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Maintenance and Reliability

Outline

¨ The Strategic Importance of


Maintenance and Reliability

¨ Reliability
¨ Improving Individual Components
¨ Providing Redundancy
Outline - continued
¨ Maintenance
¨ Implementing Preventive
Maintenance

¨ Increasing Repair Capability


¨ Total Productive Maintenance

¨ Techniques for Establishing


Maintenance Policies
Learning Objectives

¨ Explain the benefits of maintenance


¨ Distinguish preventive from breakdown
maintenance
¨ Explain the importance of employee
involvement in maintenance
¨ Use expected value analysis to solve
maintenance problems
NASA
¨ Maintenance of space shuttles
¨ Columbia:
¨ 86,000,000 miles on odometer
¨ 3 engines each the size of a VW
¨ expected to make 77 more launches
¨ Maintenance requires
¨ 600 computer generated maintenance jobs
¨ 3-month turnaround
¨ More than 100 people
© 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
17-5 A Simon & Schuster Company
Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458
Maintenance Management

¨ All activities involved in


keeping a system’s
equipment working
¨ Objective: Maintain
system capability &
minimize costs

© 1995 Corel Corp.


The Strategic Importance of
Maintenance and Reliability
¨ Failure has far reaching effects on a firm’s
¨ operation
¨ reputation
¨ profitability
¨ customers
¨ product
¨ employees
¨ profits
Maintenance Performance
Employee Maintenance
Involvement Procedures

Maintenance © 1995
Corel
Corp.
Performance

© 1995 Corel Corp.


Employee Involvement

¨ Information sharing
¨ Skill training
¨ Reward system
¨ Power sharing

© 1995 Corel Corp.


Maintenance Procedures

¨ Clean and lubricate Maintenance


Procedures
¨ Monitor and adjust
¨ Minor repair
¨ Computerized records
© 1995
Corel
Corp.
Maintenance Benefits
Lower
operating Faster, more
Reduced
costs dependable
inventory
throughput

Improved Maintenance Higher


capacity productivity

Continuous Improved
improvement quality
Tactics for
Reliability and Maintenance
¨ Reliability Tactics
¨ improving individual components
¨ providing redundancy
¨ Maintenance Tactics
¨ implementing preventive
maintenance
¨ increasing repair capabilities
Fig 17.2

Transparency Masters to accompany Operations © 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.


Management, 5E (Heizer & Render) 17-13 A Simon & Schuster Company
Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458
Reliability of
Components in Series

R = R1 * R2 * R3 * ...
Evaluating Maintenance
¨ Reliability
¨ Probability that an item will function for a given
time
¨ Mean time between failures (MTBF)
¨ Average time between failures of a repairable
item
¨ Failure rate
¨ Reciprocal of MTBF
Failure Rate (%)

Number of failures
FR(%) = * 100%
Number of units tested
Lifetime Failure Rates
“normal” failure Wearout
failure

Failure
rate Infant
mortality
and
improper use
failure

Lifetime
Mean Time Between Failures

1
MTBF =
FR(N)
Failures Per Operating Hour

Number of Failures
FR(n) =
Operating Time
Providing Redundancy

Probability Probability Probability


of first of second of needing
component + component * second = P(R)
working working component
Maintenance Decisions
¨ How much preventive & breakdown
maintenance
¨ Who performs maintenance
¨ Centralized, decentralized, operator etc.
¨ Contract or in-house
¨ When to replace or repair
¨ How much to replace
¨ Individual or group replacement
Types of Maintenance
Preventive Breakdown
¨ Routine inspection & ¨ Non-routine inspection
servicing & servicing
¨ Prevents failures ¨ Remedial
¨ Bases for doing ¨ Basis for doing
¨ Time: Every day ¨ Equipment failure

¨ Usage: Every 300


pieces
¨ Inspection: Control
chart deviations
Mean Time Between Failure and
Preventive Maintenance

Candidate for preventive


maintenance will have
distribution with low
variability
Frequency
of failure

Mean Time Between Failure


Organizing the
Maintenance Function
¨ Centralized maintenance department
¨ Does all maintenance (PM & breakdown)
¨ Decentralized maintenance department
¨ Useful if different equipment used in different areas
of company
¨ Contract maintenance
¨ Used if little equipment or expertise
¨ Operator ownership approach
Operator-Ownership Approach
¨ Operator does preventive maintenance
¨ Equipment condition is their responsibility
¨ Learns equipment better
¨ Increases worker’s pride
¨ Reduces repair time & PM costs
¨ Maintenance department is backup
¨ Handles non-routine problems
¨ Provides maintenance training
¨ Has plant-wide responsibilities
Maintenance Costs
Cost
C o st
a n c e
i n t e n
l M a
Tot a
C ost
PM

Breakdown Cost

Optimal Maintenance
Commitment
Contract for Preventive
Maintenance
¨ Compute the expected number of
breakdowns without the service contract
¨ Compute the expected breakdown cost per
month with no preventive maintenance
contract
¨ Compute the cost of preventive maintenance
¨ Compare the two options
Features of
A Good Maintenance Facility
¨ Well-trained personnel
¨ Adequate resources
¨ Ability to establish a repair plan and
priorities
¨ Ability and authority to do material planning
¨ Ability to identify the cause of breakdowns
¨ Ability to design ways to extend MTBF
Total Productive Maintenance
¨ Additional requirements of:
¨ Designing machines that are reliable, easy to
operate and easy to maintain
¨ Emphasizing total cost of ownership when
purchasing machines, so that service and
maintenance are included in the cost
¨ Developing preventive maintenance plans that
utilize the best practices of operators,
maintenance departments, and depot services
¨ Training workers to operate and maintain their
own machines
Other Techniques for Establishing
Maintenance Policies

¨ Simulation - enables one to evaluate the


impact of various maintenance policies
¨ Expert systems - can be used by staff to help
diagnose faults in machinery and equipment
ASSIGNMENT

¨ Problem 1:
¨ California Instruments, Inc., produces 3,000 computer chips
per day. Three hundred are tested for a period of 500 operating
hours. During the test, six failed: two after 50 hours, two at
100 hours, one at 300 hours, and one at 400 hours.
¨ Find FR(%) and FR(N).

¨ Problem 2:
¨ If 300 of these chips are used in building a mainframe
computer, how many failures of the computer can be expected
per month?
ASSIGNMENT

¨ Problem 3:
¨ Find the reliability of this system:

0.92 0.90

0.95 0.98 0.90


ASSIGNMENT

¨ Problem 4:
¨ Given the probabilities below, calculate the expected
breakdown cost.

¨ Number of Daily
Break downs Frequency
0 3
1 2
2 2
3 3

¨ Assume a cost of $10 per breakdown.