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W ls an organlc compound wlLh Lhe emplrlcal
formula C


%where could be dlfferenL from ) LhaL

ls conslsLs only of carbonhydrogen and oxygen wlLh a
hydrogenoxygen aLom raLlo of 21 %as ln waLer) Powever
Lhere are excepLlons Lo Lhls Cne common example would
be deoxyrlbose a componenL of unA whlch has Lhe
emplrlcal formula C
CarbohydraLes can be vlewed
as hydraLes of carbon hence Lhelr name SLrucLurally
however lL ls more accuraLe Lo vlew Lhem as polyhydroxy
aldehydes and keLones
W CarbohydraLes are an ldeal source of energy for Lhe body
1hls ls because Lhey can be converLed more readlly lnLo
glucose Lhe form of sugar LhaLs LransporLed and used by
Lhe body Lhan prote|ns or fatscan
W acLose ls a dlsaccharlde found ln mllk lL
conslsLs of a molecule of ugalacLose and a
molecule of uglucose bonded by beLa1
4 glycosldlc llnkage lL has a formula of
W CarbohydraLes perform numerous roles ln llvlng Lhlngs
olysaccharldes serve for Lhe sLorage
of energy %eg sLarch and glycogen) and as sLrucLural
componenLs %eg cellulose ln planLs and chlLln ln
arLhropods) 1he 3carbon monosaccharlde rlbose ls an
lmporLanL componenL of coenzymes %eg A1 lAu
and nAu) and Lhe backbone of Lhe geneLlc molecule known
as 8nA 1he relaLed deoxyrlbose ls a componenL of unA
Saccharldes and Lhelr derlvaLlves lnclude many oLher
lmporLanL blomolecules LhaL play key roles ln Lhe lmmune
sysLem ferLlllzaLlon prevenLlng paLhogenesls blood
cloLLlng and developmenL
W ln food sclence and ln many lnformal conLexLs Lhe Lerm
carbohydraLe ofLen means any food LhaL ls parLlcularly rlch
ln Lhe complex carbohydraLe sLarch %such as cereals bread
and pasLa) or slmple carbohydraLes such as sugar %found
lncandy [ams and desserLs
tructure of carbohydrates
W lucose ls an example of a carbohydraLe whlch ls
commonly encounLered lL ls also known as blood
sugar and dexLrose
W lLs chemlcal formula ls C
and Lhls emplrlcal
formula ls shared by oLher sugars
called hexoses 6 carbon sugars ?ou may wlsh Lo
know ln some deLall how Lhese 24 aLoms are
arranged ln Lhe molecule of glucose Lhe
sLrucLural formula
W ln some books you may see dlagrams of Lhe
glucose molecule looklng llke Lhls 1hls socalled
sLlck dlagram really only descrlbes how Lhlngs are
ln dry %powder) glucose
W ln llfe ln your blood and lnslde cells of planLs
and anlmals mosL of Lhe glucose conslsLs of
molecules shaped lnLo a rlng %acLually a 6
slded flgure a hexagon) whlch may be drawn
wlLh Lhls falrly slmple formaL
noLe LhaL Lhere ls an oxygen aLom formlng parL of Lhe rlng and LhaL Lhere are
slmple llnes drawn maklng up Lhe resL of Lhe rlng and a secLlon sLlcklng ouL
Lo one slde 1hese llnes represenL carbon aLoms and P and CP groups
mosL of whlch have been lefL ouL for slmpllclLy SomeLlmes Lhe deLalls of [usL
some of Lhese P and CP groups are drawn ln aL one end %or boLh ends) 1hls
ls because Lhe orlenLaLlon of Lhese groups sllghLly alLers Lhe chemlsLry of Lhe
molecule so Lhe resulLlng molecules are glven dlfferenL names
noLe LhaL Lhere ls an oxygen aLom formlng parL of Lhe rlng and LhaL Lhere are
slmple llnes drawn maklng up Lhe resL of Lhe rlng and a secLlon sLlcklng ouL Lo
one slde 1hese llnes represenL carbon aLoms and P and CP groups mosL of
whlch have been lefL ouL for slmpllclLy SomeLlmes Lhe deLalls of [usL some of
Lhese P and CP groups are drawn ln aL one end %or boLh ends) 1hls ls because
Lhe orlenLaLlon of Lhese groups sllghLly alLers Lhe chemlsLry of Lhe molecule so
Lhe resulLlng molecules are glven dlfferenL names
