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A NLW ML1nCD ICk CCLLLC1ING AND GA1nLkING DA1A

USING SMAk18CAkD ALICA1ICN IN 1nL IILLD CI


IN1LkAC1ICN DLSIGN AND CnILDkLN (IDC)
LAILI IAknANA 8IN1I MD I8nAkIM
M20092001236
SULkVISCk Dk ING MAI2A1UL nAA1I 8IN1I MCnAMAD A1IM
IACUL1 CI Ak1 CCMU1ING AND CkLA1IVL INDUS1k
1
1hls resenLaLlon Wlll 1ell us AbouL
8esearch lnLroducLlon And 8ackground
8esearch Coal
8esearch Cb[ecLlves CuesLlons
8esearch lramework
LlLeraLure 8evlew
uevelopmenL Cf AppllcaLlon
8esearch MeLhodology
lnsLrumenLs used
8esulLs llndlngs
ulscusslon
Maln 8esearch ConLrlbuLlon
luLure Work
Summary
2
ln18CuuC1lCn
W uaLa collecLlon and daLa gaLherlng 1o collecL sufflclenL accuraLe
and relevanL daLa so LhaL a seL of sLable requlremenLs can be
produced (reece 8ogers Sharp 2006) (page 1)
W SmarLboard large physlcal dlsplay panel LhaL can funcLlon as an
ordlnary whlLeboard a pro[ecLor screen an elecLronlc copy board
or as a compuLer pro[ecLor screen on whlch Lhe compuLer lmage
can be conLrolled by Louchlng or wrlLlng on Lhe surface of Lhe panel
lnsLead of uslng a mouse or keyboard (8arber Cooper Meeson
2007) (page 17)
W usablllLy usablllLy ls a comblnaLlon of Lhe effecLlveness efflclency
and saLlsfacLlon wlLh whlch speclfled users achleve speclfled goals
ln a parLlcular envlronmenL (Alan ulx eL al 2004) (page 29)
3
8LSLA8CP 8C8LLMS
W A meLhod of collecLlng and gaLherlng daLa ls used by researchers ln
Lhelr sLudles especlally wlLh chlldren ls qulLe challenglng and
dlfflculL
W SmarLboard ls a new Lechnology use ln Malaysla educaLlon fleld no
speclflc research or flndlngs Lo prove Lhe effecLlveness of
SmarLboard ln order Lo collecL and gaLher daLa
W We cannoL measure Lhe usablllLy and chlldren accepLance wlLh
SmarLboard as a new medlum Lo learn wlLhouL concreLe research
and flndlngs
* ulsserLaLlon page 4
4
8LSLA8CP CCAL
1o ldenLlfy Lhe usablllLy of SmarLboard
appllcaLlon as a Lool Lo collecL and gaLher daLa
for usablllLy LesLlng wlLh chlldren
3
8LSLA8CP C8!LC1lvLS
CuLS1lCnS
C8I 1 1o |dent|fy Smartboard's features funct|ons and |nteract|ons that are su|tab|e for the ch||dren's
act|v|ty to co||ect and gather data
1 wbot ls tbe best feotote ooJ fooctloo lo 5mottbootJ tbot coo be oseJ to collect ooJ qotbet Joto?
2 now lotetoctloo betweeo stoJeots teocbets ooJ tbe 5mottbootJ lo collectloq ooJ qotbetloq Joto
sessloo?
C8I 2 1o measure Smartboard's usab|||ty and user acceptance for |ts effect|veness eff|c|ency and
sat|sfact|on e|ements
J wbot ls tbe llmltotloo ooJ ptoblem wbeo osloq 5mottbootJ?
4 now osoblllty lo tetm of eosy to ose lo 5mottbootJ oppllcotloo coo be meosoteJ?
5 now cbllJteo coo exptess tbelt sotlsfoctloo wbeo osloq tbe 5mottbootJ?
C8I 3 1o suggest a new method to co||ect and gather data us|ng Smartboard
6 wbot ls tbe best metboJ ooJ losttomeot to collect ooJ qotbet Joto ftom cbllJteo?
7 ls cbllJteo Jtowloq oo tbe 5mottbootJ oble to qlve lofotmotloo ooJ eosy to lotetptet?
8 ls 5mottbootJ soltoble to be oseJ os oo losttomeot to collect ooJ qotbet Joto ftom cbllJteo?
