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Research Design and Methodology

Dr. Sibichan Mathew Professor (Fashion Management) & Head (Industry & Alumni Affairs) NIFT-HO

Agenda
To introduce research design and methodology To help you understand the meaning, objective, and scope of research To think loudly as to what to research To narrow down few topics And finally to select a topic

What do these images communicate?

Whats Research?

Formalised Curiosity!

The root cause of all forms of Research is Problem. What is a problem Existence of an individual , group, society system, process, method, mechanism which is experiencing difficulty There should be an objective to attain There should be at least two methods to attain objectives There should be some doubt in the minds of researcher to choose best alternative

Research Project
Industry Project vs Academic Project
Background

Literature Review

Research Project: Steps


Conceive the Purpose of Research Project Background Purpose Literature Review Objectives & Hypotheses Methodology Scope (Chapterization) Plan

Research
According to Clifford Woody research comprises Defining and redefining problems Formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions Collecting, organising and evaluating data Making deductions Reaching conclusions Testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated objective

Research
is frequently used for describing a thing or event, discovering the relationship between phenomena, or making predictions about future events. research can be used for the purposes of description, explanation, and prediction, all of which make important and valuable contributions to the expansion of what we know and how we live our lives. all fields of study shares certain defining characteristics, including testing hypotheses, careful observation and measurement, systematic evaluation of data, and drawing valid conclusions.

Sources of Research problems


People : You must select a group of individuals (a group or a community as such people) either to examine the existence of certain issues or problems relating to their lives
Problems: to ascertain attitude of a group people towards an issue (problem) Programs: to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention (Programs)

Phenomena: (Phenomena)

to

establish

existence

of

regularity

Aspects of a research problem


Aspects of a study Study population About Study of People Individuals, organizations, groups, communities They provide you with the required information or you collect information from or about them

Subject area

Problem

Issues, situations, associations, needs, population composition, profiles, etc. Contents, structure, outcomes, attributes, satisfaction, consumers, service providers, etc.

Program

Information that you need to collect to find answers to your research questions

Phenomeno n

Cause-and-effect relationships, the study of

Consideration in selecting a research problem


Interest : most important consideration in selecting a research problem. Magnitude: sufficient knowledge about the research process to be able to visualize the work involved in completing the proposed study. Measurement of concepts : clear about its indicators and their measurement. Level of expertise: adequate level of expertise for the task you are proposing. Relevance : select a topic that is of relevance to you as a professional. Study adds to the existing body of knowledge, bridges Availability of data: make sure that these data are available and in the format you want. Ethical issues:

Steps in the formulation of a research problem


Step 1 : Identify a broad filed or subject area of interest to you : Ask yourself, what is it that really interest me as a professional? For eg, if you are a social work students, inclined to work in the area of youth welfare, refugees or domestic violence after graduation, you might take to research in one of these areas. Or if you are studying marketing you might be interested in researching consumer behaviour.

Step 2 : Dissect the broad area into Subareas :


Subject area Subareas
Profile of families in which DV occurs Profile of the Victims of DV Profile of the perpetrators

Domestic violence (DV)

Reasons for DV Extent and types of DV

Impact of DV on the family


Impact of DV on children Services available to the victims of DV Effectiveness of the services provided to the victims of DV Extent of DV in a community etc

Dissecting the subject area of domestic violence into Subareas

Step 3 : Select what is of most interest to you: Select issues or Subareas about which you are passionate. Start with the process of elimination. To continue until you are left with something that is manageable considering the time available to you, your level of expertise and other resources needed to undertake the study.

Step 4 : Raise research questions: What is it that I want to find out about in this subarea? Step 5 : Formulate objectives: Objectives and research questions. Objectives transform these questions into behavioural aims by using actionoriented words such as to find out, to determine, to ascertain and to examine.

Step 6: Assess your objectives: ascertain the feasibility of achieving them through your research endeavour. Time, resources (financial and human) and technical expertise at your disposal.

Step 7: Double-check: Go back and give final consideration to whether or not you are sufficiently interested in the study, and have adequate resources to undertake it. Ask yourself, Am I really enthusiastic about this study, and Do I really have enough resources to undertake it?.

Steps in formulating a research problem-alcoholism

Step 1
Identify Alcoholism

Step 2
Dissect 1. Profile of alcoholics 2. The cause of alcoholism 3. The process of becoming an alcoholic 4. The effects of alcoholism on the family 5. Community attitudes towards alcoholism 6. The effectiveness of a treatment model, etc.

Step 3
Select Effects of alcoholism on the family

Step 4
Raise questions 1. What impact has alcoholism on marital relations? 2. How does it affect the various aspects of childrens lives? 3. What are the effects on the familys finances?

