You are on page 1of 75

WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION?

A GROUP OF PEOPLE ASSOCIATED FOR BUSINESS, POLITICAL, PROFESSIONAL, RELIGIOUS, ATHLETIC, SOCIAL, OR OTHER PURPOSES.

ITS ACTIVITIES REQUIRE HUMAN BEING TO INTERACT, REACT COMMUNICATE.


ORGANIZATIONS FACILITATE TO EXCHANGE INFORMATION, IDEAS, PLANS, ORDER NEEDED SUPPLIES, MAKE DECISIONS, RULES, PROPOSALS, CONTRACTS, AGREEMENTS ETC.

WHAT IS COMMUNICATION ?

COMMUNICATION IS THE PROCESS OF


TRANSMITTING INFORMATION FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER. THE TRANSFER OF INFORMATION AND UNDERSTANDING FROM ONE PERSON

TO ANOTHER PERSON.

(Keith Davis)

What is Business Communication?


Business communication is the giving and receiving of feedback between individuals and/or groups for the purpose of exchanging information and altering or enhancing performance.

CORPORATE COMMUNICATION

VIRTUALLY EVERY MANAGEMENT FUNCTION AND

ACTIVITY Eg. PLANNING, CONTROLLING,


DECISION MAKING, LEADERSHIP AND STAFFING, CAN BE CONSIDERED COMMUNICATION.

ORG. PERFORMANCE CORRELATES DIRECTLY


WITH THE QUALITY OF MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION.

AN AVERAGE MANAGER SPENDS MORE TIME IN COMMUNICATING THAN DOING ANYTHING ELSE.

COMMUNICATION REFERS TO THE


ACT, BY ONE OR MORE PERSONS,

OF
BY

SENDING
NOISE,

AND

RECEIVING
WITHIN A

MESSAGES THAT ARE DISTORTED OCCUR CONTEXT, HAVE SOME EFFECT, AND PROVIDE SOME OPPORTUNITY FOR FEEDBACK
(JOSEPH A. DEVITO)

Communicating Meaning
Physiology and Appearance: Paralanguage: Language: 55 percent 38 percent 7 percent

WHY TO COMMUNICATE?

COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION COORELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND JOB PERFORMANCE.

COMMITMENT CORRELATES WITH JOB SATISFACTION AND PERCEPTIONS OF GOOD ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE.

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OCCURS WHEN THE MESSAGE RECEIVED IS AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE AS THE MESSAGE INTENDED TO BE SENT MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING.

COMMUNICATION IS EFFECTIVE ONLY IF


PEOPLE:
UNDERSTAND EACH OTHER STIMULATE OTHERS TO TAKE ACTION ENCOURAGE OTHERS TO THINK IN NEW WAYS.

SEVEN Cs OF COMMUNICATION

COMPLETENESS CONTAINS ALL FACTS THE READER OR LISTENER NEEDS FOR DESIRED ACTION. CONCISENESS CONSIDERATION CONCRETENESS

CLARITY
COURTESY CORRECTNESS

ORGANISATIONAL BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS

INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY
ANTICIPATE PROBLEMS MAKE DECISIONS

COORDINATE WORKFLOW
SUPERVISE OTHERS DEVELOP RELATIONSHIPS BETTER UNDERSTANDING IN THE WORKPLACE IN GENERAL

Components of Communication
There are six components of Communication. 1. Context 2. Sender Encoder 3. Message 4. Medium (i) Verbal / (ii) Non Verbal 5. Receiver Decoder 6. Feedback

BASIC COMMUNICATION PROCESS


NOISE FEEDBACK NOISE

SENDER ---------PERCEPTION --------IDEA

UNDERSTANDING ---------PERCEPTION --------RECEIVER

ENCODE NOISE

MEDIUM

DECODE NOISE

The Communication Process


Message

Sensory Data

Filters
Beliefs Values Questions & Beh. Type Attitude

Sensory Data

DecisionMaking

Filters
Beliefs Values Questions & Beh. Type Attitude

DecisionMaking

Encoding

Encoding

Sender

Channel

Receiver

The Bowman Communication Model, 1992-2003

Components of Communication
1.

Context:
Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, or cultural. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.

Components of Communication
2. Sender Encoder:
As a sender encoder, you use symbols that express you message and create the desired response.

Components of Communication
3. Message:
You must first decide what the main point of your message is, and what other information to be included. Like a HELLO, HI, etc.

Components of Communication
4. Medium:
Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. Verbal (Face to face talking, By ph, Radio, etc) Non Verbal (By letter, Silence, Fax, Mail, News
Papers, etc(

(i) (ii)

Components of Communication
5. Receiver Decoder:
The message receiver is your reader or listener also known as decoder, as s/he decodes your encoded message. Receiver is influenced by his context and by his mental filter.