ln alpha glucose Lhe P group of Lhe rlghLmosL Carbon aLom %C1) ls above Lhe
plane of Lhe rlng whereas lL pro[ecLs below Lhe rlng ln beLa glucose
alpha glucose beLa glucose
1here are ln facL 3 verslons of Lhe rlng sLrucLure called chalrs and boaL
dependlng on Lhe bendlng ln or ouL of Lhe lefL and rlghL corners buL lL
ls easler Lo draw lL as a flaL hexagon Some of Lhe llnes may be
Lhlckened or flared ouL Lo glve an lmpresslon of 3u sLrucLure on Lhe
All Lhe oLher groups can vary ln dlfferenL hexose sugars whlch resulL ln
sllghLly dlfferenL chemlcal properLles
lL ls worLh knowlng Lhe numbers used Lo descrlbe each of Lhe 6
carbon aLoms
1hls numberlng ls lmporLanL when glucose unlLs are [olned
14 llnkages %formed by glycosldlc bondlng)
resulL ln a slmple llnear %end Lo end) connecLlon
whlch ls found ln malLose a dlsaccharlde
8epeaLlng Lhe condensaLlon process wlll resulL
ln Lhe polysaccharlde sLarch whlch ls consldered
Lo have 2 componenLs amylose and
amylopecLln 1he chaln of 14 llnkages so
formed can be qulLe long and may wlnd up lnLo
a hellx 1hls ls Lhe slLuaLlon ln amylose %a llnear
parL of whlch ls shown here)
Cn Lhe oLher hand 16 llnkage causes Lhe formaLlon of a branchlng polnL
whlch Lhen allows anoLher chaln of 14 llnkages Lo develop 1hls 3u
branchlng also produces oLher polnLs aL whlch glucose may be added by
condensaLlon or removed by hydrolysls 1hls branchlng occurs ln amylopecLln
%a small secLlon of whlch ls shown here)
luncLlon of carbohydraLes
W CarbohydraLes play a ma[or role ln promoLlng your healLh flLness 1hey form a ma[or parL of
your food and help a greaL deal ln bulldlng your body sLrengLh by generaLlng energy ln facL
Lhey are one among Lhe Lhree promlnenL macronuLrlenLs LhaL serve as excellenL energy
provlders Lhe oLher Lwo belng faLs and proLelns Carbs lnLake can Lake place ln dlfferenL
forms llke sugar sLarch flbers eLc 8ead furLher Lo explore lnformaLlon abouL carbohydraLes
funcLlon ln Lhe body
1he funcLlons of carbohydraLes are mulLlple and lL ls owlng Lo Lhls facL LhaL lL becomes all Lhe
more necessary Lo lncorporaLe carbohydraLes ln your meal lor lnsLanL energy generaLlon
sugars and sLarch acL as Lhe perfecL fuel LhaL enable you Lo carry ouL your physlcal acLlvlLles
efflclenLly and effecLlvely llber does wonders ln keeplng your bowel funcLlon golng smooLh
1alklng abouL Lhe lmporLance of carbohydraLes aparL from lLs dlrecL beneflLs Lhere ls also an
added advanLage of carbs consumpLlon and LhaL ls LhaL carbs are found ln dlfferenL foods
whlch lf eaLen also pave way for consumlng oLher essenLlal nuLrlenLs 1herefore lL ls
preferable Lo go ln for dlsLlncLlve carbohydraLe food sources
CarbohydraLes add on Lo Lhe LasLe and appearance of food lLem Lhus maklng Lhe dlsh
LempLlng and mouLhwaLerlng 1hey are someLlmes used as flavors and sweeLeners Carbs ald
ln regulaLlng blood glucose and also do good Lo your body by breaklng down faLLy aclds Lhus
prevenLlng keLosls So eaL plenLy of foods LhaL are rlch sources of carbs buL lL ls
recommended Lo go ln for naLural slow dlgesLlng carbs
W ,onosaccharldes are Lhe slmplesL carbohydraLes
ln LhaL Lhey cannoL be hydrolyzed Lo smaller
carbohydraLes 1hey are aldehydes or keLones
wlLh Lwo or more hydroxyl groups 1he
general chemlcal formula of an unmodlfled
monosaccharlde ls %C-P
llLerally a carbon
hydraLe ,onosaccharldes are lmporLanL fuel
molecules as well as bulldlng blocks for nuclelc
aclds 1he smallesL monosaccharldes for whlch n
3 are dlhydroxyaceLone and u and