* ulsserLaLlon page 3 6
6
8LSLA8CP l8AMLWC8k
1heoreLlcal SLage
MeLhodology SLage
7
(ueveloped by Lalll larhana 2011 uuuL Model adapLed from kS lvers 1998)
*ulsserLaLlon page 1112
Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
8
IW8 techno|ogy
Lffect|veness of IW8 |n c|ass
Learn|ng theory app||ed
Advantages of Smartboard as data co||ect|ng and gather|ng too|
L|st of methods used by other researchers that |nvo|ved w|th ch||dren
Method and |nstrument gu|de||nes for ch||dren
Ch||d art|fact
Usab|||ty aspects and requ|rements
Usab|||ty pr|nc|p|e
Usab|||ty eva|uat|on of Smartboard
Usab|||ty test|ng w|th ch||dren us|ng Smartboard
Interd|sc|p||nary f|e|d of |nteract|on des|gn
1ypes of |nteract|on
User Centered Des|gn (UCD) ro|e of ch||dren as des|gner
(page 1722)
(page 3S40)
(page 293S)
(page 2329)
ALlCA1lCn uLvLLCMLn1
9
(uuuL Model adapLed from kS lvers 1998)
* ulsserLaLlon page 42
ALlCA1lCn uLvLLCMLn1
Ak1 nASL DLSCkI1ICN
ALICA1ICN
DLSIGNING AND
DLVLLCMLN1
nASL
Dec|de
(page 4347)
User chlldren aged 7 Lo 12 years old
Method 1) drlll and pracLlce 2) game
nardware CompuLer pro[ecLor SmarLboard
Software SMA81 noLebook 10
Content lottoJoctloo of lcoo
Des|gn
(page 4832)
Storyboard and I|owchart
Deve|op
(page 3237)
S Interact|on Des|gn r|nc|p|es suggesLed by uon norman (1988)
vlslblllLy feedback consLralnLs conslsLency affordance
User Interface Gu|de||nes (Panna eL al 1998) acLlvlLy lnsLrucLlon
screen layouL
uest|onna|re on usablllLy LesLlng of lcon by (Azhar 2011)
LVALUA1ICN Lva|uate
(page 3739)
1esLed on Lhree chlldren aged 8 10 and 12 years old
8esearcher observed on how the ch||dren p|ay wlLh all Lhe
acLlvlLles
8esearcher and chlldren exp|ored a|| the funct|ons and features
whlch have been provlded LogeLher
Interv|ewsess|on (feellng and problems)
eers and experts rev|ews (suggesLlon for lmprovemenL)
10
8LSLA8CP ML1PCuCLCC?
11
lLC1
S1uu?
uSA8lLl1?
1LS1lnC
ML1PCuCLCC? lLC1 S1uu?
W Cb[ecLlve 1o evaluaLe Lhe undersLandlng of Lhe parLlclpanLs abouL
Lhe lnsLrumenL lLems LhaL have been used
W MeasuremenL valldlLy (face crlLerlon conLenL lnLernal) and
rellablllLy (LrlangulaLlon Lechnlque LheoreLlcal source
lnvesLlgaLor) of Lhe lnsLrumenLs
W arLlclpanL Chlldren (3 glrls and 4 boys) beLween ages flve Lo
eleven years old Lo learn abouL chlldrens behavlor aLLlLudes and
percepLlons gender ages and experlence
W lnsLrumenLs SeL of handouL acLlvlLy l) drawlng ll) mlxandmaLch
and lnLervlew
12
* ulsserLaLlon page 6263
ML1PCuCLCC? uSA8lLl1?
