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Setting the iIIumination IeveIs

Lighting levels are determined generally in accordance with the


prescribed standards, National Building Code and other S
standards in our case.
The process of setting the illumination levels in a space involves the
following:
Consider the task requirement
Consider the occupant age
Appraise the spatial configuration
Determine daylight need, preference and
availability
Determine interaction of the tasks
Establish adaptation level of the viewers
Lighting Quality
Lighting quality can be categorized as:
Bad lighting i.e. the lighting system suffers from a quality defect
ndifferent lighting i.e. the lighting has no quality defects
Good lighting i.e. the lighting system is technically correct and
excites the spirit of the viewer
Lighting design must achieve the standards and criterion of
indifferent lighting for all lighting installations.
Lighting Quality
llumination design process
Case for day-lighting:
Quality of light
Suitability for human eye response (system)
Lesser quantity required for same task as
compared to artificial light
Best color rendering
Good visual environment to discern visual
information
Sub-conscious recognition of quality
Design element (aesthetics) to be combined
with environmental systems
The ambient light is designed to provide approximately 33%-67% of
the illumination level that would have been produced by a general
lighting system.
mbient requirements
The intent of the ambient lighting is to illuminate the space to about
1/3 rd the task illumination levels.
The common down lighting system can cause indirect glare due to
surface reflectance
ndirect ambient lighting system is often advocated because of its
uniformity
mbient and Task Lighting
Directionality as well as intensity of light are main considerations
for the task lighting requirements
Patterns in general are a problem, and keeping surfaces within
a brightness ratio of 3:1 is suggested to minimize the impact of
the patterns of surface luminance.
Task level can have a range of 2/3 to 4/3 of the target level
illumination.
Task Requirements
hy Daylighting
O Quality of light
O Most suitable for visual response by human eye
O Lesser quantity required as compared to artificial light for
a given task
O Best color rendering
O Provides good visual environment and discerns visual
information the best
O Conscious-sub conscious recognition of quality if absent
Daylight penetration
Daylight penetration : 1.5 to 2.0 times the
head height
Glazed area Ior when indows
are restricted to one side
Daylight requirements
Daylight Factor Method nalysis
Components of Daylight Factor
DF = SC + ERC + RC
Standard Sky Conditions
Sky conditions for ndia:
6500 10000 Lux
W: Window area; Percent
window factor; A: Area of
nternal Surfaces; R: Average
Reflectances
lectric Lighting Design
ims oI Lighting Design
Aims:
Comfort
Productivity
Safety, Health and security
Experiencing Architecture
Energy considerations
Who selects & installs Luminaires?
Architects & nteriors Decorators
Electrical Designers and Contractors
Owners & Tenants & very rarely actual users
Electric Lighting Requirements (as per ECBC) &
Issues of Concern
Building Area Method : Lighting Power Densities (LPD)
ospitaI 1.2 W/ft
2
Library 1.3 W/ft
2
Manufacturing 1.3 W/ft
2
Museum 1.1 W/ft
2
Office 1.0 W/ft
2
Parking Garage 0.3 W/ft
2
RetaiI 1.5 W/ft
2
SchooI 1.2 W/ft
2
Electric Lighting Requirements & Issues of Concern (Contd.) . . .
Space by Space : Lighting Power Allowance for Office Building
Office EncIosed 1.1 W/ft
2
Office Open 1.1 W/ft
2
Conference 1.3 W/ft
2
Training 1.4 W/ft
2
Lobby 1.3 W/ft
2
Lounge 1.2 W/ft
2
Dining 0.9 W/ft
2
Food Prep 1.2 W/ft
2
Corridor 0.5 W/ft
2
Restroom 0.7 W/ft
2
ctive Storage 0.8 W/ft
2
$ome Benchmark
Key Performance Indicators (KPI)
Lighting 8 to 10 W/sqm
Best so far done by DSCL 8.5 W/sqm
This figure is usually around 20 to 22 for most of the
big buildings in Delhi and also as per National
Building Code 1983.
Luminous Efficacy & Life of Light $ources
SI.
No.
Light Source Efficacy
(Im/W)
verage Life (h)
1. Incandescent Iamps
GLS 25W-1000W
8-18 1000
2. Tungsten haIogen incandescent Iamps
500W-2000W
22-27 2000
3. BIended Light Lamps
MLL 100W-500W
18-26 5000
4. FIuorescent (TL)
a) CooI dayIight 20W-80W
b) Warm White 20W-80W
c) SIim Line 36W
d) CFL 5W-25W
e) Tri-phosphor FL
T 5,T 8, T 12(28W-60W)
61
67
70
40-80
88-105
5000
5000
7000
8000
15,000-30,000
Luminous Efficacy & Life of Light Sources (Contd.) . . .
SI.
No.
