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# By: HIMANSHU KASHYAP

## Trusses are structures

composed entirely of two
force members . They
consists generally of
triangular sub-element
and are constructed and
supported so as to
prevent any motion.
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Frames are structures that
always contain at least one
member acted on by forces
at three or more points.
Frames are constructed and
supported so as to prevent
any motion. Frame like
structures that are not fully
constrained are called
machines or mechanisms.
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Planar Trusses - lie in a single plane and all applied loads must
lie in the same plane.
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Space Trusses - are structures that are not
contained in a single plane and/or are
loaded out of the plane of the structure.
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There are four main assumptions made in
the analysis of truss
Truss members are connected together at
their ends only.
Truss are connected together by
frictionless pins.
The truss structure is loaded only at the
joints.
The weights of the members may be
neglected.

1

2

3
4
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The basic building block of
a truss is a triangle. Large
truss are constructed by
attaching several triangles
together A new triangle can
two members and a joint.
A truss constructed in this
fashion is known as a
simple truss.
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It has been observed that the analysis of
truss can be done by counting the number
member and joints on the truss to
determine the truss is determinate,
unstable or indeterminate.
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A truss is analysed by using m=2*j-3, where
m is number of members, j represents the
number of joints and 3 represents the
external support reactions.
If m< 2j-3, then the truss is unstable and
If m> 2j-3, then the truss has more
unknowns than know equations and is an
indeterminate structure.
If m= 2j-3, ensures that a simple plane
truss is rigid and solvable, it is neither
sufficient nor necessary to ensure that a
non-simple plane truss is rigid and
solvable.
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Determine type of simple truss is it
determinate, indeterminate or unstable.
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The method of joints uses the summation
of forces at a joint to solve the force in the
members. It does not use
the moment equilibrium
equation to solve the
problem. In a two
dimensional set of
equations,

In three dimensions,
x y
0 0 F F = =

z
0 F =

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Using the method of
joints, determine the
force in each member
of the truss.
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Draw the free body
diagram of the truss
and solve for the
equations
x x
x
y y
y
0
0 lb
0 2000 lb 1000 lb
3000 lb
F C
C
F E C
E C
= =
=
= = + +
+ =

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( ) ( ) ( )
C
y
0 2000 lb 24 ft 1000 lb 12 ft 6 ft
10000 lb
C 3000 lb 10000 lb 7000 lb
M E
E
= = +
=
= =

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Look at joint A
( )
( )
( )
AB AB
4
0 2000 lb
5
2500 lb 2500 lb C
3 3
0 2500 lb
5 5
1500 lb 1500 lb T
F F
F F
F F F F
F F
= =
= =
= = + = +
= =

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Look at joint D
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
DB DB
DE
DE DE
4 4 4 4
0 2500 lb
5 5 5 5
2500 lb 2500 lb T
3 3
0
5 5
3 3
2500 lb 2500 lb
5 5
3000 lb 3000 lb C
F F F F
F F
F F F F
F
F F
= = + = +
= =
= = + +

= + +
= =

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Look at joint B
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
y BD BE
DE
DE DE
x BD BA BE BC
BC
BC DE
4 4
0 1000 lb
5 5
4 4
2500 lb 1000 lb
5 5
3750 lb 3750 lb C
3 3
0
5 5
3 3
2500 lb 1500 lb 3750 lb
5 5
5250 lb 5250 lb T
F F F
F
F F
F F F F F
F
F F
= =
=
= =
= = + +

= + +
= =

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Look at joint E
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
y EB EC
DE
EC EC
x EB ED EC
EC
EC EC
4 4
0 10000 lb
5 5
4 4
3750 lb 10000 lb
5 5
8750 lb 8750 lb C
3 3
0
5 5
3 3
3750 lb 3000 lb
5 5
8750 lb 8750 lb C
F F F
F
F F
F F F F
F
F F
= = + +
= + +
= =
= = +
= +
= =

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Look at joint C to check
the solution
( )
( ) ( )
y CE
x CE CB x
4
0 7000 lb
5
4
8750 lb 7000 lb 0 OK!
5
3
0
5
3
8750 lb 5250 lb 0 0
5
F F
F F F C
= =
= =
= = +
= + =

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Determine the forces
BC, DF and GE. Using
the method of Joints.
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The method of joints is most effective
when the forces in all the members of a
truss are to be determined. If however,
the force is only one or a few members
are needed, then the method of sections
is more efficient.
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If we were interested in
the force of member
CE. We can use a
cutting line or section
to breakup the truss and
solve by taking the
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Determine the forces in members FH, GH
and GI of the roof truss.
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Draw a free body diagram and solve for the
reactions.
R
Ax
R
Ay
L

x Ax
Ax
y
Ay
0
0 kN
0
20 kN
F R
R
F
L R
= =
=
=
+ =

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Solve for the
moment at A.
R
Ax
R
Ay
L

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
A
Ay
6 kN 5 m 6 kN 10 m 6 kN 15 m
1 kN 20 m 1 kN 25 m 30 m
7.5 kN
12.5 kN
M
L
L
R
=
+
=
=

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Solve for the member GI. Take a cut between
the third and fourth section and draw the
free-body diagram.
( )
HI
HI
HI
1 o
8 m 10 m
8 m
15 m 10 m 15 m
5.333 m
8 m
tan 28.1
15 m
l
l
l
o

= =
=
| |
= =
|
\ .
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The free-body diagram
of the cut on the right
side.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
H GI
GI GI
1 kN 5 m 7.5 kN 10 m 5.333 m
13.13 kN 13.13 kN T
M F
F F
= +
= =

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Use the line of action of the forces and take the
moment about G it will remove the F
GI
and F
GH
and
shift F
FH
to the perpendicular of G.
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Take the moment at G
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
G
o
FH
FH FH
1 kN 5 m 1 kN 10 m 7.5 kN 15 m
cos 28.1 8 m
13.82 kN 13.82 kN C
M
F
F F
= +
+
= =

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Use the line of action of the forces and take the
moment about L it will remove the F
GI
and F
FH
and
shift F
GH
to point G.
1 o
5 m
tan 133.2
5.333 m
|

| |
= =
|

\ .
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Take the moment at L
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
o
L GH
GH GH
1 kN 5 m 1 kN 10 m cos 43.2 15 m
1.372 kN 1.372 kN C
M F
F F
= + +
= =

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