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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRAPRADESH
Name : A. Sivaprasad
Designation : Senior Lecturer in ECE
Branch : Electronics & Comm. Engg.
Institute : Govt. Polytechnic for women,

Guntur
Year/ Semester : III
Subject : Digital Electronics
Subject Code : CM-305
Topic : Logic gates & Boolean Algebra
Duration : 100 mts.
Sub topic : Boolean Expressions for given truth

table 1
CM305 .7to 8
Objectives

On completion of this period, you would be


able to:

• Know the types of Boolean expressions

• Write Boolean expressions from the given truth table

• Know what is minterm.

• Know what is maxterm


CM305 .7to 8 2
Recap
 Postulates of Boolean Algebra
 De-Morgan’s Theorems
 Simplification of Boolean Expressions
Truth table and Boolean function

• A truth table describes a function

• An output of a combinational circuit, which can be

exhaustively listed on a column in a truth table, can

also be described by Boolean expression

CM305 .7to 8 4
Literals and Product/ sum terms

• A literal is defined as each occurrence of either a

complemented or un complemented variable in a

Boolean expression

• A product term (AND) is a literal or product of literals

• A sum term (OR) is a literal or sum of literals

CM305 .7to 8 5
Canonical forms
• Two types of expressions are directly
obtainable from a truth table

• sum-of-products

• product-of-sums

CM305 .7to 8 6
Minterm

• A minterm is a product term in which all variables

occur exactly once either complemented or un

complemented

• A minterm has the property that it is evaluated to 1 on

one and only one row of the truth table

CM305 .7to 8 7
Minterms of 2 variables

A B Minterm that is m-notation


evaluated to 1

0 0 A’ B’ m0
0 1 A’ B m1
1 0 A B’ m2
1 1 AB m3

CM305 .7to 8 8
Minterms of 3 variables

A B C Minterm that is m-notation


evaluated to 1
0 0 0 A’ B’ C’ m0
0 0 1 A’ B’ C m1
0 1 0 A’ B C’ m2
0 1 1 A’ B C m3
1 0 0 A B’ C’ m4
1 0 1 A B’ C m5
1 1 0 A B C’ m6
1 1 1 ABC m7
CM305 .7to 8 9
Truth table Boolean expression

• The function described by a truth table can also be

described by a sum of minterms

• The minterms involved are those, associated with the

rows on which term is evaluated to 1

CM305 .7to 8 10
Writing the function from a given truth table

Example. 1 x y f(x,y)
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
• Sum up all the minterms (OR operation)
• The above truth table contain two minterms
The function for the above truth table is

f(x,y) = x y + x y

CM305 .7to 8 11
Example.2
x y z f(x,y,z)
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
Table 6.1

f(x,y,z) = x y z + x y z + x y z
CM305 .7to 8 12
Properties of minterms

• For a function of n variables, there are 2n possible

minterms.

• The sum of all possible minterms is equal to 1

• The product of any two minterms is zero unless they are

identical

CM305 .7to 8 13
m-Notation
• A minterm can be denoted by mi for short, where i is the index

of the row on which that minterm is evaluated to 1.

• Thus the function

f(x,y,z) = x’ y’ z’ + x’ y z + x y z’+x y z

can be alternatively expressed a

f(x,y,z) = m0 + m3 + m6 + m7

= Σ m(0,3,6,7)
CM305 .7to 8 14
Maxterms

• A maxterm is sum term in which all variables occur

exactly once, either complemented or uncompleted

• A maxterm has the property that it is evaluated to zero

(0) on one and only one row of the truth table

CM305 .7to 8 15
Maxterms of 2 variables

x y maxterm that is evaluated M-notation


to 0
0 0 x+y M0

0 1 x + y’ M1

1 0 x’ + y M2
1 1 x’ + y’ M3

Table 6.2

CM305 .7to 8 16
Maxterms of 3 variables
X Y Z maxterm that is M-notation
evaluated to 0

0 0 0 x+y+z M0
0 0 1 x + y + z’ M1
0 1 0 x + y’ + z M2
0 1 1 x + y’ + z’ M3
1 0 0 x’ + y + z M4
1 0 1 X’ + y + z’ M5
1 1 0 x’ + y’ + z M6
1 1 1 x’ + y’ + z’ M7
Table 6.3
CM305 .7to 8 17
Truth table Boolean expression

• A function described by truth table can also be

described by product (i.e. AND ed together) of

maxterms.

• The maxterms involved are those, associated with

the rows on which the maxterm is evaluated to 0

CM305 .7to 8 18
Writing the function from a given truth table
Example. 1 x y f(x,y)
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
Table 6.4

• Take the product of all maxterms


• The above truth table contain two maxterms

The function for the above truth table is

f(x,y) = (x + y’) (x’ + y’)


CM305 .7to 8 19
Example.2 x y z f(x,y,z)
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
Table 6.5

f(x,y,z) = (x+y+z) (x+y+z’) (x+y’+z’) (x’+y’+z)

CM305 .7to 8 20
Properties of maxterms

• For a function of n variables, there are 2n possible

maxterms.

• The product of all possible maxterms is equal to 0

• The sum of any two maxterms is equal to 1 unless they


are identical

CM305 .7to 8 21
M-Notation
• A minterm can be denoted by Mi for short, where i is the

index of the row on which that minterm is evaluated to 1.

• Thus the function

f(x,y,z) = (x+y+z) (x’+y +z) + (x’+ y’+ z)

can be alternatively expressed as

f(x,y,z) = M0 M4 M6

= ΠM(0,4,6)
CM305 .7to 8 22
Normal forms

• A Boolean function expressed in sum-of-products

form, also known as disjunctive normal form.

• A Boolean function expressed in product-of-sums

form, also known as conjunctive normal form.

CM305 .7to 8 23
Summary
• Boolean expressions are two types

• Sum-of-products

• Product-of-sums

• A minterm is a product term in which all variables


occur exactly once either complemented or un
complemented
• A maxterm is sum term in which all variables occur
exactly once, either complemented or uncompleted

CM305 .7to 8 24
Quiz
A two variable function has _____ minterms

1. 1

2. 2

3. 4

4. any number

CM305 .7to 8 25
Frequently asked questions in Exams

1. Define maxterm and minterm.

2. Write the types of Boolean expression

CM305 .7to 8 26
Assignment

1. Compare sop and pos Boolean expressions

2. Draw truth table for the Boolean expressions

a) x y z + x y z + x y z + x y z + x y z

b) (x + y + z) ( x + y +z) ( x + y + z ) ( x + y + z)

CM305 .7to 8 27