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Statistics Data Analysis and Optimization V4.

0 for HUAWEI GSM/GPRS/EDGE System


Compiled by Jin/Jiangxin E-mail: jinjiangxin@hxdi.com

course contents

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

Work items in optimization


Problems in network
Hardware trouble problem Freq. interfering problem Coverage problem HO relations problem busy or idle problem Traffic balance Underlay and overlay problem KPI Wireless parameter problem Especial problems (access,roaming,crossed talk,A-interface .)

Find the problems


Statistics data DT and CQT Alarm check Custom complain Statistics analysis DT and analysis Alarm analysis Call process analysis Frequency plan and reuse Trouble shooting Improve coverage Adjust TRX configuration Adjust antenna system Edit freq.plan table Neighbor relations Parameters

Analysis the problems

Solve the problems

Steps for problem


Find the problems Analysis the problems Resolve the problems Checking and compare results are throughout the optimization process.

Checking and compare results


Before and after modify Different BSC/Cells Different network

Emphasis of the optimization

System performance
Access Channel success

Congestion
Drop Handover Traffic Quality Coverage Frequency

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Immediate assignment rate CSSR Wireless access rate Sdcch success rate Sdcch congestion rate Sdcch drop call rate Tch success rate Tch congest rate Tch drop call rate(including HO) Tch drop call rate(excluding HO) Ho success rate(from attempt) Ho success rate(from command) SD/TCH traffic TCHF and TCHH traffic balance Overlay and underlay traffic balance Coverage rate (DT) BER/MOS

Optimization flowing(1)
Performance data of past week Engineer parameter table Freq. plan table Neighbor list relation (internal and external) Antenna information System topology Customer complain Make optimization plan, hardware problem list, DT plan, check cell health, consistency, frequency, LAC data, neighbor

Collect system data

Analysis data and make optimization plan

Start optimization meeting

Start optimization

Hardware solved and system test

Hardware solved and system test

Optimization flowing(2)
Coverage, frequency, channels, configuration, parameter Output coverage chat,congestion rate,drop calls,interfering area according to the DT data. And optimize frequency, adjust channels in the congestion cells and concentric lay, adj. parameters Check and optimize the neighbor relation, correct neighbor data (internal and external neighbors)

Neighbor relations optimization

Optimize parameters

Optimize parameters( general)

compare the performance and put in suggestions

Put in suggestions and good plan

Optimization summarize

Optimization summarize and technology communion

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

GSM network review


PSTN Network
OMC
HLR/Auc/EIR

GSM Core Network


A

GBSC Abis

SS7 Network
MSC/VLR
SMS-GMSC/IWMSC

Um MS

Gs

Pb
GBTS Gb EDGE PCU SGSN Billing Center

GPRS Core Network


Um

CG

GPRS Backbone
MT GGSN DNS TE

Gi

Internet

Review of BTS3012

DPU: Digital Power Unit

Principle for RF send and receive mode: Send: combining when TRU combined actually TRU: Transceiver Unit no combining when TRU not combined actually Receive: dividing receiver when TRU combined PMU: Power Monitoring Unit indepandent receiver when TRU no combined TMU: Timing/Transmission & Management

Access link check


Lightning arrester
DIN connector Lightning arrester/feeder connector(DIN) Jumper/TTA Connector (DIN)

Dual polarization antenna


Antenna Connector(DIN)

jumper Jumper connector(DIN)

TTA option
TDU

SWITCH BOX FAN BOX

Inside jumper
C D U
S C U

T R X

T R X

T R X

T R X

Jumper/TTA connector(DIN)

AIR BOX
C
S C U

T R X

T R X

T R X

T R X

TRX jumper TX and RDX cables

D U

FAN BOX

C D U

S C U

T R X

T R X

T R X

T R X

BTS rack

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P S U

P M U

TT T T T MM E E E UU S U U

AIR BOX

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

Um layer

Application layer(L3)

Communicate MNG(CM) Mobility MNG(MM) Radio resource (RR)

Data link layer(L2)

CPU

RACH

BCCH

AGCH/PCH

SDCCH

SACCH

TCH

FACCH

Phy. link layer(L1)

TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 ..SACCH ..TCH24 IDL

Multi-frame

GSM protocol stake

MS CM MM L3 RR RR L2 L1 LAPDm SigL1

BTS

BSC

MSC CM MM

RR BTSM BTSM LAPD SigL1

BSSMAP

BSSMAP

SCCP MTP

SCCP MTP

LAPDm LAPD SigL1 SigL1

Um

Abis

Channels
Logical channel

Common channel (CCH)

Dedicated channel (DCH)

Broadcast control channel Common control channel (BCCH) (CCCH)

Control channel

Voice channel (TCH)

FCH

SCH

BCCH PCH AGCH (system information)

RACH

SDCCH

FACCH

TCH/F

TCH/H

SACCH

TCH/9.6F TCH/ 4.8F, H TCH/ 2.4F, H

Downlink and uplink channels

Common Channel

BCCH CCCH

FCCH SCH BCCH PCH AGCH

Downlink CCCH

PCH
SDCCH SACCH FACCH TCH/F TCH/H

AGCH

Dedicated DCCH Channel

TCH

RACH

CCCH

Common Channel

Uplink CCCH
SDCCH SACCH FACCH TCH/F TCH/H

DCCH TCH

RACH

Dedicated Channel

CCCH configuration
Ccch_conf: ccch blocks in a 51 CCCH-multi-frames When one no-combined case:
bs_ag_blks_res: AGCH reserve blocks : 2 bs_pa_mfrms: paging blocks : 2 Paging sub-frame: (9-2)*(bs_pa_mfrms)=14
Ccch config one combined one no-combined two no-combined Ccch blocks 3 9 18

three no-combined
four no-combined

27
36

Pch blocks=Ccch blocks-(bs_ag_blks_res),


if ccch_config=1 non_combined, bs_ag_blks_res=2, then PCH=9-2=7. each CCCH 51-multi-frames will be lasted 235.4ms

Pch blocks/sec= Pch blocks/0.2354ms=29.7 blocks/sec


2 times in each Pch blocks for IMSI paging type 4 times in each Pch blocks for TMSI paging type

So total paging times/max=Pch blocks/sec*(times in each Pch blocks)

Functions of Channels
off state

Search for frequency correction burst Search for synchronization sequence Read system information Listen paging message Send access burst Wait for signaling channel allocation Call setup Assign traffic channel Conversation Call release

FCCH SCH BCCH

idle mode

PCH RACH AGCH


SDCCH SDCCH TCH FACCH

dedicated mode

idle mode

Rxlevel calculation and transmit model


RxLev=EIRP-Path Loss
1, EIRP: efficient power of BTS. EIRP=10log[P_Forward(mW)-P_Reflected(mW)]+Tx_Antenna_Gain+Rx_Antenna_Gain-Rx_Feeder_Loss
P_Forward: power of forward direction(mW) P_Reflected: power of reflected direction(mW) Tx_Antenna_Gain: TX antenna gain of BTS (dbi) Rx_Antenna_Gain: RX antenna gain dbi) Rx_Feeder_Loss: loss of feeder cable

2, PATH LOSS (predigest formula, need to corrected in project) Okumura/Hata transmission model for 900M macro network.

Lp=69.55+26.16lg (f) -13.82lg (hb) +(44.9-6.55hb)lg (d) -A (hm)


Lp: path loss (db) f : frequency (Mhz) hb : BTS antenna height (m) hm : MS antenna height (m) d: distance between MS with BTS

Cost-231/Hata transmission model for 1800 macro network

Lp=69.55+26.16lg(f) -13.82lg(hb) +(44.9-6.55hb)lg(d) -A(hm)-K


Cost-231/Walfish ikegami model for 900/1800 micro network Keenan-motley model for 900/1800 indoor distribution system. Planning software for 900/1800 macro system Path Loss(dB)=k1+k2log(d)+k3Hms+k4log(Hms)+k5log(Heff)+k6log(Heff)log(d) +k7(Diffraction Loss)+Clutter Loss

Down-tilt, height and coverage

tg(B-A/2)=H/R
B: down-tilt A: vertical beam width H: antenna height R1,2,3: coverage range

Layers and priorities in dual band network


Background:
Traffic increase rapidly Limited channels in 900 band Frequency re-use more difficult Quality decrease More free channels in 1800 band Offer loose frequency re-use in 1800 band

Parameters set:
900 cells offer coverage service (Layer 3) 1800 cells offer traffic service (Layer 2) MS stay in Layer 2 more (high cell priority) Set much CRO in 1800 cells Set easy access parameters in 1800 cells Set easy handover to 1800 cells Set 1800 TRU as overlay in concentric HO Set 900 TRU as underlay in concentric HO

RLT (DL) and SACCH multi-frame (UL)


Radio_link_timeout (DL,S(T100) )
S+2 when MS decode a SACCH multi-frame correctly, S<= RLT/max. S -1 when MS cant decode a SACCH multi-frame correctly. S=0,MS gives up the radio resource connection, a drop call occurs.

SACCH-multi-frames(UL)
Value +2 when BTS decode a SACCH multi-frame,<= SACCH-multi-frames/max. Value 1 When BTS cant decode a SACCH multi-frame, Value=0.BTS stop transmitting downlink SACCH. and start T3109. When T100 timeout in handset ,a drop call occurs. When T3109 timeout in BTS,BTS release channel, BSC sends Clear request to MSC.

Reasons of RF loss
Interfering Bad rx_lev Incorrect PWR control parameter. Hardware problem. TRX Pwr class difference in the same cell. HO drops. Neighbor cell relations problem. Incorrect HO algorithm and parameters RLT,SACCH-multi-frame not correct.

Measure reports (MR) and SACCH frame


MS measure the uplink and downlink during the dedication mode. MS/BTS measures and report the uplink/downlink information. The results are prepare for HO, pwr control A SACCH super-frames is made of 4 SACCH multi-frames. Total 26 frames in one SACCH multi-frame. The MS deals with a full MR in a SACCH super-frames, the period is 480ms(4*120ms), MS retains the previous MR result of 480ms when it is in the next 480ms MS decode the neighbor cellss BSIC in idle frame MS retain MR result for 10s if MS find that a BCCH go out from best 6 neighbor cells to prevent stopping the MR when HO request is sent to this cell.

