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CHILD DEVELOPMENT

CHILD DEVELEOPMENT
Growth = Physical Development

 Increase of size & number of cells


 Different parts in different times
 Measured by anthropometry
 Evaluated by growth reference lines
CHILD DEVELEOPMENT

Development = Change in function

 Difficult to separate from growth


 Abnormal growth = Abnormal Development
 Individual variation in development
CHILD DEVELEOPMENT
In All Children:

 Development is a continuous process


 Stepwise eg. child can’t walk before standing
 4 abilities: fine motor, gross motor, language,
personal / social
 The 4 abilities are coordinate & integrate eg.
Walking is gross motor but  curiosity, learning
DEVELOPMENT NEEDS
MATERIAL:

1. Housing 2. Care
3. Protection 4. Food / nutrition
5. Clothing 6. Warmth
7. Rest 8. Clean air
9. Sunlight 10. Activity
DEVELOPMENT NEEDS
PSYCHOLOGICAL / EMOTIONAL:

1. Love / Affection 2. Continuous care


3. Security 4. Self-respect
5. Education 6. Learning life skills
7. Opportunity to learn from personal experience
8. Opportunity to achieve success even if little
9. Opportunity to shoulder responsibilities
FACTORS AFFECTING
DEVELOPMENT

Various factors before, during or after birth

I- Parents Related:

1. Intelligence 2. Character
3. Culture 4. Maternal age at birth
FACTORS AFFECTING
DEVELOPMENT

II- Genetic Factors:


Genetic disorders eg. cong. anomalies
III- Metabolic Diseases eg. cong.
hypothyroid
IV- Chromosomal abnormalities
eg. Down syndrome
FACTORS AFFECTING
DEVELOPMENT
V- Pregnancy Related:

1. Diseases of pregnancy 2. Multiple preg.


3. Drugs 4. Infertility
5. Maternal exhaustion 6. Prematurity
7. Abnormal presentation 8. Postmaturity
9. Neonatal hypoxia 10. Birth injuries
11. Neonatal convulsions
12. Uterine & placental problems
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT
1. Nutrition
2. Family size
3. Early illness
4. Emotional deprivation

Children development abilities in D.C.’s are


measured using the same norms of
western standards !!
DEVELOPMENT SCREENING

 Is a secondary prevention tool – aims at


early detection of abnormalities

 Is the organized procedure for early


discovery of diseases or risk factors in
people who are apparently healthy
DEVELOPMENT SCREENING
 A screening tool is not necessarily a
diagnostic tool but those at risk screened
must be referred for diagnosis & treatment

 Best eg. of a screening test is that for PKU.


Age at which PKU was diagnosed was
reduced from 4 years to 4 weeks after using
screening with positive effects.
CRITERIA FOR A SCREENING
TOOL

1. Validity – sensitivity & specificity


2. Reliability – should give same results as
reuse
3. Fast – to screen largest numbers
4. Simplicity – doesn’t need great expertise
5. Cost effective – of low cost
6. Culturally acceptable to the community