Step 7
Double-check

Step 6
Make Sure Assess these objectives in the light of : The work involved The time available to you The financial resources at your disposal Your (and your research supervisors) technical expertise in the area

Step 5
Formulate objectives Main objective: To find out the effects of alcoholism on the family Specific objectives: 1. To ascertain the impact of alcoholism on martial relations 2. To determine the ways in which alcoholism affects the different aspects of childrens lives 3. To find out the effects of alcoholism on the financial situation of the

1. That you are really interested in the study 2. That you agree with the objectives 3. That you have adequate resources 4. That you have the technical expertise to undertake the study

Steps in formulating a research problem-the relationship between fertility and mortality

Step 1
Identify Fertility and mortality

Step 2
Dissect 1. Tends in fertility and mortality 2. The cause of fertility behaviour 3. Relationship between fertility and mortality 4. Impact of health services on mortality 5. Impact of contraceptives on fertility behaviour, etc.

Step 3
Select Relationship between fertility and morality

Step 4
Raise questions
1. What happens to fertility when morality declines? 2. What is the time lag between the start of decline in mortality and the start of decline in fertility? 3. What are the factors that contribute to the decline in fertility? etc.

Step 7
Double-check

Step 6
Make Sure Assess these objectives in the light of : The work involved The time available to you The financial resources at your disposal Your (and your research supervisors) technical expertise in the area

Step 5
Formulate objectives
Main objective: To explore the relationship between fertility and mortality Specific objectives: 1. To find out the extent of the decline in fertility in relation to the decline in mortality. 2. To ascertain the time lag between the decline in mortality and the decline in fertility 3. To identify the factors that affect the changes in fertility. 4. To explore the relationship between socioeconomic-demographic characteristics of the population and the extent of changes in fertility and mortality

1. That you are really interested in the study 2. That you agree with the objectives 3. That you have adequate resources 4. That you have the technical expertise to undertake the study

Steps in formulating a research problem-health

Step 1
Identify Health
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Step 2
Dissect
Health services provided to the community Effectiveness of the services Cost of the services Health insurance schemes available to people Training of health professionals Adherence to ethics in health practices Attitude of the consumers towards health services Community responsiveness in the delivery of health services, etc.

Step 3
Select Community responsiveness in the deliver of health services
1.

Step 4
Raise questions
How do the health administrators, planners, service providers and consumers define community responsiveness? How can community responsiveness be achieved? What indicators can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of community responsiveness strategies?

2.

3.

Step 7
Double-check

Step 6
Make Sure Assess your objectives in the light of : work involved time available to you financial resources at your disposal Your (and your research supervisors) technical expertise in the area

Step 5
Formulate objectives
Main objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of community responsiveness strategies in the delivery of health services Specific objectives: 1. To find out the understanding of the concept community responsiveness among health administrators, planners, service providers and service consumers. 2. To identify the strategies to implement the concept of community responsiveness in health services 3. To develop a set of indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies used in implementation of community

1. Are you really interested in the study? 2. Do you agree with the objectives? 3. Do you have adequate resources ?

The formulation of Objectives


Objectives are the goals you set out to attain in your study. Objectives should be listed under two headings: a. Main Objectives b. Subobjectives

The main objective is an overall statement of the thrust of your study. It is also a statement of the main associations and relationships that you seek to discover or establish. The Subobjectives are the specific aspects of topic that you want to investigate within the main framework of your study. Subobjectives should be numerically listed. They should be worded clearly and unambiguously. Make sure that each Subobjectives contains only one aspect of the study. Use action-oriented words or verbs when writing your objectives. The objective should start with towards such a as to determine, to find out, to ascertain, to measure and to explore. The way the main and Subobjectives are worded determines how your research is classified (e.g. descriptive, correlation or experimental).

Characteristics of Objectives

Clear

Complete

Specific

Identify the main variables to be correlated

Identify the direction of the relationship

Descriptive studies
Correlational studies (experimental and non-experimental) Hypothesis-testing studies

If your study is primarily descriptive, your main objective should clearly describe the major focus of your study, even mentioning the organization and its location unless these are to be kept confidential (e.g. to describe the types of treatment program provided by [name of the organization] to alcoholics in [name of the place] or to find out the opinion of the community about the health services provided by [name of the health centre/department] in [name of the place). Identification of the organization and its location is important as the services may be peculiar to the place and the Organisation and may not represent the services provided by others to similar populations.

If your is correlational in nature, in addition to the above three properties, the wording of the main objective should include the main variables being correlated (e.g. to ascertain the impact of migration on family roles or to compare the effectiveness of different teaching methods on the comprehension of students).

If the overall thrust of your study is to test a hypothesis, the wording of main objectives, in addition to the above, should indicate the direction of the relationship being tested (e.g. to ascertain if an increase in youth unemployment will increase the incidence of street crime, or to demonstrate that the provision of maternal and child health services to Aboriginal people in rural Australia will reduce infant mortality.

