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Physical and Chemical

Properties
Physical Properties
• A physical property of a substance can
be observed directly or measured with a
tool without changing the composition of
the substance.
Chemical Properties
• A chemical property involves the
substance to undergo a change that will
alter the composition of the substance.
What are some examples of
physical properties?
• Boiling point, freezing/melting point
• Density
• Solubility
• Viscosity
• Electrical Conductivity
Boiling Point and
Freezing/Melting Point
• The terms boiling point and
freezing/melting point DO NOT refer to
the phase change itself but to a
measurement: the temperature at which
these changes occur.
• The composition of a substance does
not change during a phase change.
Density
• Density is a measure of the mass per unit
volume.
• density=mass/volume
• The density of a particular substance is
always the same under constant conditions.
• The density of a substance is different at
different phases (solid, liquid, gas)
• This is because the different phases have
different volumes.
Density

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Solubility
• A substance is soluble in a solvent if it will
dissolve in that solvent.
• Solute - the substance being dissolved
• Solvent - what the substance is being
dissolved in
• Solubility is the maximum amount of solute
that can dissolve in a given volume of
solvent at a particular temperature and
pressure.
Solubility (cont.)
• A saturated solution is one in which the
maximum amount of solute is dissolved in the
solvent at a particular temperature.
• Solutions (and therefore mixtures) do not
chemically combine to form a new substance
and therefore, solutions are composed of two
substances which each retain their own
properties.
• Solubility is a physical property.
Solubility

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Viscosity
• Viscosity is a property of fluids
• Viscosity is a measure of the material’s
resistance to flow. High-viscosity fluids
take longer to pour than low-viscosity
fluids.
• Viscosity may change with temperature.
• The composition of a fluid does not
change when it is poured so viscosity is
a physical property.
Electrical Conductivity
• Solids are electrical conductors or insulators
based on the solids ability to complete an
electric circuit.
• Materials (such as metals) with high
conductivity are called electrical conductors
because they allow current to flow easily.
• Materials with low conductivity block current
from flowing and are called electrical
insulators. Most nonmetals are insulators.
Electrical Conductivity
• Some solutions can conduct electric
current, depending on the nature of the
solute.
• Solutes that allow electric current to
flow are called electrolytes.
• Electrolyte solutions contain ions.
What are some examples of
chemical properties?
• The ability to oxidize
• The ability to corrode
• Combustibility
The Ability to Oxidize
• When oxidation occurs, a substance
combines with oxygen to form a new
substance with new properties.
• The new substance formed is a
combination of the atoms of the original
substance and oxygen
• The properties of a substance change
during the process of oxidation
The Ability to Corrode
• Corrosion is the process by which
metals naturally combine with oxygen,
sulfur, or other nonmetals.
• Understand that when corrosion occurs,
the new substance that is formed is a
combination of a metal and a nonmetal.
• Understand that the properties of a
substance change during the process of
corrosion
Combustibility
• Combustion is a special type of oxidation.
• When combustion occurs, a substance
combines with oxygen to form a new substance
with new properties in a process which
releases heat and light. As in all cases of
oxidation, the new substance which is formed is
a combination of the original substance and
oxygen
• The properties of a substance change during
the process of combustion.