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Computer and Internet Crime

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Types of Attacks

Viruses Worms Trojan Horse Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks Perpetrators

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A virus is a piece of programming code that causes some unexpected and usually undesirable event

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F i l e i n f e c t o r s

Virus Types

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File infectors

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- replicate by inserting themselves into executable files. Usually, the virus code is written at the beginning of a targeted file, so it is executed immediately, or appended to the end.
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Partition-sector infectors

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contaminate the partition record of a hard disk. The virus copies and stores the whole partition sector somewhere else on the hard disk.

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Boot-sector viruses

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infect both floppy diskettes and hard disks by changing or replacing the bootsector program with a copy of itself.

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Companion Virus

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searches for executable programs with the .exe or .bat extension and creates a copy of itself with the same name but a .com extension.

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Macro Viruses

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- infect an applications document files. The virus contains a set of application-specific macro commands that automatically execute in an unsolicited manner and then spread to the applications documents.
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Worms are harmful programs that reside in the active memory of the computer and duplicate themselves. They can propagate without human intervention.

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Trojan Horse

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A Trojan horse is a program or routine concealed in software that appears to be harmless. They may contain or include a worm or virus as part of the package.

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Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks

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A denial-of-service attack is one which a malicious hacker takes over computers on the Internet and causes them to flood a target site with demands for data and other small tasks.
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Hackers and Crackers


Hackers test the limitations of systems out of intellectual curiosity to see whether they can gain access and how far they can go.

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- Crackers break into other peoples networks and systems, deface Web pages, crash computers, spread harmful programs, and write scripts and automated program that let other people do the same things.

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Malicious Insiders
Insiders are not necessarily employees; they can be consultants as well. Their risk tolerance ranges from low to high, depending on whether they are motivated by financial gain, revenge on their employers or publicity.
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Industrial Spies
Industrial spies use illegal means to obtain trade secrets from competitors of the firm. Competitive intelligence uses legal information gathering techniques to obtain

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They hack into corporate computers and steal money, often by transferring money from one account to another.Leaving a hopeless complicated trail for law enforcement officer to follow.
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Cyber terrorists
They intimidate or coerce a government or organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching computer based attack against computers, network, and the information stored on them.
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