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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH
Name : U.Rajya Lakshmi
Designation : Lecturer
Branch : Computer Engg.,
Institute : Govt.Polytechnic for Women,
PALAMANER.
Year/Semester : III Semester
Subject : Computer Architecture
Subject Code : CM-303
Topic : CPU Organization
Sub Topic : Single Accumulator Based CPU
The function of each unit.
Duration : 100 Min
Teaching aids : PPT,drawings
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Recap
• Various functional units of CPU
CU, Internal Processor Memory and ALU
• Control Unit
controls the operation of all other units
• Arithmetic and Logic unit
performs all arithmetic and logical operations
• Internal Processor Memory
A set of registers used to hold information temporarily

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Simple Accumulator Based CPU

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Objectives

On completion of this period, you would be able to

• Draw the block diagram of a Simple Accumulator


Based CPU with various units of it.
• Know the various functional units of simple
accumulator based CPU

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Introduction

• Primary function of CPU is to execute programs

• Program is a set of instructions that perform a


particular task

• Instructions are executed by the CPU sequentially


one at a time

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Introduction
• Instructions are stored in consecutive memory
locations

• Each memory location has an identification


number called address

• To read an instruction from a memory location


CPU must have its address

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Introduction

• CPU needs a register to store the address of


memory location

• Some more registers are needed


• For manipulating data
• For holding the instruction
• For holding results etc.,

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Simple Accumulator based CPU

• Comprises small set of high speed registers

• Functional units and

• Circuits needed to execute the instructions

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Simple Accumulator based CPU

• Has an important register called Accumulator(AC)

• AC plays an important role in the execution of


programs

• AC is used for data manipulation

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Simple Accumulator based CPU

• AC holds
One of the inputs prior to execution of an
instruction
and also receives output

• Some other registers are


Program Counter(PC),Instruction Register(IR)
etc.,

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Block Diagram of Single Accumulator based CPU
Add
Sub
T
Memory & I/o ALU Shift
o
interface unit
Data processing
AC
m unit
e
MDR
m
o
r
y PC IR
MAR Instruction
&
decoder

I Program control unit Control


/ Circuits
o CM303.3
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Fig 4.1 Internal control signals
Simple accumulator based CPU

The main functional units are

• Program control unit (PCU)


• Data processing unit (DPU)
• Memory and I/O interface unit (MIU)

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Simple accumulator based CPU

• Main components of Program Control Unit (PCU)

• Program Counter(PC)
• Instruction Register(IR)
• Instruction Decoder(ID)
• Control Circuits

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Simple accumulator based CPU

• Main components of Data processing unit (DPU)

• Accumulator(AC)
• Arithmetic and Logical Unit(ALU)

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Simple accumulator based CPU

• Main components of Memory and I/O interface Unit

• Memory Address register(MAR)


• Memory Data register(MDR)

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Single accumulator based CPU
Function of Program Control Unit
• Program Counter

• Holds the address of next instruction to be


executed

• Instruction Register

• Holds the current instruction being executed

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Single accumulator based CPU
Function of Program Control Unit
• Instruction Decoder

• Gets instruction from IR and decodes it

• Control Circuits

• Responsible for providing proper control signals to


ALU and other units

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Single accumulator based CPU
Function of Program control unit(PCU)

• Fetches instructions from memory


• Decodes instructions
• Sends appropriate control signals to ALU
• PC plays an important role in fetching the
instructions

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Summary
In this class you have learnt
• The block diagram of simple accumulator based
CPU
• Various units of simple accumulator based CPU
• Program Control Unit
• Data Processing Unit
• Memory and I/O interface Unit
• Main components of Program Control Unit
PC,IR,ID and control circuits
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1. AC is used to store

a) input
b) output
c) Both a & b
d) None of the above

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Quiz
1. AC is used to store

• input
• output
• Both a & b
• None of the above

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Quiz
2. instructions are executed by the CPU in
___________order
a) random
b) Sequential
c) Both a & b
d) None of the above

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Quiz
2. instructions are executed by the CPU in
___________order
• random
• Sequential
• Both a & b
• None of the above

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Quiz
3. PC stands for

a) Performance check
b) Program clock
c) Process clock
d) Program counter

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Quiz
3. PC stands for

• Performance check
• Program clock
• Process clock
• Program counter

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Quiz
4. One important register of PCU

a) Program Counter (PC)


b) Memory Data Register (MDR)
c) Stack pointer (SP)
d) None of the above

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Quiz
4. One important register of PCU

• Program Counter (PC)


• Memory Data Register (MDR)
• Stack pointer (SP)
• None of the above

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Quiz
5. PC contains

a) data
b) Instruction
c) Address of next instruction
d) None of the above

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Quiz
5. PC contains

• data
• Instruction
• Address of next instruction
• None of the above

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Quiz
6. IR contains

a) data
b) Instruction
c) Address
d) None of the above

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Quiz
6. IR contains

• data
• Instruction
• Address
• None of the above

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Quiz
7. ID function is

a) to read instruction
b) to read data
c) to write data
d) to decode the instruction

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Quiz
7. ID function is

• to read instruction
• to read data
• to write data
• to decode the instruction

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Essay type Questions

1. Draw the block diagram of simple accumulator


based CPU and list the various units of it
2. Explain the function of Various components of
Program Control Unit .

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