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Name of the Participants : Suneel.M Sarada.

K
Chaitanya Reddy.K
Institute name : Bapatla polytechnic
Department : Electronic and Communication

Engg.
Major Topic : Behavior of Passive
Components
Sub Topic : Impedance triangle, Power
triangle problems on series
circuits
Sub Code : EC 303
Sub name : circuit theory
Duration : 100 minutes
Teaching Aids :EC PPT
303.10 to11 1
objectives
On completion of this period, you would be able to

define

• Power, impedance, impedance triangle

• Active component of current

• Reactive component of current

• power triangle

• Do problems on seriesECcircuits
303.10 to11 2
RECAP

1.Average power consumed by L & C is

always zero

2.Average power consumed by a R – L – C

circuit is same as the power dissipated by the

resistance in the circuit .

3.Phase difference between VL & VC is 180°

EC 303.10 to11 3
Impedance

• The expression √{R2 +(XL–XC)2} or √{R2+(XC – XL)2} is


called impedance ‘Z’.
• The expression (XL-XC) or (XC-XL) is called as total
reactance ‘X’ of the circuit.
• Conventionally (XL - XC ) is defined as X.

EC 303.10 to11 4
Impedance

• If XC > XL will be negative which is true for capacitive circuit.

• Hence X = XL – XC and impedance is

Z = R + j X where X = XL -XC

EC 303.10 to11 5
Important Concepts

• For XL = XC

X =0

And we get Z = R
• From voltage triangles
(VL-VC)
tan Ø =
VR

I(XL-XC) (XL-XC)
= =
IR R

EC 303.10 to11 6
Important Concepts

Power Factor

VR
Cos Ø =
V
IR R
= =
IZ Z

EC 303.10 to11 7
Important Concepts

• Current I may lead or lag voltage V depending on the


conditions of magnitude of magnitudes of XL and XC

• When XL > XC , tan Ø is positive and V is positive


indicating inductive circuit

• current I lags voltage V by angle ‘Ø’

EC 303.10 to11 8
Important Concepts
• When XL<XC , XL-XC is negative and Ø is also negative
indicating capacitive circuit.

• current I leads voltage V by angle Ø

EC 303.10 to11 9
Impedance triangle

Z = R + j X where X = XL – XC

• Impedance triangle changes according to conditions of


XL compared with XC.

• When XL > XC , XL-XC is positive and impedance


triangle and Ø is positive

• When XL<XC ,XL-XC is negative and impedance


triangle and Ø is negative.

EC 303.10 to11 10
Impedance triangles

Fig 1
EC 303.10 to11 11
• Note that X is always (XL –XC) only its direction
changes depending on its sign.

Ø is +ve for XL>XC

Ø is -ve for XL<XC


IZI  R2  X 2

Ø = tan-1 (X / R)
R = Z cos Ø
X = Z sin Ø

EC 303.10 to11 12
Impedance

• When XL > XC, current I lags voltage V by angle ‘Ø’.


• When XL<XC, current I leads voltage V by angle Ø.

Impedance triangle

• Ø = tan-1 (X / R)
• R = Z cos Ø
• X = Z sin Ø

EC 303.10 to11 13
• Active component of current :

The component of current, in phase with voltage is


called as an ‘active component of current’

given by I cos Ø.

• Reactive component of current :

The component of current, which is 900 out of phase

with voltage is called as an ‘Reactive component of

current’
given by I sin Ø.EC 303.10 to11 14
Active and Reactive components of current.

Fig 2 Active and reactive components

EC 303.10 to11 15
• Power triangle :

Fig 3 Power triangles

EC 303.10 to11 16
• From power triangle
2
 KV     KVA  r 
2
KVA 

where kW = kVA cos Ø and

(kVA)r = kVA sin Ø

• Reactive power in inductive circuit is treated positive


While reactive power in capacitance circuit is treated

as negative.
EC 303.10 to11 17
2.The following two vectors are given by Z1 =5 56.52°,Z2

=8.25 76°

perform the indicated operations and illustrate graphically.

a) Z1 Z2 b)Z1 Z2

Ans a)41.25 132.52°

b) 0.606 -19.48°

EC 303.10 to11 18
Frequently asked Questions

3. The voltage applied to a coil having R=20Ω,L0.56H is

represented by V=200 sin 377t. Give the expression for current

Answer: I = 6.87 sin (377t-46.5°)

EC 303.10 to11 19
2. A coil having a resistance of 15Ω and an inductor of
0.2H is connected in series with another coil having a
resistance of 25 Ω and an inductance of 0.04H to a
230V, 50HZ supply. Determine
• voltage across each coil

• Power factor of the circuit as whole


Answer :

a) 174V,75.6V

b) 109.5W,182.5W
c) 0.47
EC 303.10 to11 20
3. An alternating voltage 80+j60 volt is applied to a circuit and
the current flowing is (-4+j10)A. find the a) Impedance of the
circuit b) Power consumed c) Phase angle?

Answer :

a) 9.285 -75°
b) 280W
c) R=5.5Ω

EC 303.10 to11 21
4. A current of 5A flows through a non-inductive resistance

in series with a coil when supplied at 250v, 50HZ. If the


voltage across the resistance is 125v, and across coil is
200v, calculate the impedance, reactance and
resistance
Answer : of the coil ?
a) Z=40Ω

b) XL=39.62Ω

c) R=5.5Ω
EC 303.10 to11 22
Summary

We discussed

• Impedance triangle

• Power triangle

• Problems on series R-C circuit

EC 303.10 to11 23
Quiz

Resonance occurs when

• Inductive Reactance = Capacitive Reactance

• Inductive Reactance > Capacitive Reactance

• Inductive Reactance < Capacitive Reactance

• None of the above

EC 303.10 to11 24