Components of Communication
6. Feed Back:
Feedback can be a desire action, an oral or written message, or simply a silence. It is the most important part of communication process.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
1.

Verbal communication

Its components includes - Voice, Pronunciation, Audibility, Stress, Pause, Speed.

2. Non-Verbal communication

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:
Written communication is foremost important component in business. Without writing business is not effective. The components are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Content Organization Informative Words Use Of Linking Words Clarity Simplicity Grammar

7. Legibility 8. Uniformity 9. Spacing 10. Adequacy 11. Vagueness

NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
.

MEANING

Non-verbal communication accounts for more of a total message than words do. In your role of a speaker or listener in oral communication, you will need to be aware of the non-verbal non-word part of your communication. Sometimes nonverbal communication communicates by itself.

NATURE OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION


Broad and Imprecise: The subject is a broad one and because it is so broad, nonverbal communication is quite a vague and imprecise. Cross-cultural aspects: The number of possible meanings is multiplied even more when we consider the cross-cultural side of communication. Be sensitive: Because of the numerous meanings, you need to be sensitive.

TYPES OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION


Body Language Space Time Paralanguage Others

Body Language
Our bodies send non-word messages through arms, fingers, expressions, posture, and so on. The face and the eyes are the most important. Gestures and communicate. physical appearance also

Space

Space is again classified into four namely: Intimate: Physical contact to 18 inches. Personal: 18 inches to 4 feet. Social: 4 to 12 feet. Public: 12 feet to range of seeing and hearing. Our behavior in each type are learned from our culture.

Time

Time is a third type of nonverbal communication. How we give meaning to time communicates to others. To say, for example, how we manage our daily schedule. Do we arrive at correct time for the appointments. Your response to time in these ways communicates to others.

Paralanguage
Paralanguage involves how we say something:
I am a good communicator. I am a good communicator. I am a good communicator. I am a good communicator. I am a good communicator.

Others
Two other types of non-verbal communication are as follows: Colors: It communicates different colors to us. Artists, interior decorators, and image consultants believe that different colors project different meanings. Physical context: In an office, the physical arrangements furniture, carpeting, size, location, and decorations all communicate meanings to us and others.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

PROCESS BARRIERS

SENDER BARRIER
ENCODING BARRIER MEDIUM BARRIER DECODING BARRIER

FEEDBACK BARRIER PHYSICAL PASSING OF CARS, HUM OF COMPUTER PSYCHOLOGICAL COGNITIVE OR MENTAL INTERFERENCE I.E. BIASES AND PREJUDICES IN SENDER AND RECEIVERS, CLOSED-MINDEDNESS. SEMANTIC DIFERENT LANGUAGES, USE OF JARGON OR OVERLY COMPLEX TERMS. CULTURAL POLITICAL EMOTIONAL ECONOMIC

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

WATCH THE LANGUAGE FOLLOW THROUGH DEAL WITH UNCERTAINITY BE AN ACTIVE LISTENER MANAGE CONFLICT RESPOND, DONT RE-ACT GIVE FEEDBACK INVITE PARTICIPATION KEEP YOUR TEAM UP-TO-DATE CONNECT PERSONALLY WITH EMPLOYEES TAKE ADVANTAGE OF COMMUNICATION RESOURCES

Formal Communication

the process of sharing official information with others who need to know it, according to the prescribed patterns depicted in an organization chart

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

11/18/2003

Formal Communication
President

Instructions and directives

Information

Vice President

Vice President

Manager

Manager

Manager

Manager

Efforts at coordination
C

Formal Communication

downward communication:

instructions, directions, orders feedback data required to complete projects status reports suggestions for improvement, new ideas coordination of cooperation
11/18/2003

upward communication:

horizontal communication:

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Communication Structures Centralized

Y
Formal and Informal Channels of Communication 11/18/2003

Communication Structures Centralized

Wheel
11/18/2003

Communication Structures Centralized

Chain

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

11/18/2003

Decentralized Networks

Information can flow freely No central person All members play an equal role in the transmittal of information

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

11/18/2003

Communication Structures Decentralized

Circle

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

11/18/2003

Communication Networks

Behavior in Organizations, p.305 Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

11/18/2003

Informal Communication Structures

Deviation from the planned communication structure

Direction of the flow of information Leaving out people in the communication line Integrating people into the communication line

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

11/18/2003

Informal Networks
K

E G F

C H I B X J

D J

D
C B

G F H J A K I A Probability

C
B

I D

Gossip A Chain

F A

Cluster

McGraw-Hill

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11/18/2003

Informal Communication
information shared without any formally imposed obligations or restrictions if an organizations formal communication represents its skeleton, its informal communication constitutes its central nervous system
(Behavior in Organizations, p. 307)

eng. grapevine An organizations informal channels of communication, based mainly on friendship or acquaintance origin: American Civil War [grapevine telegraphs]
Formal and Informal Channels of Communication 11/18/2003

Grapevine
1.