Contents in MR
Actual TA of MS Actual tx-pwr of MS The BA changes indicator DTX used indicator The rx_lev and rx_qual in uplink and downlink The rxlev,freq, BSIC of the 6 best neighbors

Hopping
Frequency
F0 F1

Hopping algorithm(HSN=0)
MAI=(FN+MAIO)mod N, RFCHN=MA(MAI)
FH mode: base-band and RF hopping MA: hopping frequency, 1*3,1*1 need MA>=2TRXs MAIO: No.of TRX-1 HSN: 0-63 TSC: BCC FN: 2048*51*26 used in hopping algorithm N: total of MA in one cell

F2 F3 F4
Frame

Time
BCCH channel no hopping (benefit to decode BCCH) SDCCH and TCH channel can hopping Band hopping and RF hopping

Band hopping
Using fixed frequency in each TRX Using different TRX in different time TCHs in BCCH TRX are hopping (option) MA=TRXs TRX problems Will effect performance

RF hopping
Using vary frequency in each TRX Using different TRX in different time TCHs in BCCH TRX are no hopping TRX problems will not effect performance More common than Band hopping

Frequency hopping (4*3, 1*3, 1*1)


4*3 hopping Same frequency as 4*3(MA)

1*3 hopping
Each cell have a MA in same site Same MA and MAIO in same direct cells in different sites Be sure no neighbor-MAIO in same cell or in the same direct cells. Will get more interfering if the azimuth of sites is not regular

1*1 hopping
Each cell have the same MA in all cells Different MAIO in each cell in one site Same MAIO in same direct cells in different sites

Principle of AMR
AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) is the set of different speech code rate. BTS and MS select and adjust
the appropriate rate according to RQI, so that to improve the MOS quality of network. system select and adjust to low AMR when RQI is bad (or interfering is high); System select and adjust to high AMR when RQI is good (or interfering is low) AMR-FR set (8):12.2k(GSM EFR)/10.2k/7.95k/7.40k(IS-641)/6.70k/5.90k/5.15k/4.75k AMR-HR set (5):7.40k(IS-641)/6.70k/5.90k/5.15k/4.75k

Benefits to network:
Offer better speech quality: the speech quality is better than EFR/HR when system use AMR-FR and AMR-HR whether the interfering is high or low. Improvement the re-use rate of frequency: the performance is better when system use the No. of frequency re-use=9(3*3) and 12(4*3) than N=12(4*3) and 18(6*3), It means that the system can offer higher No. of frequency re-use mode in the condition of the same speech quality. Improvement the edge coverage. For C/I, AMR-FR 4.75k need 3dB while EFR 8dB to keep the FER<1%. It means that the performance is improved from 3dB to 8 dB in the coder-encoder between AMR-FR and EFR. So the MOS is improved at the edge of coverage.

Channel assignment of AMR


Channel assignment principle of AMR
adjust AMR supports according to the busyness type, speech version, circuit pool when BSC receive the assignment command message which sent from MSCBSC. Prefer to assign AMR channel if system support AMR. Prefer to assign common channel if system not support AMR

Parameters for AMR:


A interface tag: Phase II+ (BSC32)CIC pool:27 Support FR speech version 1~3 Support HR speech version 1~3 (BSC32)Query TC: support FR/HR speech version 3 Support AMR:AMR switch support active ACS(FR/HR):4 selected rate for AMR-FR, 3 selected rate for AMR-HR AMR start mode: the original AMR rate AMR UL/DL coding rate adj.th1: adjust threshold between 0-1, stet: 0.5db AMR UL/DL coding rate adj.th2: adjust threshold between 1-2, stet: 0.5db AMR UL/DL coding rate adj.th3: adjust threshold between 2-3, stet: 0.5db AMR UL/DL coding rate adj.hyst1: adjust hysist between 0-1, stet: 0.5db AMR UL/DL coding rate adj. hyst2: adjust t hysist between 1-2, stet: 0.5db AMR UL/DL coding rate adj. hyst3: adjust hysist between 2-3, stet: 0.5db

The parameters need to comply for these items:


0 < th[i] < th[i+1] < 63; i = 1, 2 0 < th[i] + hyst[i] < th[i+1] + hyst[i+1] < 63; i = 1, 2

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

DT analysis and bad coverage/quality


DT analysis items
Coverage analysis (over CV, less CV, CV confusion, reflection, antenna connection wrong) BER analysis and suggestion Freq.interfering and C/I,C/A analysis HO analysis frequency HO, HO failure, HO drop) Call setup fail analysis Handover analysis Drop call analysis and suggestion Leak of micro cell and suggestion DT KPIs TA analysis Rxlev(Full&Sub) PWR control analysis Coverage rate CQT Rxqual(Full&Sub)

Reasons of bad coverage


VSWR alarm and loss much in downlink Down-tilt or azimuth is not in reason Static power class is too low Bar of the building and the surrounding Hardware problem or jump cable problem Far distance between sites Wrong neighbor cell relation Over shooting Coverage confusion Wrong Antenna connections Alone island effect Incorrect parameters

Call setup success rate Drop call rate Handover Success rate TA Power control level

Reasons of bad quality


C/I,C/A interfering (freq.planning) Bad rx_level coverage VSWR and reflective freq.interfering (overlap) Hardware problem Parameters of HO TMU and reference clock RF drop call process Middle frequency interfering

Crossed cables and Yuanyang Crossed cables

Wrong crossed cables


Planning azimuth 0/160/260 DT azimuth 160/0/260 Crossed cables between Cell 16101/16102

Yuanyang crossed cables


same Rxlevel in anywhere along azimuth directions Rxlevel in one direction are better than the other 2 TX/RX are connect to Cell 1091(good signal) 2 RDX are connect to Cell 1093(bad signal)

Wrong azimuth or Confused coverage

Wrong azimuth
Planning azimuth 85/170/240 DT azimuth 330/220/60 Neighbor relationship and frequency

Confused coverage
Need to check azimuth in cell 3201/3203 Need to confirm in every cables Pending? Reflection? Neighbor relationship?

Wrong location and interfering

Wrong Long/Lati
Planning coverage Neighbor relationships Frequency interfering

Channel interfering
Planning coverage and azimuth Bad Frequency plan Wrong coverage against planning

Overshooting and low coverage

Overshooting and interfering


12km overshooting Adjacent frequency interfering Neighbor relationships Drop call

Low coverage
Down-tilt, antenna height PWR, VSWR, OOS, Surrounding

Spliter and Combiner problems

Spliter problem
There is a Spliter in cell id =GSP3671 Azimuth=40/160 no signal of GSP-1 in direction of 40 degree No installed Spliter yet

Combiner problem
Crossed cables between 3011 and 3012 Almost no signal in 3011 Rxlevel loss have 30db via the combiner between GSM and CDMA

Jump cables or TRX problem in cabinet

Jump cables problem in cabinet


TCH allocation always failure in some TRX Very less times in TCH seizure successful times Incoming handover failure

One TRX OOS in cabinet


One of TRX in a cell have low signal suddenly The other TRXs have no problem VSWR alarm or OOS

OOS and no main service cell

Out of service (OOS)


VSWR-2 alarm? LapD or transmission broken? No power supply? Locked?

No main service cell


Simulate rxlevel No cell can offer main service offer a main service cell Install a new main service cell or site

Wrong CGI in MSC

Wrong CGI in MSC


MS cant make any calls All calls are blocked TCH seizure times for call are 0 times Support incoming and outgoing handover

Drop call analysis

Process of RF drop calls


RLT+2 and until to the max_RLT if MS decode SACCH frame correctly , RLT-1,if MS cant decode SACCH frame , RLT is decreased to 0 when MS continue un-decoded SACCH frame, RF drop call occurs. uplink is as the same as downlink,the counter SACCH multi-frame. Main reason of drop calls interfering Bad rx_lev hardware problem. RLT, Sacch-multi-frame not correct. TRX Pwr class difference in the same cell. HO drops. Nei cell relations problem. Incorrect HO algorithm and parameters Handover drop call Incorrect PWR control parameter.

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

Traffic statistics task introduction


BSC level task
BSC measurement performance

Cell level task


Immediate assignment SDCCH TCH Congestion Drop Handover Concentric Channel capacity and availability

TRX level task


Path balanced Received Level Received Quality Channel allocation Interfering on idle Timing Advanced RQI

Other task
A-interface performance MTP statistics GPRS/EGPRS resource Frequency scan GSM cell to cell outgoing/incoming handover Especial abnormal cell tasks (according users need)

Cell level statistics items introduction(1)


Channels Handovers

CA300J:Channel Requests (Circuit Service) CH310:Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests CA303J:Call Setup Indications (Circuit Service) CH311:Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Commands CA304:Call Setup Indications Timed Out CH313:Successful Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover RA303G:Success Rate of Call Setup (Immediate Assignment) H312A:Failed Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) K3006:Configured SDCCH CH312C:Failed Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) K3004:Traffic Volume on SDCCH CH330:Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests K3000:SDCCH Seizure Requests CH331:Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Commands K3003:Successful SDCCH Seizures CH333:Successful Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers CM30:Call Drops on SDCCH H332Kc:Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (Handover Request Rejected K3001:Failed SDCCH Seizures due to Busy SDCCH (No Radio Resource Available) K3015:Available TCHs H332Kf:Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (Handover Request Rejected K3016:Configured TCHs (Invalid Cell) CR3027:Mean Number of Available Channels (TCHF) CH332C:Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (T8 Expired) CR3028:Mean Number of Available Channels (TCHH) CH342C:Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) K3014:Traffic Volume on TCH (Traffic Channel) CH300:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests K3024:Traffic Volume on TCH (Signaling Channel) CH301:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Commands Traffic Volume on TCHH CH303:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers K3010A:TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel) CH302A:Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel) CH302C:Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Timer Expiry) K3011A:Failed TCH Seizures due to Busy TCH (Traffic Channel CH320:Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests Total TCH Call Drops CH321:Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handover Responses K3022:Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel) CH323:Successful Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers K3012A:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel) H3229A:Failed Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) (TCH K3012B:Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel) H322D:Failed Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (Reconnection to Old Channel CM330:Call Drops on Radio Interface in Stable State (Traffic Channel) CH340:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Requests CM3300:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Error Indication) CH341:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Responses CM3301:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Connection Failure) CH343:Successful Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers CM3302:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Release Indication) H3429A:Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) (TCH CM331:Call Drops on Radio Interface in Handover State (Traffic H3429Ca:Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCH) (Tra Channel) Channel)

Cell level statistics items introduction(2)


Concentric
H3001:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests (Overlay to Underlay) CH3031:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Overlay to Underlay) R3225K:Failed Handovers from Overlaid Subcell to Underlaid Subcell due to Busy Channels in Underlaid Subcell H3002:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests (Underlay to Overlay) CH3032:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Underlay to Overlay) R3224K:Failed Handovers from Underlaid Subcell to Overlaid Subcell due to Busy Channels in Overlaid Subcell R3200:Channel Assignment Requests (Underlaid Subcell Only) R3202:Channel Assignment Requests (Underlaid Subcell Preferred) R3202B:TCH Assignment Requests (Underlaid Subcell Preferred) R3201:Channel Assignment Requests (Overlaid Subcell Only) R3203:Channel Assignment Requests (Overlaid Subcell Preferred) R3203B:TCH Assignment Requests (Overlaid Subcell Preferred) CR3557:Traffic Volume of TCHs (Underlaid Subcell) CR3558:Traffic Volume of TCHs (Overlaid Subcell)

Statistics in Trx level


In common use
Mean Number of SDCCHs in Interference Band 1-5 Mean Number of TCHFs in Interference Band 1-5 Mean Number of TCHHs in Interference Band 1-5 Uplink/Downlink Interference Indication Messages (SDCCH) Uplink/Downlink Interference Indication Messages (TCH) Number of MRs (Uplink-and-Downlink Balance Level = 1-11) Number of MRs (TA = 0-63) CR440A:Attempted Immediate Assignments CR440B:Successful Immediate Assignments R4419A:Attempted Assignments (TCH) R4419B:Completed Assignments (TCH) CR443A:Attempted Handovers CR443B:Completed Handovers S4350D:Radio Link Failures (SDCCH) S4357D:Radio Link Failures (TCHF) S4358D:Radio Link Failures (TCHH)

Received quality
quality 0=bit error rate 0.00-0.20% (average 0.14%) quality 1=bit error rate 0.20-0.40% (average 0.28%) quality 2=bit error rate 0.40-0.80% (average 0.57%) quality 3=bit error rate 0.80-1.60% (average 1.13%) quality 4=bit error rate 1.60-3.20% (average 2.26%) quality 5=bit error rate 3.20-6.40% (average 4.53%) quality 6=bit error rate 6.40-12.80% (average 9.05%) quality 7=bit error rate >12.80% (average 18.10%)

