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# DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Name : A.V.VENUGOPAL.
Designation : Lecturer.
Branch : ECE.
Institute : G.P.W, Hindupur.
Semester : Third.
Subject : Analog communication.
Code : EC-305.
Topic : Transmission line and wave propagation.

## Sub-topic : Free space propagation.

Duration : 50Mts.
Teaching Aids : PPTs,Diagrams.
EC305.69 1
Objectives:

## • Know the details of free space propagation,

The free space equation, and
The expression for path loss.

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Recap

• The behavior of EM waves.
• Refraction of EM waves.
• Reflection of EM waves.
• Diffraction of EM waves

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Free space

• Free space is the space that does not interferes with the

## • It has no magnetic or gravitational fields, no solid bodies

and no ionized particles.

## • It does not exist near the earth.

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• Free space concept is used to simplify the approach to
wave propagation.

## • Actual effect can be predicted based on the practical

properties, assuming the free space initially.

## • Satellite communication comes under free space

propagation.

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Wave propagation in free space

## • Radio wave propagation through free space in a straight

line with a velocity of 3×1010 cm/sec.

## • There will be no loss of energy in free space , but there

will be attenuation due to the spreading of the waves.

## • For normal calculation, the earth’s atmosphere can be

treated as free space

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## A hypothetical antenna having zero physical size and no

loss and radiating equally in all directions is isotropic
• A wave front from a isotropic radiator has the same
phase in all directions.
• A point source is treated as isotropic radiator

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spherical wave as shown
in fig
r

EC305.69 8

## • The power density, in watts per square meter, would be

simply the total power divided by the surface area of the
sphere.

pd=pt/4пr2 .................(1)

Where
Pd=power density in watts per square meter.
Pt=total power in watts.
r=distance from the antenna in meters

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Problem 1

## • A power of 100w is supplied to an isotropic radiator.

What is the power density at a point 10km away? And
find the electric field strength .

## pt=total power =100w

distance=r=10km=10×103m
Power density pd=pt/4пr2
=100/4п(10×103)2=79.6 nw/m2

EC305.69 10
Relation between electric field and power
• The strength of the signal is more often given in terms of
its electric field intensity έ rather than power density as it
is easy to measure electric field intensity.
pd=(έ )2/£ £=Intrinsic impedance=377Ω.
from equation 68.1
pd=(έ )2/£=pt/4пr2 ..........(2)
by rearranging
έ2 =pt. £/4пr2
έ =√(pt. £/4пr2 )

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έ =√[(377.pt)/(4пr2)]
έ =√[(30.pt)/r] .............(3)
where
έ = electric field strength in volts per meter.
pt = total power in watts.
r=distance from the source in meters.

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## • In a practical communication system the signal

strength at the receiver input depends on
• Transmitted power:’ pt ‘
• distance from transmitter to receiver: ‘r’
• Gain of the transmitting antenna : Gt and
• effective area of the receiving antenna : Aeff

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Power density pd

## • Power density at the receiving point, in a particular

direction from the transmitter is increased by the amount
of antenna gain.
PD =PT GT/4пr2 ...............(4)

where
PD=power density in watts per square meter.
PT= total transmitted power in watts.
GT=gain of the transmitter antenna.
r=distance from transmitter to receiver, in meter

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Effective area
The area from which a receiving antenna can be
considered to extract all the energy in an E.M. wave is
called effective area.

## power extracted from a EM wave by a receiving antenna

depends on its
a) physical size and
b) gain.
physical size determines effective area

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Effective area Aeff is given by
Aeff=PR/PD ........... (5)
...

where
Aeff=effective area of the antenna in square meters
PR=power delivered to the receiver in watts.
PD=power density of the wave in watts per square meter

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PR= Aeff. PD
By substituting the value of PD
PR= Aeff. PTGT/4пr2 .........(6)
It can be shown that the effective area of a
receiving antenna is
Aeff=λ2GR/4п ..........(7)
Where
GR=antenna gain as power ratio.
λ= wave length of the signal.
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Receiver power in terms of the gains of the two antennas
and the wave length , by combining equation (6) with
equation (7)

PR=Aeff.PTGT/4пr2

=λ2GRPTGT/(4п)(4 пr2)

PR= λ2PT.GT.GR/16 п2 r2
............(8)

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Path loss

## PR/PT=λ2GT. GR/16п2r2 .............(9)

equation (9) is the fundamental equation for the
space propagation and is also called FRIIS
FREE SPACE equation.
It can also be expressed as

PR/PT=GT.GR/(4пr/λ)2 ..............(10)

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Expressing equation (10) in decibel

## 10 log PR/PT=10 logGT+10logGR+10log[λ /4пr]2

10 log PR- 10log PT=10 log GT +10 log GR+10 log[λ /4пr]2
10 log PR=10log PT+10log GT+10logGR+20log [λ /4пr]
PR (dbw)=pT (dbw)+ GT (db)+ GR (db)-L(S)
L fs =20 log [λ /4пr]
=32.44+20 log f + 20 log r ..........(11)

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Free space loss or path loss: Lfs=10log PT/Pr
replacing ‘d’ for distance in the place of r,

## Lfs =32.44+[20 log d (km)]+[20 log f (MHz) ]

=-[G T (dBi) ]-[GR(dBi)] .........(12)

kilometers.

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Problem:2

## A transmitter has a power output of 150 w at a carrier

frequency of 325 MHz. it is connected to an antenna with
a gain of 12dBi. The receiving antenna is 10 km away
and has a gain of 5dBi. Calculate the power delivered
tom the receiver; assuming free space propagation.
assume also that there are no losses or mismatches in
the system.

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Free space loss
Lfs=32.44+20 log d (km)+[20 log f (MHz)]-
[GT(dBi)]-[GR(dBi)]
=32.44+20 log 10+20 log 325-12-5
Lfs =85.7dB
Lfs =10log PT/PR=85.7
PT/PR=anti log (85.7/10)
PR =PT/anti log (85.7/10)
=150w/372×106
PR =404×10-9w=404nW

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Summary

## • Radio waves propagate through free space in a straight

line with a velocity of 3×1010 cm/sec

## • There will be no loss of energy in free space but there

will be attenuation due to spreading of the waves

## • A hypothetical antenna having zero physical size and no

loss and radiating equally in all direction is isotropic

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• The area from which a receiving antenna can be
considered to extract all the energy in an
electromagnetic wave is called effective area.
• Fundamental equation for the space propagation, also
called as FRIIS FREE SPACE equation is
PR/PT=λ2 GT GR/16п2r2
• Path loss =Lfs=10 log PT/PR
Lfs(in dB)=32.44+[20logd(km)]+[20 log f(MHz)]
=-[GT(dBi)]-[GR(dBi)]

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QUIZ

## 1. An electromagnetic wave travel in free space , only

one of the following can happen to them
b. Absorption
c. Attenuation
d. refraction
e. Reflection

Ans . b

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2. The signal strength at the receiver input depends on

## a) Transmitted power and distance from transmitter.

b) Gain of the transmitting antenna.
c) Effective area of the receiving antenna.
d) All the above.

Ans .d

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3. All else being equal, larger receiving antennas receive a
stronger signal than smaller antennas. Why is this?

## Ans .larger receiving antennas has greater effective area.

So, they intercept a greater proportion of the radiated
energy.

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built? Explain?

## 4. What are the factors which determine the amount of

power extracted from a wave by a receiving antenna?

propagation?

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