1LS1lnC
W arLlclpanL 9 prlmary school chlldren aged beLween 7 Lo 12
years old from 1an[ung Mallm area
W LocaLlon anlmaLlon lab aL unlverslLl endldlkan SulLan ldrls
W MeLhod usablllLy 1esLlng Culdellnes for Chlldren (Panna 8lsden
Alexender1997) (page 6366)
W lnsLrumenLs 1) observaLlon 2) lnLervlew 3) quesLlonnalre and
4) chlld's arLlfacLs
13
* ulsserLaLlon
page 6366
lnS18uMLn1S uSLu
INS1kUMLN1 DLSCkI1ICN
CbservaLlon
(lML1C 2011)
(page 6769)
Intens|ve use fun and creat|v|ty test (Masuch ?aLlm CadegasL 2007)
Cbservat|on framework (Colln 8obson2002) Space acLor acLlvlLy ob[ecLs acLs
evenLs Llmes goals feellng
Cbservat|on cr|ter|a laclal speech body language movemenL aLLlLude
lnLervlew
(page 6973)
art|c|pant chlldren lnvolved ln usablllLy 1esLlng
eer posL graduaLe sLudenLs who have experlences ln deslgnlng chlldren
mulLlmedla producLs and conducLlng research wlLh chlldren
Lxpert lecLurers of MulLlmedla ueparLmenL laculLy of ArL CompuLlng and
CreaLlve lndusLry (MaCSS 2011)
CuesLlonnalre
(page 74)
1o ldenLlfy Lhe background of the |ecturers whose conducL research on
compuLer appllcaLlons for chlldren ln addlLlon Lhls quesLlonnalre alms Lo look aL
Lhe data co||ect|on methods and types of data are ofLen belng collecLed for
research wlLh chlldren
1hls quesLlonnalre conslsLs of f|ve |tems Lo be answered
Chlld's ArLlfacL
(page 7473)
Chlldren's ab|||ty and exper|ence Lo draw and wrlLe on Lhe SmarLboard abouL
Lhelr ldeas based on Lhe Lask glven (drawlng lcon on SmarLboard)
Draw|ng check||st CreaLlvlLy message shape colour and perspecLlve
14
8LSuL1S llnulnCS
C8I1 1o |dent|fy Smartboard's features funct|ons and |nteract|ons that are
su|tab|e for the ch||dren's act|v|ty to co||ect and gather data
ULS INS1kUMLN1 SUMMAk
no 1 C8SL8vA1lCn 1o ldenLlfy Lhe feaLures
and funcLlons from mosL en[oyable
acLlvlLy (page 8387)
1he acLlvlLles ln Lhe form of d|rect |nteract|on
are more fun and easler
Sk|||s and creat|v|ty facLors would affecL Lhe
ease or dlfflculLy of Lhls acLlvlLy
ln1L8vlLW (LxL81S) Cplnlon abouL
Lhe mosL en[oyable and comforLable
acLlvlLy (page 8790)
no 2 C8SL8vA1lCn 1he lnLeracLlon beLween
Lhe parLlclpanLs wlLh Lhe SmarLboard
(page 9192)
S|mp|e funct|ons and easy too|s for effecLlve
lnLeracLlon ln addlLlon lL should have c|osure
and engagement elemenLs wlll make chlldren
feel more comforLable secure and confldenL
wlLh whaL Lhey do
ln1L8vlLW (LxL81S) SuggesLlon abouL
Lypes of lnLeracLlon apply on SmarLboard
(page 9293) 13
8LSuL1S llnulnCS
C8I2 1o measure the Smartboard's usab|||ty and user acceptance for |ts
effect|veness eff|c|ency and sat|sfact|on e|ements
ULS INS1kUMLN1 SUMMAk
no 3 ln1L8vlLW (A81lClAn1S) roblem and
dlfflculLles Lhey faced when uslng Lhe
appllcaLlon (page 9493)
1he maln llmlLaLlon ls Lhe use of too|s on
Lhe SmarLboard
ln1L8vlLW (LL8S) SuggesLlons abouL Lhe
Lhlngs LhaL are needed Lo puL on hlghly
aLLenLlon whlle uslng SmarLboard (page 9396)
7 t|ps for SmarLboarL appllcaLlon
ln1L8vlLW (LxL81S) Cplnlons abouL Lhlngs
LhaL we have Lo avold when uslng Lhe
SmarLboard (page 9698)
Avo|d comp||cated acLlvlLy and Lool uses
no 4 C8SL8vA1lCn (LlllClLnC?) Measured based
on Lhe Llme Laken for each parLlclpanL Lo flnlsh
Lhe acLlvlLles (page 99)
Slx parLlclpanLs have compleLed each
acLlvlLy were be|ow from the researchers
est|mated Llme (7 mlnuLes)
16
8LSuL1S llnulnCS
C8I2 1o measure the Smartboard's usab|||ty and user acceptance for |ts
effect|veness eff|c|ency and sat|sfact|on e|ements
ULS INS1kUMLN1 SUMMAk
no 4 C8SL8vA1lCn (LllLC1lvLnLSS) Measured
based on marks or scores for each parLlclpanL
(page 100)
MaLchlng All parLlclpanLs goL full marks
