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Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

publishing as Benjamin Cummings


PowerPoint Lectures for
Biology, Seventh Edition
Aeil Campbell and 1ane Reece
Lectures by Chris Romero
Chapter 11 Chapter 11
Cell Communication
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W ;er;iew: The Cellular nternet
W Cell-to-cell communication
s absolutely essential for multicellular
organisms
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W iologists
Ha;e disco;ered some uni;ersal mechanisms
of cellular regulation
:re 11.1
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W Concept 11.1: External signals are con;erted
into responses within the cell
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;olution of Cell Signaling
W east cells
dentify their mates by cell signaling
- factor
Receptor
.hane of
matn fa.tors.
Each cell type
secretes a
mating factor
that binds to
receptors on
the other cell
type.
1
Matn. inding
of the factors to
receptors
induces changes
in the cells that
lead to their
fusion.
New a/- .eII.
The nucleus of
the fused cell
includes all the
genes from the
a and a cells.

- factor
east cell,
mating type a
east cell,
mating type -
-
-
a/-
a
a
:re 11.
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W $ignal transduction pathways
Con;ert signals on a cell's surface into cellular
responses
Are similar in microbes and mammals,
suggesting an early origin
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Local and Long-Distance Signaling
W Cells in a multicellular organism
Communicate ;ia chemical messengers
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W Animal and plant cells
Ha;e cell junctions that directly connect the
cytoplasm of adjacent cells
Plasma membranes
Plasmodesmata
between plant cells
Gap junctions
between animal cells
:re 11.
a) CeII j:n.tons. oth animals and plants ha;e cell junctions that allow molecules
to pass readily between adjacent cells without crossing plasma membranes.
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:re 11. -) CeII-.eII re.onton. Two cells in an animal may communicate by interaction
between molecules protruding from their surfaces.
W n local signaling, animal cells
May communicate ;ia direct contact
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W n other cases, animal cells
Communicate using local regulators
a) Para.rne snaIn. A secreting cell acts
on nearby target cells by discharging
molecules of a local regulator (a growth
factor, for example) into the extracellular
fluid.
-) Synapt. snaIn. A ner;e cell
releases neurotransmitter molecules
into a synapse, stimulating the
target cell.
Local regulator
diffuses through
extracellular fluid
Target cell
$ecretory
;esicle
Electrical signal
along ner;e cell
triggers release of
neurotransmitter
Neurotransmitter
diffuses across
synapse
Target cell
is stimulated
Local signaling
:re 11.4 A B
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W n long-distance signaling
oth plants and animals use hormones
Hormone tra;els
in bloodstream
to target cells
.) HormonaI snaIn. $pecialized
endocrine cells secrete hormones
into body fluids, often the blood.
Hormones may reach ;irtually all
body cells.
Long-distance signaling
lood
;essel
Target
cell
Endocrine cell
:re 11.4 C
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%he %hree Stages of Cell Signaling: Preview
W Earl W. $utherland
isco;ered how the hormone epinephrine acts
on cells
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W $utherland suggested that cells recei;ing
signals went through three processes
Reception
Transduction
Response
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EXTRACELLULAR
FLU
Receptor
$ignal
molecule
Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway
Plasma membrane
CTPLA$M
Acti;ation
of cellular
response
:re 11.5
W ;er;iew of cell signaling
Reception 1 Transduction Response
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W Concept 11.2: Reception: A signal molecule
binds to a receptor protein, causing it to
change shape
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W The binding between signal molecule (ligand)
And receptor is highly specific
W A conformational change in a receptor
s often the initial transduction of the signal
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ntracellular Receptors
W ntracellular receptors
Are cytoplasmic or nuclear proteins
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W $ignal molecules that are small or hydrophobic
And can readily cross the plasma membrane
use these receptors
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Hormone
(testosterone)
EXTRACELLULAR
FLU
Receptor
protein
NA
mRNA
NUCLEU$
CTPLA$M
Plasma
membrane
Hormone-
receptor
complex
New protein
:re 11.6
W $teroid hormones
ind to intracellular receptors
1 The steroid
hormone testosterone
passes through the
plasma membrane.
The bound protein
stimulates the
transcription of
the gene into mRNA.
4
The mRNA is
translated into a
specific protein.
5
Testosterone binds
to a receptor protein
in the cytoplasm,
acti;ating it.