Received rxlevel
Number of MRs on uplink/downlink TCHF (receive level Rank 0-7 receive quality rank 0-7 Number of MRs on uplink/downlink TCHH (receive level Rank 0-7 receive quality rank 0-7

Formulas in common use-1


Imm-assignment success rate(%)= CA303J:Call Setup Indications (Circuit Service) CA300J:Channel Requests (Circuit Service) SDCCH congestion rate (%)= K3001:Failed SDCCH Seizures due to Busy SDCCH
K3000:SDCCH Seizure Requests

SDCCH drop rate (%)= CM30:Call Drops on SDCCH K3003:Successful SDCCH Seizures TCH congestion rate (include ho)(%)=
K3011A:Failed TCH Seizures due to Busy TCH (Traffic Channel)+ CH302A:Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available)+ H3229A:Failed Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) (TCH)+ H3429A:Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) (TCH) K3010A:TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel)+ CH300:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests+ CH320:Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests+ CH340:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Requests K3022:Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel)+ K3012A:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel)+ TCH drop call rate (excluding HO) (%)= K3012B:Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel) K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel) K3022:Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel)+ K3012A:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel)+ K3012B:Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel) TCH drop call rate (all)(%)= K3023:Successful TCH Seizures (Signaling Channel) K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel) K3013B:Successful TCH Seizures in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)

Formulas in common use-2


TCH success rate(%)= K3010A:TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel)
K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel)

RA303G:Success Rate of Call Setup (Immediate Assignment) * (100%-CM30:Call Drops on SDCCH/K3003:Successful SDCCH Seizures)* CSSR(%)= (K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel) K3010A:TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel) CH313:Successful Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover+ CH333:Successful Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers+ CH303:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers Handover outgoing success rate(%)= CH310:Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests+ CH330:Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests+ CH300:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests

CH313:Successful Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover+ CH333:Successful Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers+ CH303:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers Radio outgoing HO success rate(%)= CH311:Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Commands+ CH331:Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Commands+ CH300:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests

Wireless Access success rate(%)= (100%-TCH congesting Rate)X(100%-SDCCH congesting Rate)

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

TOP 20 worst cells and DT method


Top 20 worst cells from statistics data
Compositor according to the cell level KPIs Select the top bad 20(or 10)cells in the main items according to times or rate Analysis the relative bad KPI items Solved the bad cells that affect the BSS level performance result Worst cells

BSC level Cell level TRX level


We can resolve the problems from easy to difficult step by step.

DT method
Analysis the coverage rationality Bad coverage area and betterment Analysis the abnormal layer 3 message Interfering analysis Call setup failure analysis HO parameters PWR control parameters

Signalling analysis and compare method


Signal analysis method:
Signaling analysis method requires engineer master every step and statistic counter. Trace the calls and analysis the signaling information Analysis problems in the call-process step Compare the counters in the call process step and find out the max lost count point. Analysis the every detail call-process step Find out the problem result

Parameter compare method:


Compare the same parameters in different BSC Compare the different results in different parameter value Get the best parameter results

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

Boundary model of cells and BA table


HO Incoming boundary,HO_in

Select boundary, Reselect

HO outgoing boundary,HO_out

BCCH neighbor list


Transmit insystem information message type 2 in BCCH In use of select and reselect cells 64 cells max

SACCH neighbor list


Transmit insystem information message type 5 in SACCH In use of handover 32 cells max

The two tables can be different,but they are almost the same in common use.

Process of mobile turn on (selection)


MS have not save the present BCCH info. (initial turn on)
Scan all the channel and assess the rx_lev in each ARFCN MS tune to the max rx-levand judge if it is the BCCH If it is the BCCH ,then MS try to decode the BCCH info. MS select the cell as flowing Decode info.correctly,and the cell is among the PLMN The cell is not BARED; C1>0

MS saved the present BCCH info. (When turn off)


MS scan the saved BCCH when turn on the next time MS select the cell as flowing The cell is not bared C1>0 Else MS check if there is correct cells in the neighbor list. If there is one,then select the cell as service cell If there are more,then select the C1/max cell If there is no,then scan as the case of no BCCH info.

Cell reselection(C1&C2)
C1= (A - Max. (B, 0)) predigest=(Rxlev Average-rxlev_access_min )
thereinto: A=Rxlev Average - rxlev_access_min B= ms_txpwr_max_cch - ms Max allowed power ms Max allowed power(ms pwr class) ms_txpwr_max_cch(ms pwr class when access) Reselect principle: (1)C1>0;(2)select C1/max cell

Ms occurs reselect cell in case of any one as below:


Downlink failure (DSC=90/bs_pa_mfrms timeout) The cell is bared in BCCH The C1 of the service cell is < 0 last 5s Ms hasnt reselect the cells in the past 15s: To the same LAC, C1 of neis >present cells 5s To the different LAC,C1 of neis >present cells value (C1+cell_reselect_hysteresis) Ms not reselection if has reselected in 15s PT-T<0, H(pt-t)=0 PT-T>=0, H(pt-t)=1 T: time from set 6 best MS assess C2 of nei cell and service cell at least 5s candidate cell to out of 6 cells If C2of best nei cell>C2of service cell for 5s,then Ms select cell If nei cell and service cell are in different LAC,should add CRH

C2=C1+CRO-TO*H(pt-t)+CRH (for PT< 31) C2=C1-CRO+CRH (for PT= 31)

Other parameters about reselect(1)


CBA:
No: normal, Yes: barred

PI:
No: C2 not used Yes: C2 used PHASE2 MS reselection according to C2 PHASE1 MS reselection according to C1

CBQ:
No: normalYes: low

CRO: =2*n dB TO: =10*n dB PT: =20*(n+1)s CRH=2*n dB

Cases:
PI=0,C2 has no affect (suppose to the same layer) micro A: C1=35, macro B: C1=45, so micro A: C1<macro B: C1, thus MS prefer to reselect B PI=1,C2 have some affect (suppose to the same layer) micro CRO=20macro CRO=0 so micro A: C2=55,> macro B: C2=45, thus MS prefer to reselect A

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

SDCCH and Location update


Ms will occur location update as follows: SDCCH traffic includes: Choose a new LAC cell as the service Call setup (MOC,MTC) T3212 timeout Location update ATT(IMSI attach and detach) SMS Roaming location update (inter mobile operators) ATT Choose reasonable parameter with SD congestion cell CDB (cell database broadcast) Partition LAC in reason MS BTS BSC MSC Choose correct parameter about T3212 Channel_req Channel_Required(2) Add SDCCH channels Active SDCCH dynamic configuration Channel_Active(3) Choose correct C1,CRO,CRH Channel_Active_Ack(4) SDCCH process died (reset BCCH TRX)
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND (5)

SDCCH dynamic configuration parameters First SABM Establish_IND(Location Updating Req) (6) SDCCH dynamic allocation allowed CR(Complete_L3) switch-yes/no Idle SD thrth. CC TCH change to SD(for TCH>4 or TRXs) Cell SD maximum Location Updating Accepted (10) =SD configured +8 TMSI Reallocation Complete (11) Tch minimum recovery times minimum time from TCH to SDCCH and back to TCH (NOTE 3) Clear_CMD Idle TCH thrth N1 Clear_CMP When TCH change to SD,it is set a count as ResTIME. And during the period of SD return to TCH, if idle SD>N1+8, then count-3->0,SD return to TCH If idle SD<N1+8,then count+12<=restime If idle SD=N1+8,the not adjust.

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

Reasons of congestion
Reasons of TCH congestion
Traffic not balanced between service and neighbors Traffic not balanced between underlay and overlay in concentric Hardware problem and some TRX OOS. Traffic is more than the capacity. Incorrect coverage area Incorrect C1,C2 parameters Incorrect HO parameters Transmission problem SDCCH congestion but TCH traffic low

Ways to resolve TCH congestion


Resolve the hardware and transmission problem Traffic balanced to neighbors or lay with low traffic usage Adjust azimuth and downtilt so that adjust the coverage and traffic Adjust handover hysteresis,C1,C2,control the traffic direction Adjust min DL level on candidate cell in busy cell Active Half-Rate function Lower TCH traffic busy threshold% Active direct retry Layer and priority -PBGT handover Allow load handover function Add more TCH channels or more TRX Balance the traffic between underlay and overlay

Normal Cell boundary model


HOIncoming boundary,HO_in Select boundary, Reselect HOoutgoing boundary,HO_out

Control traffic by cell boundary


rxlev_access_minC1/C2cell radiusSD/TCH traffic rxlev_access_min SD/TCH trafficcongestion Min_DL_level_on candidate celldifficult to incoming HOtrafficcongestion Adjust HO_hysteresisadjust handover boundaryadjust traffic between service cells and neighbors Adjust PGBT HO thrsh. as HO parameter relief congestion Adjust PI, CRO ,PT, TO, CRH,TX_power Adjust TRXs/channels/cells/sites Active Half-rate function OtoU(UtoO) HO Received Level ThresholdMS stay more time in overlay traffic in underlay congestion in underlay

Abnormal boundary (-PBGT and pingpong HO)


1-setup 2-HO to nei cells HO to B

HO_out. Rselect reselect Reselect>RHO_out

Rselect

HO_out

HO to A

RHO_OUT HO_in RHO_in>RHO_out lead to pingpong HO

C1= (A - Max. (B, 0)) predigest=(Rxlev Average-rxlev_access_min )

Thereinto : A=Rxlev Average - rxlev_access_min B= ms_txpwr_max_cch - ms Max allowed power(ms pwr class) 1, C1(cell A)-C1(cell B)=RXLEV_BCCH-RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN>0 2, PBGT(N)=-RXLEV_BCCH >HO_MARGIN , so C1(cell B)-C1(cell A)HO_MARGIN+RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN <0

MS will setup calls in the cell A,and handover to cell B immediately. Note:
Need to select inter-cell ho thrsh. =0 and PBGT ho thrsh<64. Inter-cell HO thrsh. In cell B to cell A Need more than the value from cell A to cell B Or this parameter will lead to pingpong HO when using PBGP HO process. Eg.1: reselect>HO_out HO_MARGIN AB= -5, RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN=5(-105dbm) HO_MARGIN BA=8, RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN=5(-105dbm) To cell A: RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN+HO_MARGIN(5-5)-5-5<0 The ms setup calls in cell A ,and immediately handover to cell B Eg.2: reselect<HO_out HO_MARGIN AB=-5, RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN=15(-95dbm) HO_MARGIN BA=8, RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN=5(-105dbm) To cell A: RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN+HO_MARGIN(15-5)-55>0 The ms setup calls in cell A ,but not HO to cell B immediately

Direct retry and load HO


DR to the nei cells Cell A Cell B MS2 RHO_out Rselect RHO_out MS1 Sharing the traffic by DR (suggest not allowed)

Conditions of Direct Retry function


MS setup in cell A, No more free TCH channels in cell A Active DR in cell A and B There is free TCH channels in cell B

MS1 ho to B MS1 load ho thrsh RHO_out MS1 Load ho band Load HO

Load HO parameters:
Load ho allowed (original cell and direct cell) System flux thrsh. For load ho Load ho thrsh. Load req. on candidate cell Load ho bandwidth Load ho step period Load ho step level

