's Remedies Bequeathed by a GImportant People / Authors)

All-round Development in Medicine

Sui and Tang Dynasties 618-907 AD Chao Yuanfang, wrote Zhubing Yuanhoulun (Treatise on Causes and Symptoms of Diseases) Imperial Medical Academy was established, which set up institutions for education in various fields of medicine. Meanwhile some local medical schools were established Su Jing, wrote Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) Sun Simiao, wrote Qianjin Yaofang (Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergencies) & Qianjin Yifang (Supplement to the Precious Prescriptions) Master Taoist Lin, wrote Lishang Xuduan Mifang (Secret Methods of Treating Traumas and Fractures) Zan Yin, wrote Jingxiao Chanbao (Tested Treasure in Obstetrics)

Great Innovation and Achievement in Medicine


Song Dynasty 960-1279 AD Wang Huayin, wrote Taiping Shenghuifang (Imperial Benevolence Formulary of the Taiping Era) Wang Weiyi, wrote Tongren Shuxue Zhenjiu Tujing (Illustrated Manual of Acu-points on the Bronze Statue) Wang Weiyi aslo casted two bronze statue for acupunture 1057, The Bureau for the Re-editing of Medical Books was established to collect, collate and verify all medical texts bequeathed by 1,000 years of history. As a result, several of the established classics were published and many books were rewritten or revised under new titles 1076, The Imperial Bureau of Medicine established "dispensaries" for public welfare

Han Zhihe, wrote Shanghan Weizhi (Hidden Meanings of Shanghan Illnesses) Dong Ji. Wrote Xiaoer Banzhen Beiji Fanglun (Emergency Prescriptions for Pediatric Rash Diseases) Yang Zijian, wrote Shichanlun (Ten Kinds of Difficult Childbirth) Pang Anshi, wrote Shanghan Zongbinglun (General Treatise on Shanghan Illnesses) Yang Jie, wrote Cunzhentu (Anatomical Atlas of Truth) 1103, The Imperial Bureau of Medicine established the department of drug manufacturing Chen Shiwen, wrote Taiping Huimin Heji Jufang (Formulary of the Taiping Welfare Dispensary Bureau) Xiao'er Weisheng Zongwei Lunfang (A General Detailed Discussion on Formulary for Pediatrics Hygiene) was published

Han Zhihe, wrote Shanghan Weizhi (Hidden Meanings of Shanghan Illnesses) Dong Ji. Wrote Xiaoer Banzhen Beiji Fanglun (Emergency Prescriptions for Pediatric Rash Diseases) Yang Zijian, wrote Shichanlun (Ten Kinds of Difficult Childbirth) Pang Anshi, wrote Shanghan Zongbinglun (General Treatise on Shanghan Illnesses) Yang Jie, wrote Cunzhentu (Anatomical Atlas of Truth) 1103, The Imperial Bureau of Medicine established the department of drug manufacturing Chen Shiwen, wrote Taiping Huimin Heji Jufang (Formulary of the Taiping Welfare Dispensary Bureau) Xiao'er Weisheng Zongwei Lunfang (A General Detailed Discussion on Formulary for Pediatrics Hygiene) was published

Zhang Congzheng, wrote Rumen Shiqin (Confucians' Duties to Serve Their Parents) Zhang Gao, wrote Yishuo (About Medicine) Chen Ziming, wrote Furen Daquan Liangfang (The Complete Book of Efficacious Prescriptions for Women) Song Ci, wrote Xiyuanlu (Collected Records of Medical Jurisprudence) Li Gao, wrote Piweilun (Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach) Significance The Jin-Yuan Period 1115-1368 AD Wei Yilin, wrote Shiyi Dexiaofang (Effective Formulae Tested by Physicians for Generations)

