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Department of Technical Education

Andhra Pradesh
Name : R.Rama Rao
Designation : Lecturer.
Branch : Electronics & Communication Engineering.
Institute : Govt. Polytechnic (w), Bheemunipatnam,
Visakhapatnam Dist.
Year/Semester : Third Semester.
Subject : Electronics circuits-1
Subject Code : E.C-302
Topic : Transistor Amplifiers.
Duration : 50min.
Sub-Topic : Collector - to – Base Bias
Teaching Aid : Diagrams
EC302.26 1
OBJECTIVES

On completion of this period you would be able to

understand
• The circuit arrangement of collector – Base biasing

circuit
• It’s working
• Circuit analysis
• Calculation of stability factor.

EC302.26 2
RECAP

Earlier we have studied


• The circuit arrangement of fixed bias
• Working of fixed bias
• Circuit analysis of fixed bias
• Calculation of stability factor
• Problems
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COLLECTOR-TO-BASE BIASING

Fig 1 Collector to base bias circuit

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The circuit arrangement is as follows

• The circuit is like a fixed bias circuit.

• But differs in that the base resistor RB is returned to the

collector terminal instead of supply VCC.

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• Collector - To - Base bias derives the name from the fact

that voltage for RB is derived from the collector.

• RB provides negative feedback effect to stable IC against

the changes of temperature or replacement of transistor.

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OPERATION

• When the collector IC is tend to increases, VCE

decreases due to large voltage drop across RC

• IB = (VCE –VBE)/RB

• Hence base current IB is reduced.

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• The reduced base current IB in turn reduces the original

increase in collector current IC.

• Thus circuit has mechanism to stabilize collector current

IC automatically.

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CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the input circuit

• VCC = (IB +IC)RC+IB RB + VBE

• IB (RB +RC) = VCC-VBE – ICRC


RC I C 
• RB = (VCC-VBE-ICRC –  ) IC

• RC = (VCC - VBE - IC RC)  - RC


IC
• where β= IC/ IB

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Applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the output circuit

• VCE = VCC - (IB+IC)RC

• RC= (VCC- VCE) / (IB+IC)

• RC = (VCC – VCE)/ (IC (1/β+1)

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CALCULATION OF STABILITY FACTOR

• IB = IC / β = VCC - VBE- ICRC / (RB+RC)

• VBE is independent of IC

• Differentiating IB with respect to IC

• dIB / dIC = -RC / (RB+ RC)

• Stability factor ‘S’ = (1+β) / (1+(β x RC)/(RB+RC))

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• The stability factor will be less than (1+ β).

• This method provides improved stability when compared


to fixed bias circuit.

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• This circuit has the tendency to stabilize the operating
point against temperature and β variations.

• Base resistor RB provides dc feedback for stabilization of


the operating point.

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• Stabilization factor S= 1+β / (1+(β x Rc) / (RB+Rc))

• ‘S’ will be less than 1+β obtained from fixed bias.

• Improved stability compared to fixed bias.

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ADVANTAGES

• It is simple

• Provides improved stability.

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Dis-advantages

• Operating point is not perfectly stabilized.

• RB also provides AC feedback.

• As a result of AC feedback voltage gain of the amplifier


is reduced.
• Because of low voltage gain offered this type of amplifier
is not much used.

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SUMMARY

• This circuit is similar to fixed bias circuit.

• It differs only in that RB is connected to collector

instead of VCC.

• RB provides negative feedback to stabilize IC against

temperature changes,etc.

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QUIZ

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• When IC increases ,VCE decreases due to

A) Less voltage drop across RC\

• More voltage drop across RC

• Less current through RC

D) More current through RC


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• Base resistor RB provides

A) Amplification

C) Stabilization

E) Regulation

D) Rectification

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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

• Draw and explain the working of collector - to -


Base biasing circuit.

• Derive the expression for the stability factor ‘S’ for


collector -To - Base biasing circuit.

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