Light Source Efficacy
(Im/W)
verage Life (h)
5. igh Pressure Mercury Vapour Lamp
a) 80W
b) 125W
c) 250W
d) 400W
36.9
41
46
52
5000
5000
5000
5000
6. igh Pressure Sodium Vapour Lamp
a) 250W
b) 400W
c) 1000W
88
107
112
10,000
10,000
10,000
7. Low Pressure Sodium Vapour Lamps (33W-
135W)
120-160 10,000
8. MetaI aIide Lamps (35W-2000W) 62-120 10,000
Evolution of Energy $aving Lamps - CFL
Type of Iamp Watts InitiaI Lumens
'accum type single coil 25 220
ncandescent lamp 40 425
Gas filled type coiled 60 720
coil incandescent lamps 100 1380
200 2920
500 8300
1000 18600
Fluorescent lamp ( TL5) 35 3650/ 3400
Compact fluorescent lamp 10/13/18 600/900/1200
Regular fluorescent lamp 40 2500
High pressure mercury vapour lamps 80 3700
125 6200
250 12700
400 22500
1000 58500
Halogen lamp 1000 22000
High pressure sodium vapour lamp 70 6000
100 9000
150 15000
250 28000
400 48000
1000 130000
Lamp Output
Type Distribution of flux emitted as total flux output
Upward Downward
Direct 0-10 90-100
Semi-direct 10-40 60-90
General-diffusing 40-60 40-60
Semi-indirect 60-90 10-40
ndirect 90-100 0-10
Lamp Output
INDI
150
300
300
300
300
450
300
300
200-
300
150-
300
100
Comparison of $tandards for lighting
INDI
150
300
300
300
300
450
300
300
200-
300
150-
300
100
Comparison of $tandards for lighting
Lumen Method
Determination of the illumination level
Selection of the light sources and luminaires
Determination of the luminous flux
a) Dependent Factors
b) Coefficient of Utilization / Utilization Factor
c) Calculation for determining Luminous Flux
Arrangement of luminaires
Lumen Method (Contd.) .
SeIection of the Iight sources and Iuminaires
Depends on the choice of lighting system i.e. general lighting /
directional lighting / localized or local lighting.
Determination of the Iuminous fIux
Dependent Factors
a) Lumen output of the lamps
b) Type of luminaire
c) Proportion of the room (room index)
d) Reflectance of internal surfaces of the room
e) Depreciation in lumen output of the lamps after burning their rated
life
f) Depreciation due to dirt collection on luminaires and room surface.
Lumen Method (Contd.) .
a) Coefficient of UtiIization / UtiIization Factor
Reference to the tables
Tables indicate the maintenance factor to be taken for the luminous
flux depreciation throughout the life of an installation due to the
ageing of the lamp & dust accumulation on lamps / luminaires/room
surface
'alues for reflection factor of ceiling and wall are:
(for walls account for windows without curtains/shelves/almirahs/doors with different
colours)
White &very Iight coIours 0.7
Light coIours 0.5
MiddIe tints 0.3
Dark coIours 0.1
Lumen Method (Contd.) .
Lumen Method (Contd.) .
CaIcuIation for determining Luminous FIux
Lumen Method (Contd.) .
rrangement of Luminaires
To achieve better uniformly distributed illumination
Luminaires spaced a' metre apart in either direction
Distance of the end luminaire form wall: a/2 metre
a is more or less equal to mounting height
m
between the luminaire &
working plane
Small rooms: where
Room index (k
r
)<1; a<
m
(generally require 2-4 luminaires)
1 luminaire would provide higher utilization factor, but poor uniformity in
distribution.
llustration
Example1:
2 lamp aluminium luminaire with louvres with 40 watt cool daylight lamps
Mounting Height = 2.4 - 0.9 = 1.5m
Room ndex: (L * W) / (L + W) Hm = (6 * 5) / (6+5)*1.5 = 1.8
Coeff. Of utilization = 0.43
Maintenance factor = 0.75
No. of 40 watts lamp required =N (lamp) = EA / q (lamp) d
= [300 * (6*5)] / 2440 * 0.43 * 0.75 = 11
Example 2:
Chandelier with opaque or dense diffusing shades
Maintenance factor = 0.75 ; Coefficient of utilization = 0.24
No. of lamps = [300 * (6*5)] / 2440 * 0.24 * 0.75 = 20
Example 3:
Translucent bottom and sides
Maintenance factor = 0.6 ; Coefficient of utilization = 0.20
No. of lamps = [300 * (6*5)] / 2440 * 0.20 * 0.60 = 31
llustration
$ystems pproach
Lighting is for eye performance
Selective rods for low levels and cones for high levels
Color information associated with cones
Safe seeing conditions, safe for the object
lluminance or the extent of light coming from the object and its
immediate surroundings is the parameter of interest
Energy Efficiency: Task performance needs are more important
than energy efficiency
nergy Costs and Lighting
Even high lighting levels cost equivalent of a cup of coffee
Energy demand growth rate is 9% per annum
Generating capacity growth rate is 6% per annum
Lighting consumes about 17% of the total energy consumed