The hormone-
receptor complex
enters the nucleus
and binds to specific
genes.

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Receptors in the Plasma Membrane
W There are three main types of membrane
receptors
G-protein-linked
Tyrosine kinases
on channel
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W G-protein-linked receptors
G-protein-linked
Receptor
Plasma Membrane
Enzyme
G-protein
(inacti;e)
CTPLA$M
Cellular response
Acti;ated
enzyme
Acti;ated
Receptor
$ignal molecule
ncti;ate
enzyme
$egment that
interacts with
G proteins
GP
GP
GTP
GTP
P
i
$ignal-binding site
:re 11.7
GP
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W Receptor tyrosine kinases
$ignal
molecule
$ignal-binding sitea
CTPLA$M
Tyrosines
$ignal
molecule
-Helix in the
Membrane
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
imer
#e.eptor tyrosne
knase protens
(inacti;e monomers)
P
P
P
P
P
P
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr
Tyr P
P
P
P
P
P
Cellular
response 1
nacti;e
relay proteins
Acti;ated
relay proteins
Cellular
response 2
Acti;ated tyrosine-
kinase regions
(unphosphorylated
dimer)
Fully acti;ated receptor
tyrosine-kinase
(phosphorylated
dimer)
6 ATP 6 AP
:re 11.7
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W on channel receptors
Cellular
response
Gate open
Gate close
Ligand-gated
ion channel receptor
Plasma
Membrane
$ignal
molecule
(ligand)
:re 11.7
Gate
closed
ons
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W Concept 11.3: Transduction: Cascades of
molecular interactions relay signals from
receptors to target molecules in the cell
W Multistep pathways
Can amplify a signal
Pro;ide more opportunities for coordination
and regulation
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Signal %ransduction Pathways
W At each step in a pathway
The signal is transduced into a different form,
commonly a conformational change in a
protein
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Protein Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation
W Many signal pathways
nclude phosphorylation cascades
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W n this process
A series of protein kinases add a phosphate to
the next one in line, acti;ating it
Phosphatase enzymes then remo;e the
phosphates
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$ignal molecule
Acti;e
protein
kinase
1
Acti;e
protein
kinase
2
Acti;e
protein
kinase
3
nacti;e
protein kinase
1
nacti;e
protein kinase
2
nacti;e
protein kinase
3
nacti;e
protein
Acti;e
protein
Cellular
response
Receptor
P
P
P
ATP
AP
AP
AP
ATP
ATP
PP
PP
PP
Acti;ated relay
molecule
i
P
P
i
i
P
W A phosphorylation cascade
:re 11.8
A relay molecule
acti;ates protein kinase 1.
1
Acti;e protein kinase 1
transfers a phosphate from ATP
to an inacti;e molecule of
protein kinase 2, thus acti;ating
this second kinase.
Acti;e protein kinase 2
then catalyzes the phos-
phorylation (and acti;ation) of
protein kinase 3.

Finally, acti;e protein


kinase 3 phosphorylates a
protein (pink) that brings
about the cell's response to
the signal.
4
Enzymes called protein
phosphatases (PP)
catalyze the remo;al of
the phosphate groups
from the proteins,
making them inacti;e
and a;ailable for reuse.
5
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Small Molecules and ons as Second Messengers
W $econd messengers
Are small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules
or ions
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Cyclic AMP
W Cyclic AMP (cAMP)
s made from ATP
:re 11.9

P P P
P
P P

H
CH
2
NH
2
NH
2
NH
2
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

ATP
Ch
2
CH
2

H H
P

H
2

H
Adenylyl cyclase Phoshodiesterase
Pyrophosphate
Cy.I. AMP AMP
H H

i
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W Many G-proteins
Trigger the formation of cAMP, which then acts
as a second messenger in cellular pathways
ATP
GTP
cAMP
Protein
kinase A
Cellular responses
G-protein-linked
receptor
Adenylyl
cyclase
G protein
rst messener
(signal molecule
such as epinephrine)
:re 11.10
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Calcium ions and Inositol 1riphosphate (IP
3
)
W Calcium, when released into the cytosol of a
cell
Acts as a second messenger in many different
pathways
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W Calcium is an important second messenger
ecause cells are able to regulate its
concentration in the cytosol
EXTRACELLULAR
FLU
Plasma
membrane
ATP
CT$L
ATP Ca