TCH drops
Reasons of drop calls Drop statistics items for BSC32 (9 items)
Unsuccessful TCH seizure (connection failure) Interfering Unsuccessful TCH seizure (error indicator) Bad rx_lev Unsuccessful TCH seizure (internal clear) Bad rx_qual Unsuccessful TCH seizure (release indicator) Coverage confused Unsuccessful TCH seizure (EMLPP) Hardware problem and VSWR Unsuccessful cell internal handover with unsuccessful reversion Unsuccessful BSC internal handover with unsuccessful reversion HO drops Neighbor cell relations and data problem. Unsuccessful outgoing BSC handover with unsuccessful reversion Unsuccessful incoming BSC handover (timeout) Antenna physical parameter wrong K3022: Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel)= Crossed feeder cables [Call Drops on Radio Interface in Stable State (Signaling Channel)] + Wrong jump connect cables wrong in cabinet [Call Drops on Radio Interface in Handover State (Signaling Channel)] + [Call Drops due to No MRs from MS for a Long Time (Signaling Channel)] + RLT, Sacch-multi-frame not correct. [Call Drops due to Abis Terrestrial Link Failure (Signaling Channel)] + Incorrect HO algorithm and parameters [Call Drops due to Equipment Failure (Signaling Channel)] + [Call Drops due to Forced Handover (Signaling Channel)] TRX PWR class difference in the same cell. K3012A: Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel)= Incorrect PWR control parameter. [Call Drops on Radio Interface in Stable State (TCH)] + Wrong configuration data [Call Drops due to No MRs from MS for a Long Time (TCH)] + [Call Drops due to Abis Terrestrial Link Failure (TCH)] + Transmission not in stable [Call Drops due to Equipment Failure (TCH)] + TMU version process problem [Call Drops due to Forced Handover (TCH)] Radio link not balanced K3012B: Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)=

Drop items for BSC6000 (3 summary items) [Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCHF) (Traffic Channel)] + [Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCHH) (Traffic Channel)] +

K3022: Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel) [Failed Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCHF) (Traffic Channe K3012A: Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel) [Failed Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCHH) (Traffic Channe [Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (T8 Expired) (TCHF) (Traffic Channel)] K3012B: Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)

[Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (T8 Expired) (TCHH) (Traffic Channel)] [Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCH) (Traffic Channel

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

Call process of MOC


MSC BSC 2 3 4 5 9 11 CM Service Request BTS Channel Required Channel Activation 1 MS Channel Request(RACH)

Channel Activation Ack Immediate Assigment Command 6 Immediate 10 Assigment (AGCH)

8 CM Service Request 7 Estableish Indication 12 13

CM Service Request(SDCCH) UA(SDCCH)

Authentication Request

Authentication Request(SDCCH) Authentication Reponse(SDCCH)

14 Authentication Reponse 15 Ciphering Mode Command 16 Ciphering Mode Complete TMSI Reallocation Command TMSI Reallocation Complete 25 26 Setup Call Proceeding

Ciphering Mode Command17 18 21 22 24 27

Ciphering Mode Command(SDCCH)

19 20 23

Ciphering Mode Complete(SDCCH) TMSI Reallocation Command(SDCCH) TMSI Reallocation Complete(SDCCH) Setup(SDCCH) Call Proceeding(SDCCH)

28 Assignment Request 30

29 Channel Activation Channel Activation Ack 31 33 Assignment Command(SDCCH) 32 34 SABM(FACCH) UA(FACCH)

Establish Indication 35 37 38 39

36 Assignment Complete

Assignment Complete(FACCH)

Channel Release Deactive SACCH Release Indication

40 RF Channel Release 41 42 44 Alerting Connect 43 45 47 Connect Ack 49 51 52 55 56 Disconnect Release Release Complete Clear Command 58 46 Alerting(FACCH) Connect(FACCH) Connect Ack(FACCH) Measurement Report(SACCH) RF Channel Release Ack

Prep_Measurement Result 48 50 53 54 57

Disconnect(FACCH) Release(FACCH) Release Complete(FACCH) Channel Release(FACCH) 59 60 DISC(FACCH) UA(SACCH)

Deactivate SACCH

61 Release Indication 62 RF Channel Release 64 65 66 Clear Complete SCCP Release SCCP Release Ack 63

RF Channel Release Ack

Call process of MTC


MSC 1 Paging 2 Paging Command 3 5 6 7 8 12 14 Paging Response Channel Required Channel Activation 4 Paging Request BSC BTS MS Channel Request(RACH)

Channel Activation Ack Immediate Assigment Command 10 9 Immediate Assigment (AGCH)

11 Paging Response(SDCCH) Establish Indication 15 16 19

SABM Paging Response(SDCCH) 13 UA(SDCCH)

Authentication Request

Authentication Request(SDCCH) Authentication Reponse(SDCCH)

17 Authentication Reponse 18 Ciphering Mode Command

Ciphering Mode Command 21 24 25 28 29

20

Ciphering Mode Command(SDCCH)

22 23 26

Ciphering Mode Complete TMSI Reallocation Command TMSI Reallocation Complete 27 Setup 30 31 Call Comfirm Assignment Request 33

Ciphering Mode Complete(SDCCH) TMSI Reallocation Command(SDCCH) TMSI Reallocation Complete(SDCCH) Setup(SDCCH) Call Comfirm(SDCCH)

32 Channel Activation Channel Activation Ack 34 36 Assignment Command(SDCCH) 35 37 SABM(FACCH) UA(FACCH)

Establish Indication 38 40 41 42 43 44

39 Assignment Complete

Assignment Complete(FACCH)

Channel Release Deactive SACCH Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release Ack 45 47 50 Alerting(FACCH) Connect(FACCH) Connect Ack(FACCH) 51 Measurement Report(SACCH)

46 48 49

Alerting Connect Connect Ack

52 Prep-Measurement Result 54 55 58 59 Disconnect Release Release Complete Clear Command 61 64 65 67 68 69 Clear Complete SCCP Release SCCP Release Ack 66 53 56 57 60

Disconnect(FACCH) Release(FACCH) Release Complete(FACCH) Channel Release(FACCH) 62 63 DISC(FACCH) UA(SACCH)

Deactivate SACCH Release Indication RF Channel Release RF Channel Release Ack

Circuit Paging (BSC level)


MS BTS BSC
1. PAGING

PCU

SGSN

MSC/VLR

A1 13'. PAGING REQUEST


3. PAGING REQUEST 2. PAGING COMMAND

12'. PAGING REQUEST

11'. PAGING

A2 B1

BTS
4.CHANNEL REQUEST 5.CHANNEL REQUIRED 6.CHANNEL ACTIVATION 7. CHANNEL ACKTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE 9. IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT 10. PAGING RESPONSE 8.IMMEDIATE ASSIGN CMMAND 11. EST IND(PAGING RESPONSE)

BSC

MSC/VLR

CCCH LOAD INDICATION A1 B1 OVERLOAD

CCCH overload call flowing A1: circuit paging PCH overloads of Abis interface B1: circuit paging CCCH overloads of Abis interface
C1

Circuit paging call flowing A1: received circuit paging messages from MSC A2: received circuit paging messages from MSC via G-s interface B1: circuit paging command to BTS

Assignment (BSC level)


MS
BTS
In Immediate Assignment or IntraBSC Handover
(directly retry)HANDOVER REQIRED
C1 E1 H2

BSC

MSC

ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
A1 D1 G1 G4 G5 G6 G5 H4 B 4B 5 B3 G2 B 2 ASS

ASS FAILURE

(directly retry)HANDOVER FAILURE(REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE) MODE (MODIFY) MODE (MODIFY) ACKNOLEDGE (NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE,REJECT)

CHANNEL ACKTIVATION

G3

FAILURE

CHANNEL ACKTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE (NACK) .ASSIGN CMMAND SABM UA ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE ESTABLISH INDICATION
F3 F3 F1 F1 F3

B6

H3 H3 C2

ASS FAILURE

F2 Assignment call process ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE A1: assignment requests C1-C2: unsuccessful assignments(requested terrestrial resource unavailable E1: unsuccessful assignments(invalid message content) G1-G6: unsuccessful assignments(no radio resource available) B2-B6: unsuccessful assignments(equipment failure) D1: unsuccessful assignments(terrestrial circuit already allocation F1-F3: unsuccessful assignments(radio interface fail,reversion to the previous channel) H2-H4: unsuccessful assignments(other causes)

Outgoing BSC handover (BSC level)


MS
BSC1 MSC/VLR BSC2

MS

MS

BSC1

MSC/VLR

BSC2

HANDOVER REQUIRED A1 B1 C1 HANDOVER COMMAND D1 , E1, F1 HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER DETECT HANDOVER COMPLETE CLEAR COMMAND HANDOVER REQUEST HANDOVER REQ ACK

HANDOVER REQUIRED HANDOVER REQUEST HANDOVER REQ ACK HANDOVER COMMAND


HANDOVER ACCESS HANDOVER COMPLETE

HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER DETECT HANDOVER COMPLETE

CLEAR COMMAND
CLEAR COMPLETE

A1, B1, C1 , D1, E1 CLEAR COMPLETE

Attempt outgoing BSC handovers A1: attempt outgoing BSC handovers B1: attempt outgoing BSC handovers (from 900) C1: attempt outgoing BSC handovers (from 1800) D1: outgoing BSC handovers E1: outgoing BSC handovers (900->1800) F1: outgoing BSC handovers (1800->900)
BTS
BSC1 MSC/VLR

Successful outgoing BSC handovers A1: successful outgoing BSC handovers B1: successful outgoing BSC handovers (from 900 to 900) C1: successful outgoing BSC handovers (from 1800 to 1800) D1: successful outgoing BSC handovers (900->1800) E1: successful outgoing BSC handovers (1800->900)

HANDOVER REQUIRED HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER FAILURE A1 CONN FAIL IND ERROR INDICATION B2 B3 CLEAR COMMAND CLEAR COMPLETE HANDOVER FAILURE B1 CLEAR COMMAND

Unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers A1: unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers with successful reversion B1-B3: unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers with unsuccessful reversion

Incoming BSC HO (BSC level)

Successful Incoming BSC handovers A1: successful incoming BSC handovers B1: successful incoming BSC handovers(900->1800) C1: successful incoming BSC handovers(1800-900) D1: successful incoming BSC handovers(900 to 900) E1: successful incoming BSC handovers 1800to 1800) F1: attempt incoming BSC handovers Unsuccessful incoming BSC handovers A1-A5 : unsuccessful incoming BSC handovers B1-B2: unsuccessful incoming BSC handovers(equipment failure) C1-C3: unsuccessful incoming BSC handovers (other causes) D1 : unsuccessful channel activation in incoming BSC handovers(NACK)

Immediate assignment (cell level)


MS
CHANNEL REQUEST TCH-ATT-C 61 TCH-ATT-C 62 TCH-ATT-C 7 SD-ATT-C1 TCH-ATT-C1 TCH-ATT-BSC1 SD-ATT-BSC1 TCH-ATT-C 6 CHANNEL REQUIRED CHANNEL ACTIVATION CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE SD-SUCC-C 1 TCH-SUCC-C 6 TCH-SUCC-C 1 IMMEDIATE ASSIGN CMMAND EST_IND SD-SUCC-C4

