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Visual Arts Two dimensional and Three dimensional arts.

Visual Arts
The visual arts are art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture,p rintmaking, design, crafts, and often modern visual arts (photography, video, and filmmaking) and architecture.

2d and 3d
2d consists of paintings, drawings, prints, and photographs, which differ from each other primarily in the technique of their execution.
A three-dimensional object is solid rather than flat, because it can be measured in three different directions, usually the height, length, and width

Line
Line is the simplest, most primitive, and most universal means for creating visual art. Lines are of many different kinds. They may be broad, or so faint we can hardly see them. They may be ragged, or clear and distinct. Lines are straight or curved.

Straight Line
Straight lines are horizontal, vertical, or diagonal.
Horizontal line The horizontal line is primarily the line of rest and quiet, relaxation and contemplation; a long horizontal line gives a sense of infinity that is not easily obtained in any other way. Horizontal lines are found in landscapes; the quieter the landscape, the more prominent the horizontals.

Vertical line
The vertical line is a line of rest, but it is not the rest of relaxation we find in the horizontal. The vertical is pointed, balanced, forceful, and dynamic. The vertical is a line of potential action, though it is not acting.

Diagonal line The diagonal is the line of action. The degree of action is shown in the angle of the diagonal. The diagonal that approaches the vertical shares the force and self-sufficiency of the vertical; the diagonal that approaches the horizontal shares its abandonment.

Curved lines
Curved lines show action and life and energy they are never harsh or stern. Curves may be single or double, slow or quick. A quick curve is an arc of a small circle, the type of curve found on a fat baby. A slow curve is an arc of a large circle, the type of long, thin face. A single curve is but a single arc; a double curve turns back on itself in an S shape.

Light and Shadow (Chiaroscuro)


Light and Shadow Painting Light and Shadow or light and Shade (sometimes known as Chiaroscuro, from the Italian word for light and dark) should be distinguished from value. Light and shadow is a means of modeling a figure in depth, a means of articulating the form. Chiaroscuro may also be used in ways more subtle than this plastic of figure building function.

Light and Shadow in three dimensional art


In painting, the effects of light and shadow must be simulated, but in the three dimensional arts (such as sculpture and many of the applied arts --pottery, armor, furniture), shadows occur naturally under almost all light conditions. The same is true of architectural design and ornament in general.

Texture
The element that appeals to our sense of the feel of things Found in all visual arts Difference in textures are due primarily to differences in medium.

Still life
The representation of texture may be the primary interest. Still life represents inanimate objects, natural or man-made.

Volume
Often called solidity it is that quality of an object w/c enables us to know that it has thickness aswell as length and breadth.

Japanese give the effect of solidity through the use of line alone as in Harunobu print.

Painting is two dimensional, it can only suggest volume. Shadows and contour lines are painted in and do not change. Sculpture is 3D. The outlines and the shadows change w/ each shift in the position of the person viewing them.

Space
The two arts in which space is of great importance are architecture and painting. Architecture- is primarily an art of space; uses space as one of its elements

Painting- does not deal w/ space directly as architecture does; it can only represent space on a two-dimensional surface. Perspective- is the technical means by which we perceive distance in painting, means by which we are made to see the position of objects in space.

Techniques for creating space in painting are the various types of perspective:

Linear perspective- has to do with the direction of lines and the size of object.

Foreshortening- is a term of linear perspective applied mainly to the human figure.

Aerial Perspective- has to do with changes in appearance due to atmosphere.

Color
3 Qualities or Attributes of Color:
1. Hue

-quality by which distinguish one color from another Primary Hues: Secondary Hues: a. Red a. Green b. Blue b. Violet c. Yellow c. Orange

Colors may either be warm or cool


Cool -right of the palette -Green and Blue -part restful and quiet -probably seem cool from their association with cool subjects in the nature: green grass, trees, blue sky and blue and green water

Colors may either be warm or cool


Warm -left of the palette -Red and Orange -more exciting but we tire of them more quickly -associated with warm objects like red coals and orange fire

2. Values -degree of darkness -light blues/ dark blue/ medium blues -from a dark that can hardly be distinguished from black to light that is almost white

3. Intensity -the vividness of the color -two colors may be both blue, one just dark as the other, but one may be more intense than the other

Our perceptions of a color are changed by the presence of the other


For example: -a blue placed beside a violet makes the violet seem red -a red placed beside a violet makes the violet seem blue

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