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THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Organs are two or more tissues which together perform a specialized function. Epithelial membranes are thin structures that usually contain both epithelial and connective tissue.

TYPES OF MEMBRANES
Epithelial + Connective Tissue
Serous Cutaneous Mucous

Connective Tissue

Synovial

Three types of epithelial membranes

Serous Membranes
Line

cavities and cover organs Simple squamous epi. over loose connective tissue Parietal and visceral portions Secrete a serous (watery) fluid for lubrication

Serous Membranes

Line body cavities that have no openings to outside. Secrete watery fluid Simple squamous epith + loose CT

Mucous membranes
Line

cavities that open to the exterior Layer of epithelium over connective tissue; epithelium varies with location Tight junctions and goblet cells

Mucous Membranes
Line cavities that lead to outside Secrete mucus for protection Epithelium + Loose CT

Cutaneous membrane is the skin


the

major organ of the integumentary system

Serous, Mucous Membranes

Integumentary system is the skin and the organs derived from it (hair, glands, nails) One of the largest organs
2

square meters; 10-11 lbs. Largest sense organ in the body

The study of the skin is Dermatology

Functions:
1. Regulation of body temperature
Cellular

metabolism produces heat as a waste product . High temperature


Dilate

surface blood vessels Sweating


Low

temperature

Surface

vessels constrict shivering

2. Protection physical abrasion dehydration ultraviolet radiation 3. Sensation touch vibration pain temperature

4. Excretion
5. Immunity/ Resistance 6. Blood Reservoir 8-10 % in a resting adult 7. Synthesis of vitamin D uv light aids absorption of calcium

Anatomy

Epidermis Skin Dermis Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis

Epidermis

Stratum basale (stratum germinativum)


Single

layer of cuboidal to columnar cells Stem cells that produce keratinocytes Melanocytes - # the same for all races
Melanin

produced in a melanosome

Stratum spinosum (thorn-like, prickly)


8-10

layers attached by desmosomes See spines when cell is stained for microscopy Keratinocytes take in melanin by cytocrine secretion

Stratum granulosum
3-5

layers Keratinization begins here Keratohyalin found in granules Cells beginning to die

Stratum lucidum (lucid = clear)


More

apparent in thick skin 3-5 layers of clear cells Eleidin

Stratum corneum (corneum means horny)


Dead,

flat cells full of keratin Keratin is waterproof Cells are shed

Basal cell to surface about 2-4 weeks

Dermis

Connective tissue layer Collagen and elastic fibers, nerves, blood vessels, muscle fibers, adipose cells, hair follicles and glands. Papillary layer
of dermis loose areolar connective tissue Highly vascular Dermal papillae - fingerprints
1/5

Reticular (net) layer


Dense

irregular connective tissue Sebaceous (oil) glands Hair follicles Ducts of sudoriferous (sweat) glands Striae or stretch marks Meissners corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles

Hypodermis

Attaches the reticular layer to the underlying organs Loose connective tissue and adipose tissue Major blood vessels rete cutaneum

Accessory organs or epidermal derivatives

Hairs
Epidermal

growths that function in protection Shaft, root, and folllicle Sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscle, and hair root plexus (touch) Hair growth and replacement have a cyclical pattern male-pattern baldness

Nails

Plates of highly packed, keratinized cells Protection, scratching, & manipulation Formed by cells in nail bed called the matrix ( in area of lunula) 1 mm / week Eponychium - cuticle

Skin Glands

Sebaceous (oil) glands


Usually

connected to hair follicles Holocrine glands Fats, cholesterol, proteins, salts, and cell debris Moistens hair and waterproofs skin

Sweat (sudoriferous) glands


Eccrine

sweat glands

Merocrine

glands Water, salt, wastes Function is to cool the body (also nervous)
Apocrine
Larger,

sweat glands

merocrine glands Associated with hair follicles More viscous fatty acids and proteins Odor occurs when broken down by bacteria

Ceruminous glands
Modified

sudoriferous glands Secrete cerumen (ear wax)

Mammary glands
Secrete

milk

Skin color

Genetic factors
Same

number of melanocytes Albinism

Environmental factors
Uv

light or x-rays

Physiological factors
Amount

of blood Amount of oxygen


Cyanosis
Carotene

accumulation Jaundice liver disorder

Wound healing

Inflammation
Blood

vessels dilate and become permeable


redness, swelling and pain

Heat,

Shallow cuts
Epithelial

cells migrate Contact inhibition

Deeper wounds

Inflammatory phase
Fibrin

forms clot
make granulation tissue

Migratory phase
Fibroblasts

Proliferative phase Maturation phase Scars hypertrophic scar


keloid

Burns

First degree or partial thickness burn


Only

epidermis is damaged Erythema, mild edema, surface layer shed Healing a few days to two weeks No scarring

Second degree- deep partial-layer burn


Destroys

epidermis Blisters form Healing depends on survival of accessory organs No scars unless infected

Third degree or full-thickness burn


Destroys

epidermis, dermis and accessory organs of the skin Healing occurs from margins inward Skin grafting may be needed
Autograft Homograft

Rule of Nines

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