1he and anomers of glucose noLe Lhe
poslLlon of Lhe hydroxyl group %red or
green) on Lhe anomerlc carbon relaLlve Lo
Lhe CP
CP group bound Lo carbon 3 Lhey
are elLher on Lhe opposlLe sldes %) or
Lhe same slde %)
uglucose ls an aldohexose wlLh Lhe
formula %CP
1he red aLoms hlghllghL
Lhealdehyde group and Lhe blue aLoms
hlghllghL LheasymmeLrlc cenLerfurLhesL
from Lhe aldehyde because Lhls CP ls on
Lhe rlghL of Lhellscher pro[ecLlon Lhls ls a
u sugar
ass|f|cat|on of monosacchar|des
W ,onosaccharldes are classlfled accordlng Lo Lhree dlfferenL characLerlsLlcs Lhe placemenL of
lLs carbonyl group Lhe number of carbon aLoms lL conLalns and lLs chlral handedness lf Lhe
carbonyl group ls an aldehyde Lhe monosaccharlde ls an aldose lf Lhe carbonyl group ls
a keLone Lhe monosaccharlde ls a keLose ,onosaccharldes wlLh Lhree carbon aLoms are
called Lrloses Lhose wlLh four are called LeLroses flve are called penLoses slx are hexoses
and so on
1hese Lwo sysLems of classlflcaLlon are ofLen comblned lor example glucose ls
an aldohexose %a slxcarbon aldehyde) rlbose ls an aldopenLose %a flvecarbon aldehyde)
and frucLose ls a keLohexose %a slxcarbon keLone)
W Lach carbon aLom bearlng a hydroxyl group %CP) wlLh Lhe excepLlon of Lhe flrsL and lasL
carbons are asymmeLrlc maklng Lhem sLereo cenLers wlLh Lwo posslble conflguraLlons each
%8 or S) 8ecause of Lhls asymmeLry a number of lsomers may exlsL for any glven
monosaccharlde formula 1he aldohexose uglucose for example has Lhe formula %CP

of whlch all buL Lwo of lLs slx carbons aLoms are sLereogenlc maklng uglucose one of 2
posslble sLereolsomers ln Lhe case of glyceraldehydes an aldoLrlose Lhere ls one palr of
posslble sLereolsomers whlch are enanLlomers and eplmers 1 3dlhydroxyaceLone Lhe
keLose correspondlng Lo Lhe aldose glyceraldehydes ls a symmeLrlc molecule wlLh no sLereo
cenLers) 1he asslgnmenL of u or ls made accordlng Lo Lhe orlenLaLlon of Lhe asymmeLrlc
carbon furLhesL from Lhe carbonyl group ln a sLandard llscher pro[ecLlon lf Lhe hydroxyl
group ls on Lhe rlghL Lhe molecule ls a u sugar oLherwlse lL ls an sugar 1he u and
preflxes should noL be confused wlLh d or l whlch lndlcaLe Lhe dlrecLlon LhaL Lhe
sugar roLaLes plane polarlzed llghL 1hls usage of d and l ls no longer followed ln
carbohydraLe chemlsLry
Dse |n |v|ng organ|sms
W ,onosaccharldes are Lhe ma[or source of fuel
for meLabollsm belng used boLh as an energy
source %glucose belng Lhe mosL lmporLanL ln
naLure) and ln blosynLhesls When
monosaccharldes are noL lmmedlaLely needed by
many cells Lhey are ofLen converLed Lo more
space efflclenL forms ofLen polysaccharldes ln
many anlmals lncludlng humans Lhls sLorage
form ls glycogen especlally ln llver and muscle
cells ln planLs sLarch ls used for Lhe same
W 1wo [olned monosaccharldes are called a dlsaccharlde and Lhese are Lhe slmplesL polysaccharldes
Lxamples lnclude sucrose and lacLose 1hey are composed of Lwo monosaccharlde unlLs bound
LogeLher by a covalenL bond known as a glycosldlc llnkage formed vla a dehydraLlon reacLlon
resulLlng ln Lhe loss of a hydrogen aLom from one monosaccharlde and a hydroxyl group from Lhe
oLher 1he formula of unmodlfled dlsaccharldes ls C
AlLhough Lhere are numerous klnds of
dlsaccharldes a handful of dlsaccharldes are parLlcularly noLable
W Sucrose plcLured Lo Lhe rlghL ls Lhe mosL abundanL dlsaccharlde and Lhe maln form ln whlch
carbohydraLes are LransporLed ln planLs lL ls composed of one uglucose molecule and one u
frucLose molecule 1he sysLemaLlc name for sucrose uglucopyranosyl%12)u