BTS

BSC

Immediate assignment process SD-ATT-C1: attempted SDCCH seizures(all) TCH -ATT-C1: attempted TCH seizures(all) TCH -ATT-C6: attempted TCH seizures for very early assignment TCH -ATT-C7: attempted TCH seizures for SDCCH overflow SD-SUCC-C1: successful SDCCH seizures(all) SD-SUCC-C4: successful SDCCH seizures for immediate assignment TCH -SUCC-C6: successful TCH seizures for very early assignment TCH -SUCC-C1: successful TCH seizures(all) TCH -SUCC-C61: successful TCH allocation for very early assignment TCH -SUCC-C62: successful TCH allocation for SDCCH overflow

Assignment (cell level)


MS
BTS
TCH-ATT-BSC 2

BSC

MSC

TCH-ATT-C16 TCH-ATT-C14
(directly retry)HANDOVER REQIRED (directly retry)HANDOVER REQUEST ACK

ASSIGNMENT REQUEST TCH-ATT-C 2 TCH-ATT-C 8 TCH-ATT-C 9 TCH-ATT-C 10 TCH-ATT-C 5 QUEUEING INDICATION TCH-ATT-C13

TCH-SUCC-C13 CHANNEL ACTIVATION CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK .ASSIGN CMMAND SABM UA ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE ESTABLISH INDICATION

TCH-SUCC-C21,22 TCH-SUCC-C52,53,54,55,56 TCH-SUCC-C82,83 TCH-SUCC-C92,93 TCH-SUCC-C102,103

TCH-SUCC-C23 TCH-SUCC-C51,54,55,56 TCH-SUCC-C81 TCH-SUCC-C91 TCH-SUCC-C101

TCH -ATT-C2: attempted TCH seizures(all) TCH -ATT-C5: attempted TCH seizures for call TCH -ATT-C8: attempted TCH seizures for MOC TCH -ATT-C9: attempted TCH seizures for MTC TCH -ATT-C10: attempted TCH seizures for call-reestablish TCH -ATT-C13: attempted TCH seizures for directed retry TCH -ATT-C14: TCH queue requests TCH -ATT-C16: TCH preemption

TCH -SUCC-C21--23: successful TCH seizures(all) TCH -SUCC-C51--53: successful TCH seizures for call TCH -SUCC-C81--83: successful TCH seizures for MOC TCH -SUCC-C91--93: successful TCH seizures for MTC TCH -SUCC-C101--103: successful TCH seizures for call-reestablish TCH -SUCC-C13: successful TCH for directed retry TCH -SUCC-C54: successful assignments of speech v1 TCH TCH -SUCC-C55: successful assignments of speech v2 TCH TCH -SUCC-C56: successful assignments of speech v3 TCH

TCH call drop (cell level)


MS
BTS BSC MSC

ASSIGNMENT REQUEST CHANNEL ACTICATION CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK .ASSIGN CMMAND SABM UA ERROR INDICATION A1 CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION A2 ESTABLISH INDICATION

Call drop process A1: TCH call drop (error indication) A2: TCH call drop (connection failure)

Internal inter cell HO


MS
MR

BTS'

BSC Ori-Cell

BSC Des-Cell

BTS''

MS

BTS

BSC

MSC/VLR
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST

Handover algorithm Intercell Handover Request SD-ATT-BSC2 TCH-ATT-C17 TCH-ATT-C3 TCH-ATT-C11 TCH-ATT-BSC3 SD-ATT-C2 CH ACT CH ACT ACK

HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER COMPLETE ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE A1, B1, C1, D1, E1

Intercell Handover Response HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER ACCESS HANDOVER DETECT TCH-SUCC-C17 TCH-SUCC-C3 SD-SUCC-C2 TCH-SUCC-C11

DR incoming inter cell HO in BSC(simulate with SDCCH handover) A1: successful TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover B1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers (from900) C1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers (from1800) D1: successful dual-band intercell handovers E1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers
MS
BTS BSC MSC/VLR

SABM UA

HANDOVER COMPLETE Inter Clear Request (Handover Success)

.HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER COMPLETE HANDOVER PERFORMED A1, B1 , C1, D1, E1, F1

Internal inter cell handovers SD-ATT-C2: attempted SDCCH seizures(all) TCH -ATT-C3: attempted TCH seizures(all) TCH -ATT-C11: attempted TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover TCH -ATT-C17: attempted TCH seizures for intracell handover TCH -SUCC-C17 : successful TCH seizures for intracell handover TCH -SUCC-C3: successful TCH seizures(all) TCH -SUCC-C11: successful TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover SD-SUCC-C2: successful SDCCH seizures for handover, successful SDCCH seizures(all)

Non_DR incoming inter cell HO in BSC(simulate with SDCCH handover A1: successful intracell handovers B1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers C1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers (from900) D1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers (from1800) E1: successful dual-band intercell handovers F1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers successful incoming interBSC intercell handovers

Internal inter cell HO failure


MS
BTS
CHANNEL ACT CONN FAIL IND ERROR IND

BSC

MSC/VLR

MS

BTS
CHANNEL ACT CHAN ACT NACK CONN FAIL IND

BSC

MSC/VLR

A4 A2, B2 A5, B4

A1 , F2 A4, F4 CLEAR COMMAND

ERROR IND CHAN ACT ACK Old Channel .HANDOVER COMMAND ERROR IND CONN FAIL IND

A6, F6 Old Channel .HANDOVER COMMAND ERROR IND CONN FAIL IND A2, F3, H1,J1 .HANDOVER FAILURE A7, F7 HANDOVER COMPLETE HANDOVER PERFORMED A5, F5, H2, J2 CLEAR COMMAND A3, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, I1

A6 , B5 A1 , B1

Old Channel New Channel

HANDOVER DETECTIOIN New Channel ERROR IND CONN FAIL IND A7 , B6 A3 , B3

HANDOVER COMPLETE Outgoing internal inter cell HO failure New Channel A1-A7: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers HANDOVER PERFORMED B1: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (channel mode unacceptable) C1: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (TA out of rage) D1: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (freq. not implemented) E1: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (timer expired) incoming internal inter cell HO failure F1-F7: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (other causes) A1-A7: unsuccessful incoming internal inter cell handovers G1: unsuccessful internal intercell handovers with successful reversion B1-B6: unsuccessful incoming internal inter cell handovers(other causes) H1-H2: unsuccessful internal intercell handovers with unsuccessful reversion I1: unsuccessful outging cell handovers with successful reversion J1-J2: unsuccessful outging cell handovers with unsuccessful reversion

Outgoing interBSC inter cell HO


MS
BSC1 MSC/VLR BSC2

MS

MS

BSC1

MSC/VLR

BSC2

HANDOVER REQUIRED A1 HANDOVER REQUEST HANDOVER REQ ACK

HANDOVER REQUIRED HANDOVER REQUEST HANDOVER REQ ACK

HANDOVER COMMAND B1 , C1, D1, E1, F1 HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER ACCESS HANDOVER DETECT HANDOVER COMPLETE CLEAR COMMAND CLEAR COMPLETE HANDOVER COMPLETE

HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER DETECT HANDOVER COMPLETE CLEAR COMMAND A1, B1, C1, D1, E1 CLEAR COMPLETE

outgoing Inter bss inter cell HO attempted

A1: attempt outgoing interBSC intercell handovers B1: inter BSC outgoing cell handovers C1: outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers(to900cell) D1: outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers(to900cell) E1: successful dual-band intercell handovers F1: attempted outgoing intercell handovers(12 causes)
BTS
BSC1 MSC/VLR

outgoing Inter bss inter cell HO successful A1: successful outgoing interBSC intercell handovers B1: successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers(to900cell) C1: successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers(to900cell) D1: successful dual-band intercell handovers E1: successful outgoing intercell handovers(12 causes)

HANDOVER REQUIRED HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER FAILURE A1, C1 CONN FAIL IND ERROR INDICATION B2 , D2 B3 , D3 CLEAR COMMAND CLEAR COMPLETE HANDOVER FAILURE B1 , D1 CLEAR COMMAND

inter bss outgling handover failure A1: unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers with successful reversion B1-B3: unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers with successful reversion C1: unsuccessful outgoing cell handovers with successful reversion D1-D3: unsuccessful outgoing cell handovers with unsuccessful reversion

Incoming interBSS inter cell HO


MS
Other BSC HUAWEI BSC HUAWEI BTS

MSC

MS

BTS
CHANNEL ACT CHAN ACT ACK

BSC

MSC/VLR

HANDOVER REQUIRED HANDOVER REQUEST TCH-ATT-C12 SD-ATT-BSC3 QUEUEING INDICATION SD-ATT-C3 CH ACT CH ACT ACK

HANDOVER REQUESTT

TCH-ATT-BSC4 TCH-ATT-C4 TCH-ATT-C15

HANDOVER REQ ACK

.HANDOVER DETECTION HANDOVER COMPLETE A1, B1, C1 HANDOVER COMPLETE

HANDOVER REQUEST ACK HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER ACCESS HANDOVER DETECT SD-SUCC-C3 TCH-SUCC-C4 TCH-SUCC-C12

incoming inter bss HO Success A1: successful incoming inter bsc inter cell handover

SABM UA HANDOVER COMPLETE

B1: successful dual-band intercell handovers C1: successful incoming intercell handovers
MS
BTS New BSC MSC/VLR Old BSC

Incoming interbsc inter cell HO SD-ATT-C3: attempted SDCCH seizures(all) TCH -ATT-C4: attempted TCH seizures(all) TCH -ATT-C12: attempted TCH seizures for inter bsc incoming handovers TCH -SUCC-C4: successful TCH seizures(all) TCH -SUCC-C12: successful TCH seizures for inter bsc incoming handover SD -SUCC-C3: successful SDCCH seizures for handover successful SDCCH seizures for(all) Old Channel
New Channel

HANDOVER REQUEST CHAN ACT A3 CHAN ACT NACK CHAN ACT ACK .HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER DETECTION CLEAR COMMAND A4 CLEAR COMMAND A1 HANDOVER REQ ACK CLEAR COMMAND

HANDOVER REQUIRED

HANDOVER COMMAND

A5 CONN FAIL IND A2 New Channel HANDOVER COMPLETE HANDOVER COMPLETE

inter bss incoming handover failure A1-A5 : inter bsc incoming cell handovers

Intracell HO
MS
BTS BSC
(Intracell handover) HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER COMPLETE HANDOVER PERFORMED A1
Old Channel .HANDOVER COMMAND ERROR IND A7 CONN FAIL IND A2 A3 A5 HANDOVER COMPLETE New Channel HANDOVER PERFORMED CLEAR COMMAND

MSC/VLR

MS

BTS

BSC

MSC/VLR

(Intracell handover) CONN FAIL IND ERROR IND A1 A6 A4 CLEAR COMMAND

Intracell ho success A1: successful intracell handovers

Old Channel

HANDOVER FAILURE

Intracell ho failure A1-A7: unsuccessful intracell handovers

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

MR pre-processing and voting


Consecutive MR flow
MR MR

Consecutive MR flow
MR MR

MR

MR

MR

MR

MR

MR

MR

N+1

N+m+2 Interpolation m missing MR

N+m+1

Filter length

MR pre-processing
Each MR has a serial number. the network will fill up MR according to interpolation algorithm. When the serial numbers are discontinuous (some MRs missing). The simple interpolation algorithm is linearity interpolation according the previous and the later MRs when missing MRs occur. Calculate average results of several consecutive MRs to obtain current information, reduce the influence of some abnormal MR for judgment of PWC or HO. The relation parameters: allowed MR numbers lost, filter length

MR voting (N/P) for GSM0508 protocol


N(N1-N8): MR numbers used to voting process in PC and HO P(P1-P8): MR numbers exceeded voting threshold in PC and HO, The process will be performed when the numbers of P over the threshold in N. Parameters relation to PWR control: P1-4/N1-4 Parameters relation to HO: P5-8/N5-8 P/N5-8 >P/N1-4 When the rxqual or rxlev is not good ,the system try to adjust PWC before HO

Power Control Overview


Process of power control commands It takes 3 measurement report periods(3*480ms) from command sending to execution.
BTS sends the command for power control and TA in SACCH header. SACCCH report period: 26X4=104 frames (480ms) BTS receives the measurement report

SA0

SA1 SA2 SA3

SA0 SA1

SA2 SA3 SA0

SA1 SA2 SA3


MS begins to send the measurement report of the last multi-frame.

