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Jabatan kejuruteraan Mekanikal Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Semambu 25350 Kuantan, Pahang

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Henri Fayol (18411925) - management (6 functions ) forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling (modern concepts of management). Mary Parker Follett (18681933) - defined management as "the art of getting things done through people". She described management as philosophy. Frederick Taylor (1856-1915), lead developer of scientific management.


Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, accomplish their aims effectively and efficiently.
TAYLOR : Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way. Mac Farland :Management is a process by which managers create, direct, maintain and operate purposive organisations through systematic, coordinated, cooperative human efforts. L.Apply :Management is accomplishment of results through the efforts of other people

Koontz : It is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups. TAYLOR Stanley Vance : Management is simply the process of decision-making and control over the action of human-beings for the expressed purpose of attaining pre-determined goals. F.W TAYLOR- Father of the Scientific Management. - emphasised on shop-floor level efficiency in a scientific manner. - conducted various experiments to find out how human beings could be made to work more efficiently by standardising the work and better method of doing the work.

Scientifik Management

Frederick Taylor - Scientific management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and the cheapest way.
Kimball and Kimball - An attitude that aims to replace (I think with I know). It points out the method of intelligently directing the construction and arrangement of factory buildings, the character of methods and processes, the organizations of departments, the elimination of wastes and increase of efficiency in all phases of industrial administration where experience and date are applicable. Peter F. Drucker - The operational study of work,

Four Principles of Scientific Management

1) Study the ways jobs are performed now and determine new ways to do them. Gather detailed time and motion information. Try different methods to see which is best. 2) Codify the new methods into rules. Teach to all workers the new method. 3) Select workers whose skills match the rules.

4) Stablish fair levels of performance and pay a premium for higher performance. Workers should benefit from higher output.

Techniques of Scientific Management

1. Scientific Task and Rate-setting, work

improvement. (methods study, time study, motion study, fatigue study, rate-setting) 2. Planning the Task. (no bottle neck, systematically) 3. Vocational Selection and Training. (correct methods of work)

4. Standardization. (conditions of work, material equipment, speed, tools and equipment etc.)
5. Specialization.

Industrial management

the organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting; objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives, and measuring results. Management also includes recording and storing facts and information for later use or for others within the organization. The concept of management planning involves direction, planning, adjustment, control, and cooperation. Management functions are not limited to managers and supervisors. Every member of the organization has some management and reporting functions as part of their job.

The importance of industrial management It helps in Achieving Group Goals. Optimum Utilization of Resources. Reduces Costs. Establishes Sound Organization. Establishes Equilibrium. Essentials for Prosperity of Society

Definition of productivity

Productivity is the amount of results (output) an organization gets for a given amount of inputs such as labor and machinery. Productivity is defined as Output over Input. Productivity = amount produced (Outputs) amount of all resources used (Inputs)
Output: the value delivered. Input: the resources (e.g., effort) spent to generate the output, the influence of environmental factors (e.g., complexity, quality constraints, time constraints, process capability, team distribution, interrupts, feature churn, tools, design).

Factors that influence productivity

Physical and psychological influences. Utilization of resources. Efficiency of resources. Work methods. Supervision. Motivation.

Ways of increasing productivity

1. Better planning and training of employees, improved jobs and communication and effective mgt. through CPM/PERT methods. 2. Use of time and motion studies to study and improve work performance. It enables to assess the quantum of work, which can be used for planning and control. 3. Better transportation and material handling system. 4. By providing work incentives and other benefits to workers. 5. Workers involvement in decision making and working of organizations. 6. Improvement in technology of production process and nature of raw-material and its quality. 7. Simplification, standardization and specialization technique. 8. Better and efficient utilization of resources at the