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Lega| Aspects of Infrastructure

8us|nessII
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
roperty Pas a varleLy of meanlngs lL ls closely relaLed Lo
ownershlp
W|dest sense lncludes all legal rlghLs possessed by a person
A man's properLy ls all LhaL ls hls ln Lhe eye of law
Narrower sense uoes noL lnclude all LhaL a person has buL
only hls proprleLary as opposed Lo hls personal rlghLs roprleLary
rlghLs consLlLuLe hls esLaLe and properLy A man's land chaLLels
shares debLs due Lo hlm are consldered hls properLy buL
personal rlghLs concerned wlLh hls sLaLus or personal condlLlons
such as hls llfe llberLy or repuLaLlon eLc are noL hls properLy
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
roperLy means Lhe hlghesL rlghL a man can have Lo
anyLhlng belng LhaL rlghL whlch one has Lo lands or
LenemenLs goods or chaLLels whlch does noL depend on
anoLher's courLesy lL lncludes ownershlp esLaLes and
lnLeresLs ln corporeal Lhlngs and also rlghLs such as
Lrademarks copyrlghLs paLenLs and even rlghLs lo
petsooom capable of Lransfer or Lransmlsslon such as
debLs and slgnlfles a beneflclal rlghL Lo or a Lhlng
consldered as havlng a money value especlally wlLh
reference Lo Lransfer or successlon and of Lhelr capaclLy
of belng ln[ured
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
W roperty
Iura |n re propr|a (k|ghts |n ropr|a)
4,aLerlal Lhlngs (corporeal properLy)
Land chaLLels
4lmmaLerlal Lhlngs (corporeal properLy)
aLenLs copyrlghLs Lrademarks eLc
Iura |n re a||ena (k|ghts |n A||ena) (Lncumbrances)
4Lease
4ServlLudes
4SecurlLles
41rusL
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
Movab|e and Immovab|e
Goods S 2 (7) of the SGA
#oods' means every klnd of movable properLy oLher
Lhan acLlonable clalms and money and lncludes sLock
and shares growlng crops grass and Lhlngs aLLached Lo
or formlng parL of Lhe land whlch are agreed Lo be
severed before sale or under Lhe conLracL of sale
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
W lmmovable roperLy lncludes
land
beneflLs Lo arlse ouL of land and
Lhlngs aLLached Lo Lhe earLh or permanenLly
fasLened Lo anyLhlng aLLached Lo Lhe earLh le
(a) rooLed ln Lhe earLh as ln Lhe case of Lrees and shrubs
excepLsLandlng Llmber growlng crops and growlng grass
(b) lmbedded ln Lhe earLh as ln Lhe case of walls or
bulldlngs
(c) aLLached Lo whaL ls so embedded for Lhe permanenL
beneflclal en[oymenL of LhaL Lo whlch lL ls aLLached
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
Lxamp|es of Goods
W SLock and Shares
W rowlng crops
W SLandlng 1lmber
W rass
W ower (WaLer elecLrlclLy and gas) Law Commlsslon of lndla ln lLs 8
Lh
8eporL 1938
1he commissioner of 5o/es 1ox MP v Modhyo Prodesh /ectricity
8oord Al8 1970 SC 732
W LlecLronlc 1v Slgnals
obo/pur cob/e Network Pvt Ltd v 5PN 5oftwore lndio Pvt Ltd Al8
1999 , 271
W LoLLery 1lckeLs
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
Lxamp|es of Goods
W lncompleLe fllm
W ,oLor vehlcles
W Shlps vessels alrcrafL
W 8oyalLy
W CopyrlghL 1rademarks paLenLs
W llxed ueposlL 8ecelpLs
W Cld and rare colns
W oodwlll
W CompuLer sofLware
5t 4/bons city uistrict counci/ v lnternotiono/ computers Ltd 1996 4 All
L8 481
1oto consu/toncy 5ervices v 5tote of 4ndhro Prodesh (2004) 271 l18 401
(SC)
W ,lneral sand gravel
W uomesLlc anlmals
W A decree for arrears of renL
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
k|nds of roperty
Corporea| and Incorporea|
W Corporea| or tang|b|e property 8lghL of ownershlp ln
maLerlal Lhlngs
W Incorporea| or |ntang|b|e property CLher proprleLary
rlghLs ln rem lL lncludes
4 to lo te olleoo or encumbrance wheLher over maLerlal or
lmmaLerlal Lhlngs (eg lease servlLude securlLles (morLgage
LrusL eLc)
4 to lo te ptoptlo over lmmaLerlal Lhlngs (eg paLenLs
copyrlghLs Lrademark commerclal goodwlll eLc)
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
Modes of Acquisition of Property
W Possession
W Prescription: Lect o lapse o time in the creation and extinction
o legal rights.
