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Maintenance and Reliability


¨ The Strategic Importance of

Maintenance and Reliability

¨ Reliability
¨ Improving Individual Components
¨ Providing Redundancy
Outline - continued
¨ Maintenance
¨ Implementing Preventive

¨ Increasing Repair Capability

¨ Total Productive Maintenance

¨ Techniques for Establishing

Maintenance Policies
Learning Objectives

¨ Explain the benefits of maintenance

¨ Distinguish preventive from breakdown
¨ Explain the importance of employee
involvement in maintenance
¨ Use expected value analysis to solve
maintenance problems
¨ Maintenance of space shuttles
¨ Columbia:
¨ 86,000,000 miles on odometer
¨ 3 engines each the size of a VW
¨ expected to make 77 more launches
¨ Maintenance requires
¨ 600 computer generated maintenance jobs
¨ 3-month turnaround
¨ More than 100 people
© 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
17-5 A Simon & Schuster Company
Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458
Maintenance Management

¨ All activities involved in

keeping a system’s
equipment working
¨ Objective: Maintain
system capability &
minimize costs

© 1995 Corel Corp.

The Strategic Importance of
Maintenance and Reliability
¨ Failure has far reaching effects on a firm’s
¨ operation
¨ reputation
¨ profitability
¨ customers
¨ product
¨ employees
¨ profits
Maintenance Performance
Employee Maintenance
Involvement Procedures

Maintenance © 1995

© 1995 Corel Corp.

Employee Involvement

¨ Information sharing
¨ Skill training
¨ Reward system
¨ Power sharing

© 1995 Corel Corp.

Maintenance Procedures

¨ Clean and lubricate Maintenance

¨ Monitor and adjust
¨ Minor repair
¨ Computerized records
© 1995
Maintenance Benefits
operating Faster, more
costs dependable

Improved Maintenance Higher

capacity productivity

Continuous Improved
improvement quality
Tactics for
Reliability and Maintenance
¨ Reliability Tactics
¨ improving individual components
¨ providing redundancy
¨ Maintenance Tactics
¨ implementing preventive
¨ increasing repair capabilities
Fig 17.2

Transparency Masters to accompany Operations © 1998 by Prentice Hall, Inc.

Management, 5E (Heizer & Render) 17-13 A Simon & Schuster Company
Upper Saddle River, N.J. 07458
Reliability of
Components in Series

R = R1 * R2 * R3 * ...
Evaluating Maintenance
¨ Reliability
¨ Probability that an item will function for a given
¨ Mean time between failures (MTBF)
¨ Average time between failures of a repairable
¨ Failure rate
¨ Reciprocal of MTBF
Failure Rate (%)

Number of failures
FR(%) = * 100%
Number of units tested
Lifetime Failure Rates
“normal” failure Wearout

rate Infant
improper use

Mean Time Between Failures

Failures Per Operating Hour

Number of Failures
FR(n) =
Operating Time
Providing Redundancy

Probability Probability Probability

of first of second of needing
component + component * second = P(R)
working working component
Maintenance Decisions
¨ How much preventive & breakdown
¨ Who performs maintenance
¨ Centralized, decentralized, operator etc.
¨ Contract or in-house
¨ When to replace or repair
¨ How much to replace
¨ Individual or group replacement
Types of Maintenance
Preventive Breakdown
¨ Routine inspection & ¨ Non-routine inspection
servicing & servicing
¨ Prevents failures ¨ Remedial
¨ Bases for doing ¨ Basis for doing
¨ Time: Every day ¨ Equipment failure

¨ Usage: Every 300

¨ Inspection: Control
chart deviations
Mean Time Between Failure and
Preventive Maintenance

Candidate for preventive

maintenance will have
distribution with low
of failure

Mean Time Between Failure

Organizing the
Maintenance Function
¨ Centralized maintenance department
¨ Does all maintenance (PM & breakdown)
¨ Decentralized maintenance department
¨ Useful if different equipment used in different areas
of company
¨ Contract maintenance
¨ Used if little equipment or expertise
¨ Operator ownership approach
Operator-Ownership Approach
¨ Operator does preventive maintenance
¨ Equipment condition is their responsibility
¨ Learns equipment better
¨ Increases worker’s pride
¨ Reduces repair time & PM costs
¨ Maintenance department is backup
¨ Handles non-routine problems
¨ Provides maintenance training
¨ Has plant-wide responsibilities
Maintenance Costs
C o st
a n c e
i n t e n
l M a
Tot a
C ost

Breakdown Cost

Optimal Maintenance
Contract for Preventive
¨ Compute the expected number of
breakdowns without the service contract
¨ Compute the expected breakdown cost per
month with no preventive maintenance
¨ Compute the cost of preventive maintenance
¨ Compare the two options
Features of
A Good Maintenance Facility
¨ Well-trained personnel
¨ Adequate resources
¨ Ability to establish a repair plan and
¨ Ability and authority to do material planning
¨ Ability to identify the cause of breakdowns
¨ Ability to design ways to extend MTBF
Total Productive Maintenance
¨ Additional requirements of:
¨ Designing machines that are reliable, easy to
operate and easy to maintain
¨ Emphasizing total cost of ownership when
purchasing machines, so that service and
maintenance are included in the cost
¨ Developing preventive maintenance plans that
utilize the best practices of operators,
maintenance departments, and depot services
¨ Training workers to operate and maintain their
own machines
Other Techniques for Establishing
Maintenance Policies

¨ Simulation - enables one to evaluate the

impact of various maintenance policies
¨ Expert systems - can be used by staff to help
diagnose faults in machinery and equipment

¨ Problem 1:
¨ California Instruments, Inc., produces 3,000 computer chips
per day. Three hundred are tested for a period of 500 operating
hours. During the test, six failed: two after 50 hours, two at
100 hours, one at 300 hours, and one at 400 hours.
¨ Find FR(%) and FR(N).

¨ Problem 2:
¨ If 300 of these chips are used in building a mainframe
computer, how many failures of the computer can be expected
per month?

¨ Problem 3:
¨ Find the reliability of this system:

0.92 0.90

0.95 0.98 0.90


¨ Problem 4:
¨ Given the probabilities below, calculate the expected
breakdown cost.

¨ Number of Daily
Break downs Frequency
0 3
1 2
2 2
3 3

¨ Assume a cost of $10 per breakdown.