(Very good)
urag urop 6 parLlclpanLs goL full marks
and none goL 0 (Good)
alrlng All parLlclpanLs goL score above 3
(Very good)
no 3 C8SL8vA1lCn (SA1lSlAC1lCn) 1o see Lhelr
levels of saLlsfacLlon when handllng Lhe
acLlvlLles ln Lhe SmarLboard
(page 101102)
oslLlve form of expresslon LhaL was
dom|nat|ng Lhe parLlclpanLs
ln1L8vlLW (A81lClAn1S) 1helr feellngs
when Lhey are handllng Lhe acLlvlLles ln Lhe
SmarLboard appllcaLlon
(page 102103)
AlmosL all of Lhe parLlclpanLs are sat|sf|ed
and happy 1hey also never g|ve up
eas||y
17
8LSuL1S llnulnCS
C8I3 1o suggest a new method to co||ect and gather data by us|ng the
Smartboard
ULS INS1kUMLN1 SUMMAk
no 6 CuLS1lCnnAl8LS (LxL81S)
1 1he number of lecLurers who are uslng
several of meLhods ln research
2 1he number of lecLurers who are uslng
varlous Lypes of daLa collecLed ln research
(page 104103)
PlghesL Cbservat|on
LowesL Lxper|ment
PlghesL V|deo record|ng
ln1L8vlLW (LxL81S) Pow Lo ldenLlfy Lhelr
pasL experlence whlle conducLlng research wlLh
Lhe chlldren
(page 106110)
1he exact se|ect|on of method ls very
lmporLanL Lo obLaln Lhe necessary daLa
lor chlldren Lhe sulLable daLa collecLed
ls more ln an art|facts form
C8SL8vA1lCn 1ypes of meLhod and Lypes of
daLa prefer by parLlclpanLs accordlng Lo acLlvlLy
ln Lhe SmarLboard appllcaLlon (page 110111)
All parLlclpanLs prefer 9f acLlvlLy
whlch use test and observat|on meLhod
LhaL produce daLa ln score form
18
8LSuL1S llnulnCS
C8I3 1o suggest a new method to co||ect and gather data by us|ng the
Smartboard
ULS INS1kUMLN1 SUMMAk
no 7 C8SL8vA1lCn Comparlson beLween paper
based and SmarLboard based drawlng for Lhe
'LxlL' lcon
(page 112114)
4 categor|es ln drawlng checkllsL
ldenLlfled
no 8 ln1L8vlLW (LxL81S) 1helr personal oplnlons
on Lhe usablllLy of Lhe SmarLboard Lo replace
Lhe convenLlonal meLhods
(page 113117)
SmarLboard Lechnology can be accepLed
as an a|ternat|ve method Lo collecL and
gaLher daLa
19
ulSCuSSlCn
1 Scorlng CalculaLor has Lhe besL feaLure and funcLlon ln SmarLboard LhaL we can
use Lo collecL and gaLher daLa (page 119)
2 uslng Lhe Lools ln Lhe wrong way ls a ma[or llmlLaLlon ln Lhe use of SmarLboard
appllcaLlon (page 120)
3 ulrecL lnLeracLlon makes chlldren feel en[oyable and comforLable (MaCCS 2011)
(page 121)
4 SlmllarlLy and famlllarlLy of SmarLboard appllcaLlon wlLh real world makes lL well
funcLloned (IML1C 2011) (page 122)
3 CollecLlng and gaLherlng daLa from chlldren can be easy by uslng SmarLboard
appllcaLlon (IML1C 2011) (MaCCS 2011) (page 123)
6 Chlldren show good behavlour and aLLlLude whlle uslng SmrLboard appllcaLlon
(IML1C 2011) (page 124)
7 Chlldren feel saLlsfled and exclLed whlle uslng SmarLboard appllcaLlon (page 123)
8 SmarLboard meeLs Lhe needs of researchers ln conducLlng research (MaCCS
2011) (page 126127)
9 ulglLal drawlng glves less lnformaLlon raLher Lhan paperbased drawlng (page
127128) 20
MAln 8LSLA8CP CCn18l8u1lCn
An analysls of ch||drens needs ln undersLandlng Lhelr
aLLlLudes Lowards Lhe learnlng envlronmenL lncludlng Lhe
approprlaLe forms of lnLeracLlon lnvolvlng chlldren and Lhe
SmarLboard (page 47)
A llsL of gu|de||nes of uslng SmarLboard Lo collecL and gaLher
daLa for research ln Lhe fleld of chlld (Appendlx u)
A llsL of methods and |nstruments Lo be used wlLh
SmarLboard Lechnology Lo collecL and gaLher daLa from
chlldren (page 130)
21
lu1u8L WC8k
W lurLher research on eff|c|ent|y and
comfortab|y facLors ln uslng SmarLboard
Lechnology wlLh a proper gu|dance and
tra|n|ng
W LxLend Lhe scope of Lhls meLhod and LesL lL
wlLh d|fferent types of users and dev|ces
22
* ulsserLaLlon page 131
SuMMA8?