p:mp
Ca

p:mp
Ca

p:mp
Endoplasmic
reticulum (ER)
Nucleus
Mitochondrion
Key
High [Ca
2+
] Low [Ca
2+
]
:re 11.11
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W ther second messengers such as inositol
triphosphate and diacylglycerol
Can trigger an increase in calcium in the cytosol
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:re 11.1
3 2 1
P
3
quickly diffuses through
the cytosol and binds to an P
3

gated calcium channel in the ER


membrane, causing it to open.
4 The calcium ions
acti;ate the next
protein in one or more
signaling pathways.
6 Calcium ions flow out of
the ER (down their con-
centration gradient), raising
the Ca
2+
le;el in the cytosol.
5
AG functions as
a second messenger
in other pathways.
Phospholipase C clea;es a
plasma membrane phospholipid
called PP
2
into AG and P
3
.
A signal molecule binds
to a receptor, leading to
acti;ation of phospholipase C.
EXTRA-
CELLULAR
FLU
$ignal molecule
(first messenger)
G protein
G-protein-linked
receptor
Various
proteins
acti;ated
Endoplasmic
reticulum (ER)
Phospholipase C
PP
2
P

(second messenger)
AG
Cellular
response
GTP
Ca

(second
messenger)
Ca

P
3
-gated
calcium channel
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W Concept 11.4: Response: Cell signaling leads
to regulation of cytoplasmic acti;ities or
transcription
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Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Responses
W n the cytoplasm
$ignaling pathways regulate a ;ariety of
cellular acti;ities
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W Cytoplasmic response to a signal
:re 11.1
Glucose-1-phosphate
(10
8
molecules)
Glycogen
Acti;e glycogen phosphorylase (10
6
)
nacti;e glycogen phosphorylase
Acti;e phosphorylase kinase (10
5
)
nacti;e phosphorylase kinase
nacti;e protein kinase A
Acti;e protein kinase A (10
4
)
ATP
Cyclic AMP (10
4
)
Acti;e adenylyl cyclase (10
2
)
nacti;e adenylyl cyclase
nacti;e G protein
Acti;e G protein (10
2
molecules)
Bndn of epnephrne to G-proten-Inked re.eptor 1 moIe.:Ie)
Transd:.ton
#esponse
#e.epton
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W ther pathways
Regulate genes by acti;ating transcription
factors that turn genes on or off
#e.epton
Transd:.ton
#esponse
mRNA
NUCLEU$
Gene
P
Acti;e
transcription
factor
nacti;e
transcription
factor
NA
Phosphorylation
cascade
CTPLA$M
Receptor
Growth factor
:re 11.14
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ine-%uning of the Response
W $ignal pathways with multiple steps
Can amplify the signal and contribute to the
specificity of the response
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$ignal mplification
W Each protein in a signaling pathway
Amplifies the signal by acti;ating multiple
copies of the next component in the pathway
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1he $pecificity of Cell $ignaling
W The different combinations of proteins in a cell
Gi;e the cell great specificity in both the
signals it detects and the responses it carries
out
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W Pathway branching and "cross-talk
Further help the cell coordinate incoming
signals
Response 1
Response 4 Response 5
Response
2
Response
3
$ignal
molecule
CeII A. Pathway leads
to a single response
CeII B. Pathway branches,
leading to two responses
CeII C. Cross-talk occurs
between two pathways
CeII D. ifferent receptor
leads to a different response
Acti;ation
or inhibition
Receptor
Relay
molecules
:re 11.15
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$ignaling Efficiency: $caffolding Proteins and
$ignaling Complexes
W $caffolding proteins
Can increase the signal transduction efficiency
$ignal
molecule
Receptor
S.affoIdn
proten
Three
different
protein
kinases
Plasma
membrane
:re 11.16
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1ermination of the $ignal
W $ignal response is terminated quickly
y the re;ersal of ligand binding