Establishing Operational Definitions


The main aim of formulating a research problem is to clearly and precisely define the research problem. In defining the problem you may use certain words or items that are difficult to measure and/or the understanding of which may vary from respondent to respondent. In research study it sis important to develop, define or establish a set of rules, indicators or yardsticks in order to clearly establish the meaning of such words/items. The following example studies help to explain this, the main objective are:

To find out the number of children living below the poverty line in Australia; To ascertain the impact of immigration on family roles among immigrants; To measure the effectiveness of a retraining program designed to help young people.
You cannot count the umber of children living below the poverty line and how to determine it; you cannot find out the impact of immigration on family roles unless you identify which roles constitute family roles; and you cannot measure effectiveness until you define what effectiveness is. In the other hand, it is equally important to decide exactly what you mean by children, immigrants or young. Up to what age will you consider a person to be a child (i.e. 5, 10, 15 or 18)? Who would you consider young? A person 15 years of age, 20, 25, or 30? Who would you consider to be an immigrant ? A person who immigrated 40, 20 or 5 year ago? In addition , are you going to consider immigrants form every country or only a few?

This is a achieved through the process of developing operational/working definitions. You need to develop operational definitions for the major concepts you are using in your study and develop a framework for the study population enabling you to select appropriate respondents.

Operationalisation of Concepts and the study populations


Study Concept to be studied Concepts 1 Poverty Line Issues What constitutes poverty line? What constitutes family roles? What constitutes effectiveness? Population to be Studied Study Populations Children Issues Who would you consider a child? Who would you consider an immigrant? Who would you consider a young person?

Family roles

Immigrants

Effectivenes s

The young

You must

Operationalise the concepts: define in practical, observable and measurable terms poverty line, family roles and effectiveness

Operationalise the study population: define in identifiable terms children, immigrants and young.

Though in daily life you often use words such as children , youth and immigrant loosely, you need to be more specific when using them in a research study you should work through your own definition. Can validly describe, explain, verify and test.

Situation A. Modern office Design, Inc. (MOD) manufactures a broad line of office equipment and suppliers. Through its sales force, it sells its products to a variety of organizations. Despite a healthy growth in industry sales, MODs own sales and profits have declined during the past two years, much to the concern of MOD executives.

Situation B. Savers National Bank (SNB) has grown rapidly since its inception a few years ago, apparently due to the unique set of financial services it offers. Though pleased with the banks performance thus far, SNBs management is worried about growing competition form a variety of financial institutions. To consolidate SNBs current market position, the banks executives want to ascertain the demographic composition of customers and their perceptions about the banks strengths and weaknesses.

Situations C. Trent Eating Association (TEA) operates a chain of restaurants in eight communities of similar size and population characteristics. TEA currently has the image of a high-class restaurant chain serving excellent food at premium prices. Its president is wondering whether a 15 percent reduction in prices of all menu items would hurt or help sales revenues and profits. A common feature among situations A, B, and C is the need for marketing research. Lets see what kind of research would best help clarify the situation for each marketer.

Literature Review
Chronological Segmented

Research Articles Review


State Findings Analyze & Relate to Purpose of Study

Identify Gaps in the Literature


Tense Dont write in first person. Style: Jain (2007); xyz.abc (Jain, 2007: p.76) Footnotes

Literature review
Provides a theoretical background to your study Reviews the means by which you establish links between you are proposing to examine and what has already been studied
To refine your research methodology

Shows how your findings have contributed to the existing body of knowledge Enables you to contextualise your findings

Literature review
To bring clarity and focus to your research problem
What have you read so far?

To improve your methodology


Trade creation, diversion, blocks

To broaden your knowledge base in your research area


Existing theories, gaps

to contextualise your findings


How your findings fit into the existing body of knowledge? How do your answers to your research questions compare with what others have found?

Procedures for reviewing literature


Conceptualise your research problem Search for existing literature in your area of study
Books, journals
Keywords, author, subject Journals , DMT

ABI/INFORM EBSCO -google scholar

Review the literature selected


Framework, card

Develop a theoretical framework Develop a conceptual framework

Accuracy and Reliability

When talking about measurement in the context of research, there is an important distinction between being accurate and being reliable. Accuracy refers to whether the measurement is correct, whereas reliability refers to whether the measurement is consistent. An example may help to clarify the distinction. When throwing darts at a dart board, accuracy refers to whether the darts are hitting the bulls eye (an accurate dart thrower will throw darts that hit the bulls eye). Reliability, on the other hand, refers to whether the darts are hitting the same spot (a reliable dart thrower will throw darts that hit the same spot). Therefore, an accurate and reliable dart thrower will consistently throw the darts in the bulls eye. As may be evident, however, it is possible for the dart thrower to be reliable, but not accurate. For example, the dart thrower may throw all of the darts in the same spot (which demonstrates high reliability), but that spot may not be the bulls eye (which demonstrates low accuracy). In the context of measurement, both accuracy and reliability are equally important.