1h|s study has successfu||y |ntroduced a new
method that can be app||ed |n the study of
|nteract|on des|gn w|th ch||dren (IDC)
W able Lo meet the requ|rements ln a sLudy and remalns
accuraLe and rellable ln provldlng Lhe relevanL daLa
W encourage chlldren to be act|ve ln dlssemlnaLlng
lnformaLlon
W expecLed Lo meet the nature of research sett|ng for
collecLlng and gaLherlng daLa from chlldren (who have
curloslLy ln brlnglng new Lechnology) for educaLlon and
enLerLalnmenL research purposes
23
* ulsserLaLlon page 132133
MAln 8LlL8LnCLS (MAln)
W Ackermann L (2004) ConsLrucLlng knowledge and 1ransformlng Lhe World M 1okoro and L SLeels (Lds) leotoloq 2ooe of Ooes Owo 5botloq kepteseototloos ooJ llow lo
collobototlve leotoloq ovltoomeots AmsLerdam lCS ress L 1 Ch 2 pp 1337
W 8arber u CooperL Meeson C (2007) leotoloq ooJ 1eocbloq wltb lotetoctlve wbltebootJ ltlmoty ooJ eotly yeot uk Learnlng MaLLers LLd
W Chamber M (2007) usablllLy usablllLy 8equlremenL user Lxperlence Coal 8eLrleved May 1 2011 from hLLp//wwwarLlclesbasecom/lnLerneLarLlcles/usablllLyusablllLy
requlremenLsanduserexperlencegoals89339hLml
W Cooper A 8elman 8 (2003) boot loce 20 1be sseotlol of lotetoctloo ueslqo new ?ork !ohn Wlley Sons
W CuLhell ! (2003) 1he lmpacL of lnLeracLlve WhlLeboards on 1eachlng Learnlng And ALLalnmen ln ltoceeJloqs of 5l1 2005 (pp 1J5J 1J55) c lboeolx Arlzona 8eLrleved May 1
2011 fromhLLp//wwwvlrLuallearnlngorguk/changemanage/lwb/lmpacL20of20lW8pdf
W ulaper u (1989) 1ask observaLlon for humancompuLer lnLeracLlon ln ulaper u SLanLon n A (Lds) 1osk oolysls fot nomoocompotet lotetoctloo (pp 210237) new !ersey
Lawrance Lrlbaum AssoclaLes lnc
W ulx A llnlay ! Abowd C u 8aele 8 (2004) nomoo compotet lotetoctloo (3
rd
Ld) uk renLlce Pall
W uonker A Markopoulos (2001) ssessloq tbe effectlveoess of osoblllty evolootloo metboJs fot cbllJteo CPCl2001 aLras Creece
W uumas ! S 8edlsh ! C (1999) ltoctlcol ColJe to usoblllty 1estloq (8evlsed LdlLlon) Lngland lnLellecL LLd
W uruln A 8ederson 8 8olLman A Mlura A knoLLsCallaghan u laLL M (2007) Chlldren as our Lechnology deslgn parLners ln A uruln (Ld) 1be ueslqo of cbllJteos tecbooloqy
(pp 31 72) San lranclsco CA Morgan kaufmann
W Ldwards P 8enedyk 8 (2007) A Comparlson of usablllLy LvaluaLlon MeLhods for Chlld arLlclpanLs ln A School SeLLlng lo ptoceeJloq of 1be 6
tb
lotetootloool coofeteoce fot
lotetoctloo ueslqo ooJ cbllJteo (pp 913) Aalborg uenmark
W Cage ! (2003) now to use o lotetoctlve wbltebootJ keolly ffectlvely lo oot ltlmoty closstoom London uavld lulLon ubllshers LLd
