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Networking

Network
communication system for connecting end-systems End-systems hosts PCs, workstations dedicated computers network components
Netprog: OSI Reference Model

Data Sharing before the advent of Networks

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

Multiaccess vs. Point-to-point

Multiaccess means shared medium.


many end-systems share the same physical communication resources (wire, frequency, ...) There must be some arbitration mechanism.

Point-to-point
only 2 systems involved no doubt about where data came from !
Netprog: OSI Reference Model

Multiaccess

Point-to-point

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

LAN - Local Area Network

connects computers that are physically close together ( < 1 mile).


high speed multi-access

Technologies:
Ethernet 10 Mbps, 100Mbps Token Ring 16 Mbps FDDI 100 Mbps
Netprog: OSI Reference Model

LAN - Local Area Network

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

WAN - Wide Area Network

connects computers that are physically far apart. long-haul network.


typically slower than a LAN. typically less reliable than a LAN. point-to-point

Technologies:
telephone lines Satellite communications
Netprog: OSI Reference Model

MAN - Metropolitan Area Network

Larger than a LAN and smaller than a WAN


- example: campus-wide network - multi-access network

Technologies:
coaxial cable microwave
Netprog: OSI Reference Model

TOPOLOGY

The physical topology of a network describes the layout of the cables and workstations and the location of all network components. Common topologies: Bus Ring Star Mesh
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BUS TOPOLOGY

All computers are attached to a single continuous cable that is terminated at both ends, which is the simplest way to create a physical network.

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RING TOPOLOGY

In the ring topology, each computer is connected directly to two other computers in the network. Data moves down a one-way path from one computer to another.

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STAR TOPOLOGY

Unlike those in a bus topology, each computer in a star topology is connected to a central point by a separate cable. The central point is a device known as a hub.

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MESH TOPOLOGY

In a mesh topology, a path exists from each station to every other station in the network.

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Internetwork
Connection of 2 or more distinct (possibly dissimilar) networks. Requires some kind of network device to facilitate the connection.

Net A
Netprog: OSI Reference Model

Net B
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OSI Reference Model

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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Router
Copies packets from one network to another. Makes decisions about what route a packet should take (looks at network headers).

ROUTER

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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Translation
Gateway

Translate from green protocol to brown protocol

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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Encryption gateway
Secure Network Encryption/Decryption Gateways Secure Network

GW

? ? ?
Insecure Network

GW

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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End-to-End vs. Hop-toHop

Many service modes/features such as flow control and error control can be done either:
between endpoints of the communication. -orbetween every 2 nodes on the path between the endpoints.

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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End-to-End
Process A

Process B

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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Hop-by-Hop
Process A

Process B

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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Buffering
Buffering can provide more efficient communications. Buffering is most useful for byte stream services.
Process A Send Buffer Recv. Buffer Process B

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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Coaxial cable

Coaxial cable consists of a central copper core surrounded by an insulator, a braided metal shielding, called braiding, and an outer cover, called the sheath or jacket.

EG : Cable Tv network use the coaxial cable.

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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Coaxial cable

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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Coaxial cable

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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Coaxial cable

Netprog: OSI Reference Model

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THANK YOU
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