In the 26 multiframes, frame 12 sends SACCH.


MS obtains SACCH block

MS adopts the new power level and TA

MS begins to set up a new SACCH header to report the new TA and power control message.

PWC algorithm overview


Huawei PC algorithm: HW I and HW II power control

Measurement report pre-processing

Yes
Power control algorithm selection

GSM0508 power control Algorithm (ordinary)

HW I power control algorithm

HW II power control algorithm

Parameters of ordinary PWR control window


MS: uplink
UL PC allowed Rx-lev thrsh.for UL increase=20(-90) N1/P1 Rx_lev thrsh.for UL decrease=40(-70) N2/P2 Rx_qual thrsh.for UL increase=5 N3/P3 Rx_qual thrsh.for UL decrease=1 N4/P4

BTS: downlink
DL PC allowed Rx-lev thrsh.for DL increase=20(-90) Rx_lev thrsh.for DL decrease=40(-70) Rx_qual thrsh.for DL increase=5 Rx_qual thrsh.for DL decrease=1 PC period

MS(uplink) are independence correspondingly and the PWC is rapid


Goal: adjust MS tx pwr to let BTS receive stable signal, reduce the uplink interference, reduce power of MS.

BTS(downlink) is relations all the MS in this cell and the PWC is slow.
Goal: adjust BTS tx pwr to let MS receive stable signal, reduce the downlink interference, reduce power of BTS

So it mainly means UL PWC in the Power Control process on this hand.

Ordinary PWC window


-70
-80 -90 -100 -110
Rx-lev thrsh.for UL increase=20(-90)

MS(UL):
Rx_lev thrsh.for UL decrease=40(-70)

BTS(DL): -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 BER 0.14%(0-0.2%)


Rx_lev thrsh.for DL increase=20(-80) Rx_lev thrsh.for DL decrease=40(-70)

grade 0
Rx_qual thrsh.for UL decrease=1 Rx_qual thrsh.for DL decrease=1

1
2 3 4

0.28%(0.2-0.4%)
0.57%(0.4-0.8%) 1.13%(0.8-1.6%) 2.26%(1.6-3.2%) 4.53%(3.2-6.4%)

Rx_qual thrsh.for UL increase=5 Rx_qual thrsh.for DL increase=5

6
7

9.05%(6.4-12.8%)
18.10%(>12.8%)

Huawei I PWC algorithm (average PWC)


The adjust value
=(DL/ul rx_lev expected current dl/ul rx_lev) * DL /ul rx_lev compensation +[current dl/ul rx_qual DL/ul rx_qual expected]*10* DL/ul rx_qual compensation

The adjust value <MAX PWC step Stable level = current level + the adjustment value MS: uplink
Initial RX_LEV Expected Stable RX_LEV Expected>UL edge ho UL RX_LEV Compensation UL Qual. Expected UL Qual. Compensation MAX PWC Step PWC Interval MS PWC Period Filter Length for Initial RX_LEV Filter Length for Stable RX_LEV Filter Length for Qual. Power Increment after HO Fail.

BTS: downlink
DL RX_LEV Expected DL RX_LEV Compensation DL Qual. Expected DL Qual. Compensation MAX PWC Step BTS PWC Period Filter Length for DL RX_LEV Filter Length for DL Qual.

Huawei II PWC algorithm (self-adapt PWC)


Lack of huawei I PWC algorithm:
Average PWC algorithm has a delay when system analysis the MRs ,so system cant adjust rapidly. System only analysis the past MR results and cant expected the PC direct well. Exit the oscillate cases when the PWC process is near to the expected value.

Huawei II PWC algorithm:


Adjust the LEV PWC direct in vary LEV value by comparing expected and current value. Adjust the QUAL PWC direct in fixed QUAL value by comparing expected and current value Assess the final PWC direct and PWC value by calculating LEV PWC and QUAL PWC synthetically. When the PWC direction is the same ,the PWC value take the more value When the PWC direction is opposition , the PWC is preferred to the value of PWC by LEV.
PC by lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev No action No action No action PC by qual AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul No action AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul No action AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul No action PC by lev and qual max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul) No action AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul) AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul No action

Huawei II PWC algorithm (PWC direct and value)


Adj. step_lev in UL:
UL rx_lev<UL rx_lev lower thrsh. ,MS increase pwr
adj. step_lev=(UL rx_lev lower thrsh. +UL rx_lev upper thrsh.)/2-ul rx_lev

UL rx_lev >UL rx_lev upper thrsh., MS decrease pwr.


adj. step_lev=ul rx_lev - (UL rx_lev lower thrsh. +UL rx_lev upper thrsh.)/2

UL rx_lev lower thrsh < UL rx_lev <UL rx_lev upper thrsh,


no adjust pwr.

The adj. step_lev in DL ,adj.step_qual in UL/DL are the same as the adj. step_lev in UL.

PC by lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev No action No action No action

PC by qual AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul No action AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul No action AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul No action

PC by lev and qual max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul) No action AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Lev max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul) AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul No action

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

Summary and classification of HO


Summary of HO
HO

can decrease drop calls and relief congestion when MS is moving Ms report best 6 neighbor cells in MR and BSS votes whether HO occurs and direct nei cell System sends handover command message ,and start HO process. inside shows AFRCN,TS,BCCH,BSIC,PC level,TSC,HO cause, sync/Async about the direct cell. MS send handover complete in the direct cell if MS handovers to direct cell successfully. When MS HO to direct cell unsuccessfully, if ms reverse to the source cell successfully,ms sent HO failure message to system else if reverse unsuccessfully when the timer is timeout, HO call drop occurs in this case. The message assignment command/complete is used in intra-cell HOs.

Classification of HO Emergency HO
Timing Advance (TA) Emergency HO Bad quality (BQ) Emergency HO Rx_Level_Drop Emergency HO Interference Emergency HO

Load HO Normal HO
Edge HO Layer HO Power Budget (PBGT) HO

Speed-sensitive HO (Fast moving MS HO) Concentric Cell HO

Priority level of HO
M.R. preprocessing Penalty processing

OMC forced HO normal HO Edge layer PBGT

Directed retry emergency HO TA bad quality(BQ) rapid lev decrease interfering

Basic ranking

Fast moving MS HO

Secondary ranking

Load Sharing HO

Overlaid/ underlaid HO

HO voting

Processing program

HO penalty and ranking rules


HO penalty process (second step of HO algorithm process )
Penalty on the target cell when a HO fails. avoid to the ms select this cell again in the next HO voting process. Penalty on the original serving cell when an emergency HO ( base on BQ and TA ) is performed. avoid MS to be handed back to the BQ&TA cell again within penalty time. Penalty on other high priority layer cells after a fast moving HO is performed. avoid MS to be handed back to the high priority layer again within certain time(layer priority grade is 4). A new HO attempt is prohibited within the penalty time after an overlaid/underlaid HO fails.

Ranking rules M rule for ranking neighbor cells


it can be put into the candidate cell list only if the cells comply for following conditions. To service cell: Rx_lev(s) rxlev access min(s)-MAX(0,Pa(s)) > 0 Pa(0) =ms_txpwr_max_ccch(s) ms_max_allowed_pwr(s) To nei cell: Rx_lev(n) rxlev access min(n)-max(0,Pa(n)) min_access_level_offset(n)>0

K rule for ranking neighbor cells


Sort the result cells in descending order by rxlev according to M rule cells.

16bits rule for ranking cells:


Both the serving cell and the neighbor cells have their own 16bits value. The smaller the value is, the higher the priority and position the cell is in the cell list.

Basic/Secondary Ranking(16 bit rule)


Co_BSC/MSC bit Service cell =0 If nei cells and S_cell are in co_BSC/MSC, value is set 0 else 1 If rx_lev(s/n) is lower than inter_layer_ho_thrsh. and inter_layer_ho_hysteresis the bits are set 0 If co_BSC/MSC is not allowed the value is set 0.
Cell type bit Internal =0 external-=1

The 6 strongest cell and service cell rx_lev bit 000-110 and the strongest cell value is 000
Layer and cell priority bit 4 layers and 16 cell priority/layer=64 Pico is highest and umbrella is lowest. If rx_lev(s/n) is lower than inter_layer_ho_thrsh. and inter_layer_ho_hysteresis the bits are set 0

16 15
Reserve bit

14

13

12

11

10

Load sharing bit Load(s)>load ho thrsh. Is set 1 else 0 Means if it is load busy ,it is put a low part in the nei list

Inter layer ho thrsh. Bit Rx_lev(s)>=inter layer ho thrsh.-inter layer ho hysteresis is set o, and 13,12,10-5 are set 0 ,Else set 1 Rx_lev(n)>= inter layer ho thrsh.+inter layer ho hysteresis is set o, and 13,12,10-5 are set 0 ,Else set 1

Intercell ho hysteresis bit Service cell=0 Rx_lev(n)>rx_lev(s)+ho hys. Set 0 else Set 1 Compare intercell_ho_hysteresis and PBGT thrsh. The higher value is effective in the HO type

Emergency HO and load HO voting


Emergency HO voting TA HO criterion :
TA of the serving cell > TA Thrsh.

BQ HO criterion :
Uplink quality > UL Qual. Thrsh Downlink quality > DL Qual. Thrsh.

Rx_Level_Drop HO:
C1(nt)=A1C(nt)A2C(nt-t)A8C(nt-7t) C (nt) is the uplink RX_Level of the serving cell in the MR received at the time of "nt". Filter A1A8=value-10(A1++A8=80) Filter B=compare value If C1(nt)B and C(nt)is below edge ho edge_rx_lev thrsh, it is considered as RLD.

Interference HO (DL&UL) :
rx_lev>rxlev thrsh.for interf. HO rx_qualrxqual thrsh for interf. HO.

Load HO voting Cell Load HO Criterions :


System load of BSC < system flux thrsh. for load HO load > load HO thrsh. Load of target cell < load HO threshold

Normal HO, fast moving HO and concentric HO voting


Normal HO voting Edge HO Criterion:
Rx_lev <edge HO rx_lev thrsh. In N/P

Inter layer HO criterions:


Rx_lev(n) > inter layer ho thrsh. + inter layer ho hysteresis. And target cell priority should be higher than the serving cells.