2.

a secret means of spreading or receiving information the informal transmission of (unofficial) information, gossip or rumor from person-to-person -> "to

hear about s.th. through the grapevine"


3.

a rumor: unfounded report; hearsay


11/18/2003

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Grapevine Characteristics

oral mostly undocumented open to change fast (hours instead of days) crossing organizational boundaries

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

11/18/2003

Grapevine Characteristics

inaccuracy:

levelling deletion of crucial details sharpening exaggeration of the most dramatic details

while the grapevine generally carries the truth it seldom carries the whole truth
Formal and Informal Channels of Communication 11/18/2003

Positive Aspects of the Grapevine


social function reduction of anxiety release mechanism for stress identification of pending problems early warning system for organizational change vehicle for creating a common organizational culture desired information can be circulated quickly to a large group of subordinates (inofficially!)
11/18/2003

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Coping or Managing the Grapevine


the grapevine cannot be abolished, rubbed out, hidden under a basket, chopped down, tied up, or stopped
(Managing the Grapevine, p.222)

dont try to control or restrict it use it to supplement formal channels

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

11/18/2003

Preventing Rumors

provide information through the formal system of communication on the issues important to the employees supply employees with a steady flow of clear, accurate and timely information present full facts keep formal communication lines open and the process as short as possible
11/18/2003

Formal and Informal Channels of Communication

Creating team communication


Ensure that goals are clearly defined. Interaction is aimed at solving problems and achieving team goals. Ensure team members trust each other by having open communication.

Characteristics of Open Communication


Members are encouraged to solicit input from others. Disagreement is invited and dealt with as a vital part of making sound decisions. Team members share responsibility for communicating effectively. Everyone is pro-active to understand team goals.

Guidelines to Team Communication


Be specific: include facts and details to avoid being vague Be accurate: as much as possible be sure that the information you are giving is true and reliable. Be honest: be truthful with those you are communicating with and do not use questionable information.

Guidelines to Team Communication


Be logical: make sure messages are easy to follow Be complete: give all needed information in regards to your ideas. Be concise: be brief- not unnecessarily wordy. Be relevant: stay on task and give information that is needed. Ask for feedback: have recipients give comments on information.

Conflict Resolution
People naturally disagree about what to do, how to do, and when to do it. That interaction of ideas and opinions sparks new ideas and leads to better solutios and plans of action. However when differences of opinion are accompanied by too much emotional committment, the resulting conflict can be damaging.
55

Nature of Conflict
Conflict does not need to be destroying. Open communication without emotional explosions is the key method for resolution. Thre are three components of conflict: 1. Two or more persons are involved 2. There are different perceptions of ideas, actions, beliefs or goals. 3. The opposing sides see their way as the only way.
56

Common Sources Of Conflict I


Ambigious Responsibility Levels: Clear job descriptions and and organization charts can help prevent these conflicts. Limited Resources: Generally every department require to extend their share in limited sources and maximize its own results. Conflict of Interest: Each individual in an organization needs to know how his own goals and efforts fit within the organizations. Individuals may conflict for their own targets.
57

Common Sources Of Conflict II


Communication Barriers: Differing perceptions, language, ineffective listening, style differences, power and status barriers. Communication training is the solution for this. Interdependency: Increasingly our ability to accomplish our goals and objectives depends on the cooperation and asistance for others. This interdependency increases conflict.
58

Common Sources Of Conflict III


Increased Interaction:The more people interact, the more potential there is for conflict. The trend toward increasing levels of participation and teamwork indicates a higher level of conflict and a greater need for conflict resolution skills. Competition: For rewards such as promotions, recognition conflict is natural. If the organization rewards the person who has no rules or values for the success, or if someone promote, conflict appear.
59

The Four Phases of Conflict


Conflict may occur between individuals, groups and organizations. Phase are the same. 1. First:Appears in change.A budget cutback, a new project, change of manager or value etc. 2. Perceived: The point at which members are becoming aware of the problem& the tension. 3. Felt: Internal tensions and frustrations begin to be defined and people begin to built emotions. 4. Last: Opposing parties try to frustrate one another. Conflict is very obvious at this point. 60