frucLofuranoslde lndlcaLes four Lhlngs
W lLs monosaccharldes glucose and frucLose
W 1helr rlng Lypes glucose ls a pyranose and frucLose ls a furanose
W Pow Lhey are llnked LogeLher Lhe oxygen on carbon number 1 %C1) of uglucose ls llnked Lo Lhe
C2 of ufrucLose
W 1he sufflx lndlcaLes LhaL Lhe anomerlc carbon of boLh monosaccharldes parLlclpaLes ln Lhe
glycosldlc bond
W acLose a dlsaccharlde composed of one ugalacLose molecule and one uglucose molecule occurs
naLurally ln mammallan mllk 1he sysLemaLlc name for lacLose ls ugalacLopyranosyl%14)u
glucopyranose CLher noLable dlsaccharldes lnclude malLose %Lwo uglucoses llnked 14) and
celluloblose %Lwo uglucoses llnked 14) dlsaccharldes can be classlfled lnLo Lwo Lypes1hey are
reduclng and nonreduclng dlsaccahrldes lf Lhe funcLlonal group ls presenL ln bondlng wlLh anoLher
sugar unlL lL ls called a reduclng dlsaccharlde or blose
Sucrose also known as Lable sugar ls a common dlsaccharlde lL ls
composed of Lwo monosaccharldes uglucose %lefL) and u
Cllgosaccharldes and polysaccharldes
W Cllgosaccharldes and polysaccharldes are composed of longer chalns of monosaccharlde unlLs
bound LogeLher by glycosldlc bonds 1he dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhe Lwo ls based upon Lhe number of
monosaccharlde unlLs presenL ln Lhe chaln Cllgosaccharldes Lyplcally conLaln beLween Lhree and
Len monosaccharlde unlLs and polysaccharldes conLaln greaLer Lhan Len monosaccharlde unlLs
ueflnlLlons of how large a carbohydraLe musL be Lo fall lnLo each caLegory vary accordlng Lo
personal oplnlon Lxamples of ollgosaccharldes lnclude Lhe dlsaccharldes menLloned above Lhe
Lrlsaccharlde rafflnose and Lhe LeLrasaccharlde sLachyose
W Cllgosaccharldes are found as a common form of proLeln posLLranslaLlonal modlflcaLlon Such
posLLranslaLlonal modlflcaLlons lnclude Lhe ewls and A8C ollgosaccharldes responslble for blood
group classlflcaLlons and so of Llssue lncompaLlblllLles Lhe alphaal eplLope responslble for
hyperacuLe re[ecLlon ln xenoLransplanLaLlon and ClcnAc modlflcaLlons
W olysaccharldes represenL an lmporLanL class of blologlcal polymers 1helr funcLlon ln llvlng
organlsms ls usually elLher sLrucLure or sLoragerelaLed SLarch %a polymer of glucose) ls used as a
sLorage polysaccharlde ln planLs belng found ln Lhe form of boLh amylose and Lhe
branchedamylopecLln ln anlmals Lhe sLrucLurally slmllar glucose polymer ls Lhe more densely
branchedglycogen someLlmes called anlmal sLarch lycogens properLles allow lL Lo be
meLabollzed more qulckly whlch sulLs Lhe acLlve llves of movlng anlmals
W Cellulose and chlLln are examples of sLrucLural polysaccharldes Cellulose ls used ln Lhe cell walls of
planLs and oLher organlsms and ls clalmed Lo be Lhe mosL abundanL organlc molecule on earLh
has many uses such as a slgnlflcanL role ln Lhe paper and LexLlle lndusLrles and ls used as a
feedsLock for Lhe producLlon of rayon %vla Lhe vlscose process) cellulose aceLaLe cellulold and
nlLrocellulose ChlLln has a slmllar sLrucLure buL has nlLrogenconLalnlng slde branches lncreaslng
lLs sLrengLh lL ls found ln arLhropod exoskeleLons and ln Lhe cell walls of some fungl lL also has
mulLlple uses lncludlng surglcal Lhreads
W CLher polysaccharldes
lnclude callose or lamlnarln chrysolamlnarln xylan arablnoxylan mannan fucoldan and galacLoma
Amylose ls a llnear polymer of glucose malnly llnked
wlLh %14) bonds lL can be made of several
Lhousands of glucose unlLs lL ls one of Lhe Lwo
componenLs of sLarch Lhe oLher belng amylopecLln