PBGT HO Criterions :
PBGT(n)>PBGT ho thrsh. In N/P PBGT(n)=Scell[Min(ms txpwr max ccch,ms max allowed pwr)rxlev dl-PWR_C_D] Ncell[Min(ms txpwr max ccch,ms max allowed pwr)rxlev dl(n)]

Fast moving HO voting When the serving cell is micro cell :


MS moves the ms fast-moving valid cells (Q) in ms fast-moving watch cells (P>=Q) within MS Fast_Moving Time Thrsh. MS moving time=2Radius/Velocity <MS Fast_Moving Time Thrsh.

Concentric HO voting Criterion from overlaid(small) to underlaid(large):


TA value >=TA threshold + TA hysteresis Or Rx_lev <= Rx_lev threshold -Rx_lev hysteresis

Criterion from underlaid to overlaid:


TA value <= TA threshold - TA hysteresis And Rx_lev <= Rx_lev threshold + Rx_lev hysteresis

Chapter 1 GSM system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Work items in an optimization project Review of the GSM system Based technology in GSM system Drive test and analysis Parameters in common use OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use Main methods in the performance analysis procedure Selection and reselection SDCCH congestion TCH congestion and drops Call progress introduction in common use Power control algorithm Handover algorithm Cases according to statistics data

Congestion, interfering and TRX


Problems:
Interfering in PTCSCU-2(interfering level:-60~-80dBm), can not absorb any traffic PTCIJA-1-2-3 are decrease from 2/2/2 to 1/1/1 because of limit of transmission, and blocked some timeslot PTCSCR-1-2-3 are congestion

Resolve ways:
Replace cell from 900 cell to 1800 cell in PTCSCU-2 to avoid interfering, and absorb some traffic. Add more transmission timeslot and recovery to 2/2/2 in PTCIJA-1-2-3 Make traffic balanced between PTCSCR-1/PTCIJA-3/PTCSCU-2 Adjust azimuth from 240 to 270 in PTCIJA-3 Adjust E-tilt from 2 to 7 in PTCSCR-1 Adjust azimuth from 120 to 150 in PTCSCU-2 Add a TRX in PTCSCR-1/2/3

Hardware problem- crossed feeder cables


Problems:
There are more drop calls and handover failures times in each cell A little interfering in each cells in uplink(interfering band) and downlink(bad quality) MR are more in band 0~2 in path balance statistics result It showed crossed cables in this site: plan azimuth: 160/240/330, DT test 240/330/160.

Resolve ways:
Have wrong frequency plan Get some frequency interfering Have wrong neighbor relationship Get some drop calls in each cells All statistics and DT test result are normal after adjust crossed cables

Hardware problem-TRX problem


Problems:
TRX configuration:2/2/2 in URJDG-1-2-3 TRX8(2nd in URJDG-3, 1 cabinet) can not seizure any TCH in several days Have radio link alarm in this TRX Cant resolve the problems after swapping configuration data/slot in cabinet Result: TRX hardware problem Statistics results in cell and TRX level are normal after replaced TRX

Hardware problem-connecting cable wrong-3012


Problems:

In TRX 5, TRX configuration is 3/3/2 the path balance is main in RANK11, it means that uplink is bad. Check on site, the RDX cables are connecting wrong, it means there is no RDX receiver in TRX5 After adjust the connecting cable, the path balance in TRX5 is normal.

Configuration wrong-HO between systems-2


The external handover between QRBSCH(T4503XA,XB,T4504XA,XB) and KRBSCN3 (T3013XB), from external BSC handover performance, handover normal from T3013XB to T4503XA,XB,T4504XA,XB), but all handovers failures from 4503XA,XB,T4504XA,XB(Huawei) to T3013XB(Nokia) with the reason of invalid cell. We checked the Configure external LAC data in MSC,BSC and The external information from Irancell. the external cell information is the same. Make a trace in A interface.In the interBSS incoming handover requirement message, it is showing that the external cell LAC=37F9(14329), but the LAC data which Irancell offered is 14327. this is the problem why all outgoing interBSS handovers are failure from T4503XAXB,T4504XA,T4504XB (Huawei) to T3103XB(Nokia). The results after modify the external LAC number in MSC and BSC

Configuration problem-frequency and hopping


Handover success rate is low in T4524XA, The target cell is T4106XA. Check the frequency between T4524XA and T4106XA, and found TCH channel are the same in TCH=23 (not active hopping) Check the data near these two site, only the sites in this zone are not active hopping function. Active Hopping function in this zone, the handover success rate is normal in T4524XA.

hopping zone

No hopping zone

hopping zone

Configuration wrong-TRX receiver mode in 3012


Problems:

TRX configuration is 2/2/2, in TRX 10,11, handover success times is low after expansion. Check the data, the received mode is wrong. After adjust, the KPI is normal

Configuration wrong- MSC information wrong


Problems:
T4055,T4106 TCH seizure success times is 0. TCH traffic is low from incoming handover. Modified LAC number on 29th-Mar Wrong plan data (TABSCH6) and wrong BSC data in MSC(TABSCH2). TCH seizure normal after adjust the BSC information in MSC.

Configuration wrong-BA table losed


Problems:
Drop call rate increased from 0.29% to 0.41% after some sites was cut over. RF drop call times are more than cut over. There almost no neighbor cells information in dedicate mode. But there are neighbor cells information in idle mode. BA1(BCCH) are not blank BA2(SACCH) are blank. Switch of user input are activate in these cells.

Result:
Somebody activate the switch of user input wrongly when he made the autoconfig file. System only updated BA1 table, and BA2 need to added manually when user input are activation.

Transmission-problem in connector
Problems:

Immediate assignment fail times in BSC fail is 34672, this site is 17912(51.66%), immediate assignment success rate is about 20%, it lead to immediate assignment success rate in BSC level is 97.4%. it has affected the network for more than 2 months. The problem is the transmission connector in DDF, the core (for signaling) and shielding (for ground protect) cable are connected together, The signaling is connecting to the ground.. It will lead to the transmission cant bear any traffic and business, and TMU with alarms in all time. it is the reason of why there are so many immediate assignment fail times. The KPI recovery to normal after re-do the connector

Interfering-channel interfering
In T4313XB have interference on TRX5, and HOSR is low, The most idle channels are in band4. Modify TCH frequency channel from 27 to 28. After modified frequency T4313B HOSR recover normal.

Course contents

Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system 1. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system


2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Based technology Data rate and coding algorithm Parameters in common use Statistics task and formula in common use Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE

Review of GPRS/EDGE system


PSTN Network
OMC
HLR/Auc/EIR

GSM Core Network


A

GBSC Abis

SS7 Network
MSC/VLR
Gs SMS-GMSC/IWMSC

Um MS

Pb
GBTS Gb EDGE PCU SGSN Billing Center

GPRS Core Network


Um

CG

GPRS Backbone
MT GGSN DNS TE

Gi

Internet

Review of GPRS/EDGE system

POMU: packet operation maintenance unit HSC: hot swap controller RPPU: radio packet process unit

13-15 for Gb interface Others for Pb interface 2 boards of L2PU in each RPPU Each RPPU support 100 EDGE channels/max or 120 GPRS channels/max Suggest 50%fixed/50%dynamic PDCH channels

Course contents

Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system Based technology Data rate and coding algorithm Parameters in common use Statistics task and formula in common use Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE

Based technology
Total 52 frame =12blocks*4+4idle

TBF: Temporary Block Flow: physical connection in packet network. simulated with RR connection in GSM. TFI: Temporary Flow Identity: flag of TBF. 5bit(value0-31) and the TFI belongs to especial TBF. it can use the same or different TFI in one TBF FBI: final block identity. 1 bit to indicator if it is the LAST RLC block USF: uplink state flag: 3bit(0-7): control MSs to using channels with UFI in dynamic type RRBP: Relative Reserved Block Period,3 bit(0-7) , defines the location when ms send to network with packet control ACKor packet DL ACK MAC mode: Three type of MAC mode: fixed allocation, dynamic allocation, extend dynamic allocation Fixed type: BSS allocation data block for MS with fixed type. BSS will re-allocation data block when the first data block finished transmission but still have data block. Dynamic type: BSS allocation data block for ms with temporary type. BSS assign the USF in different PDCH channels,the packet data will transmission if the USF are the same between MS decoded and BSS allocated. Extend dynamic type: simulate with dynamic but the timeslots can more than the timeslot capacity of MS. RLC mode: confirm mode: each packet block need to confirm in each TBF with MS and network during transmission. Or the packed block will resent until be confirmed by each other. And TBF will release after be confirmed finish with each other. Non-confirm mode: need not to confirm in each TBF. TBF will release after finish transmitting the packet blocks.

Based technology
Classes of MS Class A: can use circuit and packet business in the same time Class B: MS can attach on GSM and GPRS/EDGE network in the same time, but only can use one of circuit or packet business in the same time. MS select GSM or GPRS/EDGE network automatically. Class C: MS can not attach on GSM and GPRS/EDGE network in the same time. MS select GSM or GPRS/EDGE network manually. . Network operate mode: NO1: the core network send paging message in Gs(SGSN to MSC) interface. MS only need to detect paging in one type of channel(PCH or PPCH).-with Gs interface NO2: paging message only be sent in PCH for CS and PS paging. Because the PPCH is not configuration with neither Gs nor PPCH . NO3: paging message is sent in PCH (for CS) and PPCH (for PS), MS need to detect PCH and PPCH message in the same time. with no Gs but PPCH LQC(link quality control mode) LA: link adaptation: using different MCS scheme in same Family to retransmit and can re-divided 2 RLC blocks to re-transmit.(bad BEP in low MCS, good BEP in high MCS) IR: Incremental redundancy: different MCS scheme in same Family to retransmit Multi-timeslots capacity(1-29) it shows the capacity of MS in uplink and downlink for packet service. 1+4 or 2+3 timeslots in common by now. Multi-TBF in PDCH channel: it shows the capacity for TBF connection in each PDCH channel. default value: 4 uplink+4 downlink TBF in each PDCH channels in the same time. 7 uplink TBF or 8 downlink TBF/max in each PDCH channels

Conversion among different states in MM


IDLE IDLE

P DP cont ext

P DP cont ext

P DP deact ive

P DP deact ive or Cancel Locat ion

READY
Implicit Det ach or t imer exprit y READY t imer expiry or Force t o T ANDBY

Implicit Det ach or Cancel Locat ion

READY

P DU t ransmission

READY t imer expiry or Force t o ST ANDBY or Abnormal RLC condit ion

P DU recept ion

STANDBY

STANDBY

MM State Model of MS

MM State Model of SGSN

Three state of MM: Idle: without available RA information Standby: can implement RA update, selection, reselection, paging function, finished attached to GPRS network Can active PDP context, but no TBF,no transmission with data block Ready: can send and receive UDP, selection, reselection, no paging, cell information sometime with data block transmission in uplink/downlink on TBF

Course contents

Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system Based technology Data rate and coding algorithm Parameters in common use Statistics task and formula in common use Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE

Coding scheme and rate

Modulating bits D3i, d3i+1, d3i+2

Symbol parameter l

(1,1,1)
(0,1,1) (0,1,0) (0,0,0) (0,0,1)

0
1 2 3 4

(1,0,1)
(1,0,0) (1,1,0)

5
6 7

Coding scheme and rate


MCS-3 Family A 37 octets MCS-6 MCS-3 34 +3 Family A padding 34 octets octets 34 +3 MCS-6 34 octets MCS-8 MCS-2 28 octets Family B MCS-5 MCS-7 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets 34 octets 34 octets octets 37 octets MCS-9 37 octets 37 octets