Strategies For Managing Conflict I


Each strategy has advantages&disadvantages. In any case, familiarize yourself with them. Avoidance:Rarely work, ostrich approach. Accommodation:Someone sacrifies or say OK Domination:Someone imposes a solution. Negotiation:Involves moderate levels of cooperation and assertiveness. Partly win &loose
61

What is Culture???
Provides

patterns of acceptable behavior & beliefs. May be based on. Nationality Race and Religion Historical Roots All of the Above

Culture and communication: A model


Exhibit 7.1. Cultural influences on the communication process

Culture 1: Senders normative beliefs about appropriate communication behavior (e.g. belief in open and frank discussions; confrontation acceptable)

Culturally compatible communication style (e.g., speak frankly and firmly; stay focused on task; push for quick response)

Senders communication style (e.g., construct and convey direct message to receiver; expect direct and timely response)

Other influences on communication process (e.g., past experiences with counterpart or others from same culture; knowledge of topic; preparedness for cross-cultural communication; time constraints; amount of noise in system; mutual trust) Culture 2: Receivers normative beliefs about appropriate communication behavior (e.g., reflect before speaking; avoid offending others) Receivers response (e.g., ignore direct approach; evaluate message through cultural screens; delay responding; use nonverbal communication)

Culturally compatible communication style (e.g., speak subtly; consult with others before responding; avoid direct confrontation)

(p. 203)

Culture and message context: High, mid-range, and low

High context cultures


Subtle message content Non-verbal (contextual) are often very important Medium is often more important than message Rank of receiver can affect medium and message Countries: China, India, Japan, Korea

Mid-range context cultures


Both verbal and non-verbal communication is often used in tandem. Medium and message are both important Most countries fall somewhere within this midrange category Countries: Brazil, Canada, France, Morocco, Nigeria

Low context cultures


Overt message content Non-verbal cues often unimportant or ignored Message is typically more important than the medium Rank of message sender or recipient may affect message or medium Countries: Australia, Germany, Russia, USA

(p. 219)

2. Cultural influences on message context


Facial expressions: Is it acceptable to show joy or anger?
Personal space: How close should we stand to one another?

Body language: Is it acceptable to point at someone? If so, how? What are the implications of bad posture? Secret communication: Do we use secret codes or symbols to convey meaning that others cannot detect?

(p. 218)

3a. Cultural influences on appropriate formalities (communication protocols)


Opening a conversation: Who should speak first? Should we be assertive or passive? Ending a conversation: Who should end the conversation? Is there a formal end or do people just wander off? Presenting ideas or proposals: Should you present a proposal all-at-once or piece-by-piece? Interruptions and silence: Is it acceptable to interrupt? Are you comfortable with periods of silence? Vocal characteristics: Should you speak fast or slow, loud or soft?
(p. 223)

3b. Cultural influences on appropriate behaviors (communication protocols)


Apologies: When should you accept blame? How to save your own and others face?
Disagreements: How should you express your disagreements? Emotional displays: is it OK to yell or cry? Feedback: How (and when) should you provide someone with feedback? Requests: How do you make a request?
(p. 224)

Conducting Productive Business and Professional Meetings

Before the meeting

During the meeting

Ending the meeting and following up

Conducting Productive Business and Professional Meetings


Before
Ending and During following up

Determine your purpose. Decide how and where to meet. Organize an agenda. Include date and place, start and end times, topics in order of priority and names of people responsible, time for each topic, and meeting preparation expected of participants. Invite participants.

Conducting Productive Business and Professional Meetings


Before During Ending and following up

Start the meeting on time. Summarize the meeting goal, provide background, offer possible solutions, review the tentative agenda, and announce ground rules. Move the meeting along by encouraging all to participate, discouraging monopolizers, and avoiding digressions.

Conducting Productive Business and Professional Meetings


Before During Ending and following up

When the group reaches a consensus, summarize and ask for confirmation. If conflict develops, encourage each person to speak and let groups decide on a direction to follow.

Conducting Productive Business and Professional Meetings


Before During Ending and following up

To control dysfunctional group members, lay down rules, seat potentially dysfunctional members strategically, avoid direct eye contact, assign them tasks, ask members to speak in a specific order, interrupt monopolizers, and encourage nontalkers.

Conducting Productive Business and Professional Meetings


Before Ending and During following up

Conclude the meeting at the agreed time. Summarize decisions. Review deadlines and responsibilities for action items.

Conducting Productive Business and Professional Meetings


Before Ending and During following up

For small groups, try "once around the table." Thank the group; establish a time for the next meeting. Return the room to a neat appearance; vacate promptly.

Conducting Productive Business and Professional Meetings


Before Ending and During following up

Distribute minutes. Check to see that all assigned tasks are completed by agreed-upon deadlines.