Further Development in the Medical Theory & Practice


Ming Dynasty 1368-1644 AD Zhu Su & colleagues, wrotes Jiuhuang Bencao (Herbal for Relief of Famines) and Puji Fang (Universal Aid Formulary) Yongle Dadian (The Great Encyclopaedia of the Yongle Reign) was published 1443, Appointed special personnel to be in charge of recasting life-size male bronze statues for acupuncture, modeled after the one produced in the Song dynasty Xue Ji, wrote Kouchi Leiyao (Essentials of Diseases of the Mouth Gao Wu, wrote Zhenjiu Juying Fahui (Gatherings of Eminent Exponential Acupuncturists)

Xue Ji, wrotes Neike Zhaiyao (A Synopsis of Internal Medicine), Zhengti Leiyao (A Repertory of Traumatology), and Liyang Jiyao (The Essential Mechanism of Sores and Ulcers) Jiang Guan, wrote Mingyi Leian (Classified Case Records of Famous Physicians) Shen Zhiwen, Jiewei Yuansou (Remedy for Leprosy) Li Shizhen, wrotes Binhu Maixue (Binhu's Study on the Pulse) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica) This period saw advances in immunology. Variolation, which provided protection against smallpox, was recorded. It became popular in China and later was widespread to European countries Yang Jizhou, wrote Zhenjiu Dacheng (Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion)

Qing Dynasty 1644-1911 AD Fu Renyu, wrote Shenshi Yaohan (A Precious Book of Ophthalmology) Wang Ang, wrotes Yifang Jijie (Variorum of Prescriptions) and Tangtou Gejue (Prescriptions in Rhyme) Significance Cheng Zhongling, wrote Yixue Xinwu (Medicine Comprehended) Tang Dalie, wrote Wuyi Huijiang (Collections of Some Physician's Discussions) Gao Bingdiao, wrote Yangyi Xindeji (Collections of Surgery Studies) 1822, The Imperial Bureau of Medicine was ordered to close down the Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion

1842, The Sino-British Nanjing Treaty stipulated that the British could set up medical offices in the five Chinese trading ports and due to the rise of Western Medicine, TCM was no longer the one and only medical practice in China Wang Mengying, wrotes Wenre Jingwei (Compendium of Epidemic Febrile Diseases) and Wangshi Yian (Wang's Case Studies) 1881, "College for Medical Practice" was set up in Tianjin, indicating that the Chinese formally established it's own education program for western medicine 1912, Wang Daxie, the Minister of Health, was one of the first officials to call for the abolition of Chinese medicine

Modern China 1912 AD 1914, Abolishment of traditional Chinese medicine was proposed, but was strongly opposed by people working in TCM and pharmacy all over the country 1925, Chinese medicine courses were prohibited from being included in medical schools 1929, A proposal written by Yu Ai and Wang Qizang, entitled "A Case for the Abolishment of the Old Medicine to Thoroughly Eliminate Public Health Obstacles," was passed in the first congress of the Central Ministry of Health. This pushed the TCM abolition movement to its peak.

Revolutions in The Recent Hundred-year

1929, Meanwhile, TCM workers and pharmacies throughout the country went on strike, which resulted in the resolution being forced to be abandoned "Central College of Chinese Medicine" was founded, which aimed to modernize TCM Chen Cunren, wrote Chinese Pharmaceutical Encyclopaedia 1936, "The Chinese Medicine Ordinance" was issued, which was very discriminatory against TCM Cao Pingzhang, wrote Zhongguo Yixue Dacheng (A Great Collection of Chinese Medicine Book) 1950, The First National Conference on Health was held and determined that future medical policy would combine Chinese and Western medicine 1955, The Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine was founded

1956, TCM Colleges were established again in the big cities like Chengdu, Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou Full-time training courses for Western doctors to study TCM were launched 1962, A first edition textbook for TCM education, approved by the government and TCM experts, was published for TCM colleges 1980, The Ministry established a national guideline for the development of Chinese and Western medicine, and for their long-term co-existence, and integreation into China's healthcare system The Traditional Chinese Medicine Publishing House was founded

1985, The National Bureau of Chinese Medicine Administration was founded 1986, Chinese Qigong Science Research Association was founded 1987, The Joint Society of World Acupuncture and Moxibustion Science was founded in Beijing