MCS-1
Family C 22 octets MCS-4

22 octets

Coding scheme and rate

Modem type CS-(1-4)/ GMSK

Coding scheme CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4

Bytes in RLC/MAC 23 33 39 53 22 28 37 44 56 74 2*56 2*68 2*74

Rate (kbps) 9.05 13.4 15.6 21.4 8.8 11.2 14.8 17.6 22.4 29.6 44.8 54.4 59.2

PDCH /16kbps 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 4

Binding idle ts(16kbps)/max / / 6 6 3 3 6 6 6 6 9 12 12

Family / / / / C B A C B A B A A

MCS-(1-4) GMSK

MCS-1 MSC-2 MSC-3 MCS-4

MCS-(5-9) 8PSK

MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

Coding scheme and rate


kbps
60.0
54.4 59.2

50.0 40.0 30.0


20.2

GPRS EGPRS
29.6 22.4 17.6 12.2 14.4 8.8 11.2 14.8 9.1

44.8

20.0 10.0 0.0 CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4

MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

GMSK mode

8PSK mode

Course contents

Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system Based technology Data rate and coding algorithm Parameters in common use Statistics task and formula in common use Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE

TBF and packet performance


Uplink
Number of successful uplink TBF establishment Number of uplink TBF establishment attempts (UL) TBF successful assignment rate (user defined) Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to no channel Number of uplink TBF establishment failures due to no channel (UL) TBF congestion rate (user defined) Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to N3101 overflow (MS no response) Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to N3103 overflow (MS no response) (UL) TBF drop rate (user defined) Number of successful uplink assignments Number of uplink assignments (UL) successful packet assignment rate (user defined)

Downlink
Number of successful downlink TBF establishment Number of downlink TBF establishment attempts (DL) TBF successful assignment rate (user defined) Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to no channel Number of downlink TBF establishment failures due to no channel (DL) TBF congestion rate (user defined) Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to N3105 overflow (DL) TBF Drop rate (user defined) Number of successful downlink assignments Number of downlink assignments (DL) successful packet assignment rate (user defined)

PDCH resource, access and retain


PDCH occupy
Mean number of occupied PDCHs Mean number of available PDCHs Number of PDCHs occupied by downlink TBF Number of PDCHs occupied by uplink TBF Total number of PDCHs occupied by TBF PDCHs occupied rate Number of attempts at converting TCH to PDTCH Number of successful conversions from TCH to PDTCH Number of dynamic PDCHs reclaimed by BSC

Accessibility and retainability


Packet Accessibility Packet Retainability

Formulas in common use


Number of Uplink TBF Establishment Attempts Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to N3101 overflow (MS no response) Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to N3103 overflow (MS no response) Packet Retainability(%)=100%-- Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to N3105 overflow) Number of successful uplink TBF establishment Number of successful downlink TBF establishment

Packet Accessibility(%)=

Number of Successful Uplink TBF Establishment

TBF uplink assignment success rate(%)=

Number of Successful Uplink TBF Establishment

Number of Uplink TBF Establishment Attempts


Number of Successful downlink TBF Establishment Number of downlink TBF Establishment Attempts

TBF downlink assignment success rate(%)=

Number of uplink TBF establishment failures due to no channel Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to no channel TBF uplink congestion rate(%)= Number of uplink TBF establishment attempts Number of downlink TBF establishment failures due to no channel Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to no channel TBF downlink congestion rate(%)= Number of downlink TBF establishment attempts

packet uplink assignment success rate(%)= Number of uplink assignments

Number of successful uplink assignments Number of successful downlink

packet downlink assignment success rate(%)= Number of downlink assignments


Number of uplink EGPRS TBF abnormal release due to N3101 overflow Number of uplink EGPRS TBF abnormal release due to N3103 overflow Uplink TBF call-drop rate(%)= Number of successful uplink TBF establishment

Downlink TBF call-drop rate(%)= Number of successful downlink TBF establishment

Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to N3105 overflow

EDGE RLC/MAC performance


EDGE RLC/MAC DL performance
Mean rate of downlink EGPRS RLC( kbits/s ) Mean throughput of downlink single EGPRS TBF( kbits ) Number of downlink EGPRS RLC control blocks(NUMBER) Number of downlink EGPRS RLC data blocks using MCS1~9 Number of downlink EGPRS RLC dummy blocks(NUMBER) Number of MCS demotions on downlink EGPRS TBF Number of MCS upgrades on downlink EGPRS TBF Retransmission rate of downlink EGPRS RLC data block using MCS1~9(%) Total number of downlink EGPRS RLC data blocks Mean rate of uplink EGPRS RLC( kbits/s ) Mean throughput of uplink single EGPRS TBF( kbits ) Number of uplink EGPRS RLC control blocks(NUMBER) Number of uplink EGPRS RLC data blocks using MCS1~9 Number of uplink EGPRS RLC dummy blocks(NUMBER) Number of MCS demotions on uplink EGPRS TBF Number of MCS upgrades on uplink EGPRS TBF Retransmission rate of uplink EGPRS RLC data block using MCS1~9(%) Total number of downlink EGPRS RLC data blocks

EDGE RLC/MAC UL performance

GPRS RLC/MAC performance


GPRS RLC/MAC DL performance
Mean rate of downlink GPRS RLC( kbits/s ) Mean throughput of downlink single EGPRS TBF( kbits ) Number of downlink GPRS RLC control blocks(NUMBER) Number of downlink GPRS RLC data blocks using MCS1~4 Number of downlink GPRS RLC dummy blocks(NUMBER) Number of MCS demotions on downlink EGPRS TBF Number of MCS upgrades on downlink EGPRS TBF Retransmission rate of downlink EGPRS RLC data block using MCS1~4(%)

GPRS RLC/MAC UL performance


Mean rate of uplink GPRS RLC( kbits/s ) Mean throughput of uplink single GPRS TBF( kbits ) Number of uplink GPRS RLC control blocks(NUMBER) Number of uplink GPRS RLC data blocks using MCS1~4 Number of uplink GPRS RLC dummy blocks(NUMBER) Number of MCS demotions on uplink GPRS TBF Number of MCS upgrades on uplink GPRS TBF Retransmission rate of uplink GPRS RLC data block using MCS1~4(%) Total number of downlink GPRS RLC data blocks

LLC and BEP performance


LLC DL performance
Downlink throughput(kbits/s) mean length of downlink LLC_PDUs mean LLC_PDU bytes per downlink TBF number of downlink LLC_PDUs discarded due to FLUSH_LL received number of downlink LLC_PDUs discarded due to timeout total bytes of downlink LLC_PDUs received total bytes of downlink LLC_PDUs sent total number of downlink LLC_PDUs received total number of downlink TBFs total number of LLC_PDUs sent

LLC RLC/MAC UL performance


mean length of uplink LLC_PDUs mean LLC_PDUs bytes per uplink TBF total bytes of uplink LLC_PDUs sent total numbers of uplink LLC_PDUs sent total number of uplink TBFs uplink throughput(kbits/s)

BEP performance
Times of 8PSK_MEAN_BEP=1~32(times) Times of GMSK_MEAN_BEP=1~32(times)

Course contents

Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system Based technology Data rate and coding algorithm Parameters in common use Statistics task and formula in common use Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE

Attach call flowing

Note: step2: Step3: Step4: Step5: Step6:

option, occurs when MS move to new SGSN option,occurs when step 2 fail. option,occurs if there is no PDP context active option option, occurs when MS move to new SGSN or attach to network for the first time. Step7: relation with step1. Occurs when IMSI attach and Gs interface is configured

Detach ,packet paging, RA update(internal SGSN)

Detach: MS request Detach in most time . Also can SGSN. Packet paging: shows in Network Operator II (PCH configured only) RA updating : shows in internal SGSN.

PDP context active and deactivate in request by MS and network

Conversion between PS and CS

Conversion between PS and CS Reason: relation with Class B of MS. Initial state: PS mode (in attach or standby or ready mode). Convert state: CS active (location update, cell reselection, incoming calls.) Suspend: plug up from PS. When finished CS ,MS will resume to PS mode (back to attach mode)

Establish TBF (1)


Establish TBF in PS idle mode Establish UL TBF in CCCH phase 1 access phase 2 access Establish DL TBF in CCCH

+T3164

+T3141 T3141 Reset N3101

-T3164 +T3168
-T3168

Establish TBF in PS transmission mode Establish UL TBF in DL transmission Establish DL TBF in UL transmission

+T3190
For EDGE: EDGE packet channel request (11bit or 8bit) and indicate phase 1,phase 2, short access inside. For PS block: require to phase 1 and try to phase 2 access in non-confirm mode require and try to phase 2 access in confirm mode. For PS signalling (MM): require to phase 1 access. There is TFI and defined TBF in immediate assignment

-T3190
Broken lines shows the phase 2 access polling information (TLLI)

Establish TBF (2)

Establish TBF in PS idle mode Establish UL TBF in CCCH phase 1 access phase 2 access Establish DL TBF in CCCH Establish TBF in PS transmission mode Establish UL TBF in DL transmission Establish DL TBF in UL transmission

S/P: supplyment /polling: to indicator if RRBP is efficiency S/P=0: no efficiency S/P=1: efficiency

UL transmission in confirm and NON-confirm mode

Ws: windows size64~1024, need (Vs-Va)mod(SNS) Ws relation with multi-timeslot capacity Vs: 0~SNS-1 variable for sending state, Vs=Vs+1 when finish sending blocks of BSN=Vs Va: 0-SNS-1 variable for ACK state,update from ACK/NACK message If T3182 timeout ,then N3102-pan_dec, until n3102=0 TBF release If ms receive packet uplink ACK for (vs<va+ws),then N3102+pan-inc,

Timeslots

Window size 64~192 64~256 64~384 64~512 64~640 64~768 64~896 64~1024

In ONE TBF, WS only increase in RLC layer WS : 64~1024 Relation with PDCH ts.

DL transmission in confirm and NON-confirm mode


MS

T3190

RLC data block(TFI)

. . . . . .

BSS

RLC data block(TFI,S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))


T3190 T3190

. RLC data block(TFI) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack

T3190

RLC data block(TFI)

MS

. . .

. . .
RLC data block(TFI) RLC data block(TFI)

BSS

RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))


T3190

T3191 T3191

T3190

Packet Downlink Ack/Nack( ) RLC data block(TFI )


T3190

. . .

. . .

T3190
T3191 T3191 T3193

T3190 T3190 T3192 T3190

RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11)) Packet Downlink Ack/Nack(FAI=1)


PACKET DL ASSIGNMENT/PACKET TIMESLOT RECONFIGURE (Control Ack=1)

. ...

RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11)) Packet Control Acknowledgement

T3190 T3190 T3192

T3191 T3191 T3193

. . .

RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))


T3190 T3191

PACKET DL ASSIGNMENT/PACKET TIMESLOT RECONFIGURE T3192 (Control Ack=1)


T3191 T3193

Packet Downlink Ack/Nack(FAI=1)


T3190 T3192

. . .

RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))


T3190 T3190 T3192 T3191

Packet Control Acknowledgement

T3191 T3193

Release TBF in UL/DL


network MS network PACKET TBF RELEASE (release DL TBFRRBP) MS PACKET TBF RELEASE (release UL TBFRRBP) RLC DATA BLOCK (CV) PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGMENT PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Stop detech DLPDC

RLC DATA BLOCK (CV=0) Release UL TBF

To idle mode if there is no UL TBF