W Panna L 8lsden k Czerwlnskl M Alexander k! (1998) 1he 8ole of usablllLy 8esearch ln ueslgnlng Chlldren's CompuLer roducLs ln 1be ueslqo of cbllJteos 1ecbooloqy uruln A
(Ld) San lranclsco CA uSA Morgan kaufmann ubllshers
W lnsLlLuL endldlkan Curu (2010) ,oJol letkembooqoo kteotlvltl Jolom leoJlJlkoo ltosekolob kemenLerlan ela[aran Malaysla
W kersLen1sllkalklna M 8ekker M (2001) LvaluaLlng usablllLy and pleasure of chlldrens producLs lotetootloool coofeteoce oo ffectlve nomoo loctots ueslqo 5loqopote
W Landay ! A Myer 8 A (1993) lotetoctlve sketcbloq fot tbe eotly stoqes of oset lotetfoce Jeslqo ennsylvanla uSA Carnegle Mellon unlverslLy School of CompuLer Sclence
W Masuch M MalzaLul PM? CadegasL (2007) ueveloplng SofLware for ChlldrenLxperlences from CreaLlng a 3u urawlng AppllcaLlon Cermany unlverslLy of Magdeburg
W Markopoulos 8ekker M M (2002) now 1o compote usoblllty 1estloq ,etboJs wltb cbllJteo lottlclpoots neLherlands 1echnlcal unlverslLy of Llndhoven
W Moussourl 1 (2004) klJs lo volootloo 8eLrleved Aprll 23 2011 from hLLp//wwwvlslLorsorguk/flles/klds20ln20LvaluaLlon2020120Moussourlpdf
W law C? (2006) sos 5totlstlk leoyellJlkoo kuala Lumpur McCrawPlll
W reece ! 8ogers ? Sharp P (2006) lotetoctloo ueslqo 8eyooJ nomoocompotet lotetoctloo (2
nd
ed) uSA !ohn Wlley Sons LLd
W 8ead ! Maclarlane S Casey C (2001) Measurlng Lhe usablllLy of LexL lnpuL meLhods for chlldren lo leople ooJ compotets \v lotetoctloo wltboot ltootlets Iolot ptoceeJloqs of
ln, 2001 ooJ ncl 2001 pp 339 372
W 8obson C(2002) keol wotlJ keseotcb (2
oJ
J) CxLford 8lackwell ubllshlng
W 8ubln ! Chlsnell u (2008) nooJbook of usoblllty 1estloq now to lloo ueslqo ooJ cooJoct ffectlveoess 1ests (2
nd
Ld) lndlanapolls Wlley ubllshlng
W Shnelderman 8 lalsanL C (2010) ueslqoloq tbe uset lotetfoce 5ttoteqles fot ffectlve nomoocompotet lotetoctloo (3
Lh
Ld) earson Plgher LducaLlon
W SMA81 1echnology lnc (2006) lotetoctlve wbltebootJs ooJ leotoloq lmptovloq 5toJeot leotoloq Ootcomes oJ 5tteomlloloq lessoo lloooloq 8eLrleved May 1 2011 from
hLLp//www2smarLLechcom/n8/rdonlyres/2C729l6L0A8u42889832l908L0A746u8/0/lnL_WhlLeboard_8esearch_WhlLepaper_updaLe pdf
W usetceoteteJ ueslqo 1estloq oJ volootloo(nd) 8eLrleved May 1 2011 from hLLp//ergoLmcgLrlgaLechedu/ddL/usernCenLered_ueslgn/uCu_1esLLvaluaLln _1L_1hLm
W Zaharlas oylymenakou A (2009) ueveloplng a usablllLy evaluaLlon meLhod for elearnlng appllcaLlons beyond funcLlonal usablllLy lotetootloool Iootool of nomoocompotet
lotetoctloo 25(1) 7398
24
8LSLA8CP AL8 u8LlCA1lCn
Chapter |n book
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