4 Acquisitie or Positie Prescription.
4 Lxtinctie or Negatie Prescription:
4 Perect and Imperect
W Agreement:
Assignment
Grants
W $uccession/Inheritance:
4 Intestate Succession
4 1estamentary Succession: Limitation
29,943 41 920
29,943 41 ,24:39
29,943 41 5:75480
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
Cwnersh|p
Ma[or Inc|dents of Cwnersh|p
W 1he owner has a rlghL Lo possess Lhe Lhlng whlch he
owns
W Cwnershlp ls lndeflnlLe ln polnL of user
W lL ls unresLrlcLed ln polnL of dlsposlLlon
W lL ls lndeLermlnaLe ln polnL of duraLlon
W Cwnershlp ls reslduary ln naLure
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
k|nds of Cwnersh|p
W Corporeal and nonCorporeal
W Sole and uupllcaLe (Coownershlp)
W 1rusL and 8eneflclal
W vesLed and ConLlngenL
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
ossess|on
W olms losslJeoJl 1he menLal elemenL
deLermlnaLlon Lo exerclse physlcal conLrol
W otps lossesslools 1he physlcal elemenL
hyslcal power Lo exclude all allen lnLerference
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
k|nds of ossess|on
W Corporeal and lncorporeal
W ,edlaLe and lmmedlaLe
W Sole and uupllcaLe ConcurrenL
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
Acqu|s|t|on of ossess|on
W 1ak|ng
4 Crlglnal
4 uerlvaLlve
W e||very
W 8y operat|on of Law
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
k|ght to roperty
W 1he lndlan ConsLlLuLlon does noL recognlze properLy rlghL as a
fundamenLal rlghL ln Lhe year 1977 Lhe 44Lh amendmenL
ellmlnaLed Lhe rlghL Lo acqu|re ho|d and d|spose of property as a
fundamenLal rlghL Powever ln anoLher parL of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
ArLlcle 300 (A) was lnserLed Lo afflrm LhaL no person shall be
deprlved of hls properLy save by auLhorlLy of law 1he resulL ls
LhaL Lhe rlghL Lo properLy as a fundamenLal rlghL ls now
subsLlLuLed as a sLaLuLory rlghL 1he amendmenL expanded Lhe
power of Lhe sLaLe Lo approprlaLe properLy for soclal welfare
purposes
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Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
k|ght to roperty |s a Const|tut|ona| k|ght Supreme Court
W 1he Supreme CourL sald Lhe rlghL Lo properLy ls a consLlLuLlonal rlghL
and governmenL cannoL deprlve a person of hls land ln an arblLrary
manner
W A bench of [usLlces S Slnghvl and A k anguly sald ln a [udgemenL
LhaL courLs should vlew wlLh susplclon Lhe acLlon of Lhe
governmenL ln acqulrlng land for prlvaLe parLles ln Lhe name of
urgency
CourL should noL adopL a pedanLlc approach as has been done ln Lhe presenL
case and declde Lhe maLLer keeplng ln vlew Lhe consLlLuLlonal goals of soclal
and economlc [usLlce and Lhe facL LhaL even Lhough Lhe rlghL Lo properLy ls no
longer a fundamenLal rlghL Lhe same conLlnues Lo be an lmporLanL
consLlLuLlonal rlghL and ln Lerms of ArLlcle 300A no person can be deprlved of
hls properLy excepL by auLhorlLy of law !usLlce Slnghvl wrlLlng Lhe [udgemenL
sald
S||de17 02]11]2011
Lecture1
Law of Infrastructure 8us|nessII
(Law of roperty)
W 1he apex courL passed Lhe [udgemenL whlle quashlng Lhe acqulslLlon of
203 hecLares of agrlculLural land ln uLLar radeshs auLam 8udh nagar
by Lhe sLaLe on behalf of Lhe reaLer nCluA lndusLrlal uevelopmenL
AuLhorlLy for buslness enLrepreneurs ln ,arch 2008
W 1he land owners 8adhy Shyam and oLhers had challenged Lhe
acqulslLlon on Lhe ground LhaL Lhe governmenL lnvoked SecLlon 17(1)
and 17(4) of Lhe Land AcqulslLlon AcL empowerlng lL Lo dlspense wlLh
Lhe process of lnvlLlng ob[ecLlons from Lhe vlcLlms as mandaLed under
SecLlon 3A of Lhe leglslaLlon
W 1he hlgh courL had dlsmlssed Lhe land owners plea afLer whlch Lhey
appealed ln Lhe apex courL
W upholdlng Lhe landowners plea Lhe apex courL sald lf land ls acqulred
for Lhe beneflL of prlvaLe persons Lhe courL should vlew Lhe lnvoklng of
SecLlon 17(1) and/or 17(4) wlLh susplclon and carefully scruLlnlze Lhe
relevanL record before ad[udlcaLlng upon Lhe legallLy of such
acqulslLlon
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