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INTRODUCTION

The term management encompasses an array of different functions undertaken to accomplish a task successfully. It is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working to gather in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims. There are many approaches for the management varying from a problem to problem solving style to the change.

Each approach has its own limitations and advantages.


Management is all about getting things done.

ENVIRONMENT FACTORS
SOCIAL INFLUENCE

The aspects of culture that influence norms and values The concept to availability, production, and distribution of resources within a society The impact of political institutions on individuals and organisations

ECONOMIC INFLUENCE

POLITICAL INFLUENCE

EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT

DIFFERENT APPROACHES
CLASSICAL
SCIENTIFIC ADMINISTRATIVE BUREAUCRATIC

BEHAVIOURAL

GROUP INFLUENCES MASLOWS NEED THEORY THEORY X AND THEORY Y HAWTHORNE STUDIES

MODERN

SYSTEM CONTINGENCY THEORY Z AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT

CLASSICAL APPROACH
Focuses on the individual workers productivity Focuses on the overall organizational system

Focuses on the functions of management

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: Taylor


FOUR PRINCIPLES
develop a scientific approach for each element of ones work scientifically select, train, teach and develop each worker cooperate with workers to ensure that jobs match plans and principles ensure appropriate division of labor

THREE AREAS OF FOCUS:

Task Performance Supervision Motivation

TWO MANAGERIAL PRACTICES:

Piece-rate-incentive system Time and motion study

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: Henry Gantt and The Gilberths


HENRY GANTT Most famous for developing the Gantt chart in the 1910s. Implemented a wage incentive programme

Specialized in time and motion studies to determine the most efficient way to perform tasks. Used motion pictures of bricklayers to identified work elements (therbligs) FRANK such as lifting and grasping GILBERTH

LILLIAN GILBERTH

A strong proponent of better working conditions as a means of improving efficiency and productivity.

BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT
Focuses on the overall organizational system. Need for organization's to function on a rational basis Bureaucratic management is based upon:
Firm rules Policies and procedures A fixed hierarchy A clear division of labor

BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT: Weber


A German sociologist and historian who envisioned a system of management a bureaucracy is a highly structured, formalized and impersonal organization.

MAX WEBER

FIVE PRINCIPLES

Division of labor Hierarchy of authority Rules and procedures Impersonality Employee selection and promotion

ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT

Focused on principles that could be used by managers to coordinate the internal activities of organizations

Five management functions planning organizing commanding coordinating controlling

FAYOLs PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT


1. Division of work 2. Authority and responsibility 8. Centralization 9. Scalar chain 10. Order 11. Equity 12. Stability 13. Initiative

3. Discipline
4. Unity of command 5. Unity of direction 6. Subordination of individual interest to the common good 7. Remuneration of personnel

14. Esprit de corps

BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH
The behavioural school of management emphasized what the classical theorists ignored.

Acknowledged the importance of human behavior in shaping management style.

Personalities
Mary Parker Follett Douglas McGregor Chester Barnard Elton Mayo

HIERARCHYs HUMAN NEEDS


SELF ACTUALIZATION NEED FOR SELF ESTEEM NEED FOR SOCIAL RELATIONS NEED FOR SECURITY PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

FOLLETT ON EFFECTIVE WORK GROUPS

FOUR PRINCIPLES OF COORDINATION


Coordination requires that people be in direct contact with one another. Coordination is essential during the initial stages of any endeavor. Coordination must address all factors and phases of any endeavor. Coordination is a continuous, ongoing process.

McGregor's PROPOSED STYLES

THEORY X
Most people dislike work and they avoid it when they can. Coerced and threatened with punishment before they work. Avoid responsibility and have little ambition.

THEORY Y
Work is a natural activity like play or rest. Capable of self direction and self control. Committed to organizational objectives.

ELTON MAYOs VIEW


Aimed to understand how psychological and social processes interact with the work situation to influence performance Work represents the transition from scientific management to the early human relations movement. Emphasized on workers themselves and needs to belong to a group

HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS (1924 1932)


HAWTHORNE EFFECT
Workers perform and react differently when researchers observe them. Productivity increased because attention was paid to the workers in the experiment. Phenomenon whereby individual or group performance is influenced by human behavior factors

CONTINGENCY THEORY
There is no One Best Way to manage all the situations.

Also known as Situational Theory. Developed by managers, consultants, and researchers who tried to apply the concepts depending on various Internal and External factors

MERGER COMPONENTS INTO CONTINGENCY PERSPECTIVE

AN EXAMPLE OF CONTINGENCY
JOAN WOODWARDs RESEARCH
Discovered that a particular management style is affected by the organizations technology. Identified and described three different types of technology: Small-batch technology Mass-production technology Continuous-process technology

LET US SUM UP
The Industrial Revolution provided the impetus for developing various Management Theories and Principles Pre-classical theorists like Robert Owen, Charles Babbage, Andrew Ure, Charles Dupin, and Henry R Towne made some initial contributions The classical management approach had three major branches: SCIENTIFIC, BUREAUCRATIC, ADMINISTRATIVE The behavioural approach emerged primarily as an outcome of the Hawthorne studies. Mary Parker Follet, Eltom Mayo and his associates, Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor and Chris Argyris were the major contributors

Contingency theory, managerial action depends upon the particular parameters of a given situation.