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SSH1303 COMPUTER LITERACY

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER

Computer Literacy
What is CL? CL is the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently. Goal of learning CL? To be able to learn and use new computer programs without large amounts of help. CL gives people of all ages an edge in both their careers and education.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

What is a Computer?

An electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory. Has 4 functions:
Accepts data
Raw facts, figures, and symbols

Processes data into information


Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful

Produces outputs

Stores results

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Example

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Computer components

Input device Processing device Output device Storage device

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Input device
What is an input device? Hardware used to enter data and instructions

Example:
Keyboard Mouse Scanner

Mic

Is webcam an input device?

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Processing device
What is processing device? Device that process the thinking of the computer. -the calculations, comparisons, and decisions.
Motherboard
a microcomputer circuit board that contains slots for connecting peripherals like RAM modules, CPU and adapter cards. A motherboard is the backbone of a computer system.

Central Processing Unit - CPU


It is the brain of a computer system. Other components act according to the orders of the CPU. All the current inputs and any previously stored data are processed by the CPU to obtain meaningful information.

Random Access Memory - RAM


electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Output device
What is an output device? Hardware that conveys information to one or more people.
Example: -Printer -Monitor -Speaker
Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Storage device
What is storage device? Device that holds data, instructions, and information for future use
Storage media

Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored

Storage device

Records and retrieves items to and from storage media

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Storage device (2)

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Computer memory
What is memory?

Electronic components that store instructions, data, and results Consists of one or more chips on motherboard or other circuit board Each byte stored in unique location called an address, similar to seats in a concert hall

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

What is random access memory (RAM)?

Memory chips that can be read from and written to by processor


Also called main memory Most RAM is volatile, it is lost when computers power is turned off

The more RAM a computer has, the faster it responds

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

RAM
How much RAM does a computer require?

Depends on the types of software you plan to use

For optimal performance, you need more than minimum requirements

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

What is read-only memory (ROM)?

Memory chips that store permanent data and instructions

The data on most ROM chips cannot be modified

Firmware Manufactured with permanently written data, instructions, or information

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Ports and Connectors


What are ports and connectors?

Port connects external devices to system unit Connector joins cable to peripheral

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Ports and Connectors


What are USB ports?
USB (universal serial bus) port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector

PCs typically have six to eight USB ports on front or back of the system unit

Single USB port can be used to attach multiple peripherals using a USB hub

The latest version of USB is called USB 2.0

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Operating system (OS)


What is OS?
software program that manages how the hardware and software of a computer work. controls all activities of each component in a computer, decodes commands and then displays them as user-friendly interface (GUI).

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

OS Functions
It manages the hardware and software resources of the system. In a desktop computer, these resources include the processor, memory, disk space and many more (On a cell phone, they include the keypad, the screen, the address book,etc). It provides a stable, consistent way for applications to deal with the hardware without having to know all the details of the hardware.

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Operating system (OS)

Common OS:

Newest from Microsoft

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Factors in OS Design
Engineering factors:

Performance/Efficiency -- CPU utilization, resource utilization (e.g. disks), response time Correctness/Reliability -- error-free (no software crashes) Maintainability -- modular construction, clearly defined interfaces, well-documented Small in size-- main memory and secondary storage valuable, larger means more error-prone, larger means takes longer to write Non-engineering factors: Commercial factors Standards and open systems

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Working with Windows

Windows basics Windows file management

Identify the parts of the user interface and of a window Know parts of the windows that show files and folders. Copy, cut, paste, and delete files and folders

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Desktop Interface

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Files and Folders


Files and folders can be viewed in Explorer window. Click at My Computer, or Right click at start menu>>Open windows explorer

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Files Management Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete


>>Right click>>Cut/Copy/Delete/Paste

Or
>> Organize>>Cut/Copy/Delete/Paste

Or use shortcuts:
Select file>>Ctrl+X ( To Cut) Select file>>Ctrl+C (To Copy) Select file>>Ctrl+V (To Paste) Select file>>Press Del/Delete (To Delete)
Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer