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AdmlxLures ln concreLe

W AdmlxLures are Lhe maLerlals '-- !- -|---' . ---' -|

'-. -i-'.-.''-- . -----ii.% oLher Lhan Lhe
Lhree baslc lngredlenLs of cemenL concreLe
W cemenL aggregaLe and waLer
W added Lo Lhe concreLe mlx before or durlng mlxlng Lo
W cerLaln of lLs properLles ln fresh or hardened sLaLe 1he
properLles commonly modlfled are
aLe of hydraLlon or seLLlng Llme
dlsperslon and
alr enLralnmenL
e careful
W admlxLures affecL more Lhan one properLy of
Lhe concreLe and alLhough Lhey may enhance
some Lhey may adversely affecL some oLhers
1husAn admlxLure should be employed only
afLer an approprlaLe evaluaLlon of lLs effecLs on
concreLe paylng aLLenLlon on Lhe quanLlLy of
$. .|i 1. i|-- 11i- 1.,,
W AcceleraLe Lhe lnlLlal seL of concreLe LhaL ls speed up
early sLrengLh developmenL
W eLard lnlLlal seL
W lncrease sLrengLh
W lmprove workablllLy '!, i|- .,, .|i ..|!'i,....,
W lmprove pumpablllLy of concreLe
W educe heaL of hydraLlon
W lncrease uurablllLy (eg y
y lmprv reslsLance Lo freezlng and Lhawlng make lL
lmpermeable|.-|'', ,. ----!- i|- -||--i .| ---!'i, .- 1!'i,,.,
lnhlblL corroslon reslsLance Lo chemlcal aLLack
W Colour concreLe
W roLecLlon agalnsL fungus germs and lnsecLs
'|-i.- .| /1-i-
W AcceleraLors
W eLarders
W lasLlclzers
W Alr enLralners
W WaLer proofers
W lgmenLs (#----!- -i ---i,.,
W /-1 --, -.-,..
W normally
reduce Lhe seLLlng Llme
acceleraLe Lhe raLe of hydraLlon of cemenL and
consequenLly Lhe raLe of galn of sLrengLh
1hls helps ln early removal of formwork '-1 ,. |-.. .|i i| -'- |---'',,,
Can be very useful ln cold weaLher concreLlng (as hydraLlon ls also a funcLlon LemperaLure%
W xamples of accelaraLors
ulphaLes (wlLh excepLlon of calclum sulphaLe 1. ,. ----!- i|- - .| 1,- -
CarbonaLes and alumlnaLes
Chlorldes such as calclum Chlorlde
- | i. !- i|-- .-- !i--- -|
-'-- |'.1- -- -i !.i| #-i1- -1 ---'-i. 1---1- .- i|- ..i.- i .|-| i|-,
- --1.
,/ -'-- |'.1- '.| -----i .-|i, .'' -i - ---'-i.
/-1 .'' -i -i1- | -.- -1
W normally lncrease Lhe seLLlng Llme and Lhus delay Lhe seLLlng of
W lnce Lhese reduce Lhe raLe of hydraLlon more water |s ava||ab|e( as
|t |s not consumed that fast) and better |s the workab|||ty
W And reduce the w]c rat|o (as we don't rea||y need to add that much
water to susta|n |t's fast consumpt|on) up to 10 reduct|on can be
ach|eved ( you know what that (|ow w]c ) s|gn|f|es?)
W Lxamp|e |nc|ude
Calclum sulphaLe ( remember gypsum wlLh flash seLLlng ln cemenL?%
sugar sLarch
ferrous and ferrlc chlorldes sodlum hexameLaphosphaLe
acld and Lhelr salLs
carbohydraLes hydrocarboxyllc aclds and Lhelr salLs
W are organlc or a comblnaLlon of organlc and lnorganlc subsLances
whlch allow
waLer reducLlon for a glven workablllLy or
glve hlgher workablllLy aL Lhe same waLer conLenL
W lasLlclzers are prlnclpally surface acLlve (surfacLanLs% 1hey lnduce a
negaLlve charge on Lhe cemenL parLlcles whlch dlsperse due Lo
W llne cemenL parLlcles belng very small clump LogeLher and
flocculaLe when waLer ls added
W 1hls lonlc aLLracLlon beLween Lhe parLlcles Lrap conslderable volume
of waLer and Lhus
W waLer requlred for workablllLy of concreLe mlx ls noL fully uLlllzed
W Lhus ve charges cause flocs Lo dlsperse and release Lhe enLrapped
waLer 1hus he|p |n |ncres|ng f|owab|||ty of concrete
W 1hese can be
urface acLlve agenLs (whlch reduce surface
Lenslon% examples are wood reslns soaps
anlmala olls and faLs
Chemlcals eg Zlnc and alumlnlum whlch releases
ulsperslng agenLs( lncreases elecLrosLaLlc charges%
W uperplasLlcezers [usL fucLlon as plasLlcezers
buL produclng exLreme workablllLy and Lhus
flowlng concreLe Cood for pumped concreLe
WaLer proofers ' i|-| .| .i- i-|!,
W CemenL morLar or concreLe should be lmpervlous Lo
waLer under pressure and also should have sufflclenL
reslsLance Lo absorpLlon of waLer
W 1he concreLe can be made waLer reslsLanL
wlLh Lhe addlLlves whlch may be waLer repellenL Lype or
pore fllllng Lype
xamples of
repellenLs are
soda and poLash soaps calclum soaps eslns vegeLable ollsfaLs
waxes coal Lar
ole flllers are
slllcaLes such as Lhose of soda alumlnlum and zlnc sulcpaLes
calclum chlorldes
noLe some of Lhese are chemlcally acLlve hence Lhelr
use should consldered carefully
Alr nLralnlng agenLs
W 1he alr lnLenLlonally lnLroduced ln Lhe cemenL durlng
lLs manufacLure or durlng maklng concreLe ls known as
enLralned alr
W lL ls dlfferenL from enLrapped alr where Lhe conLlnuous
channels are formed Lhus lncreaslng Lhe permeablllLy
W ln Lhe case of enLralned alr Lhe volds formed are
dlsconLlnuous and are less Lhan 003 mm ln dlameLer
W Alr enLralnmenL
lncreases workablllLy and reslsLance of concreLe Lo
1he posslblllLy of bleedlng ls reduced
segregaLlon ls also reduced
Powever Lhere ls some loss ln Lhe sLrengLh of concreLe
Lhus 1he alr conLenL should be from 4 Lo 7 by volume
Lher admlxLures
W Colourlng agenLs (can be naLural or synLheLlc
refer Lo palnLs%
W lunglcldes eg arsenlc Lln mercury eLc
W Alglcldes eg sodlum penLachlorophenaLe
W Curlng compounds ( Lo help ouL form fllms on
surfaces Lo avold loss of waLer by evaporaLlon%