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# Computer Vision

## Spring 2006 15-385,-685

Instructor: S. Narasimhan
Wean 5403
T-R 3:00pm 4:20pm
Lecture #12

Midterm March 9
Syllabus until and including Lightness and Retinex
Closed book, closed notes exam in class.
Time: 3:00pm 4:20pm
Midterm review class next Tuesday (March 7)
(Email me by March 6 specific questions)
all classes, done assignments well, it should be
a walk in the park

Mechanisms of Reflection
source
surface
reflection
surface
incident
direction
body
reflection

Body Reflection:
Diffuse Reflection
Matte Appearance
Non-Homogeneous Medium
Clay, paper, etc

Surface Reflection:
Specular Reflection
Glossy Appearance
Highlights
Dominant for Metals
Image Intensity = Body Reflection + Surface Reflection

Example Surfaces
Body Reflection:
Diffuse Reflection
Matte Appearance
Non-Homogeneous Medium
Clay, paper, etc
Surface Reflection:
Specular Reflection
Glossy Appearance
Highlights
Dominant for Metals
Many materials exhibit
both Reflections:

Diffuse Reflection and Lambertian BRDF
viewing
direction
surface
element
normal
incident
direction
i

n
v
s

d
r r i i
f ) , ; , (
Lambertian BRDF is simply a constant :
albedo
Surface appears equally bright from ALL directions! (independent of )
v
Commonly used in Vision and Graphics!
s n I I L
d
i
d
. cos

source intensity
source intensity I

Diffuse Reflection and Lambertian BRDF

White-out: Snow and Overcast Skies
CANT perceive the shape of the snow covered terrain!
CAN perceive shape in regions
lit by the street lamp!!
WHY?

Diffuse Reflection from Uniform Sky
Assume Lambertian Surface with Albedo = 1 (no absorption)
Substituting in above Equation:
Radiance of any patch is the same as Sky radiance !! (white-out condition)

2 /
0
sin cos ) , ; , ( ) , ( ) , (
i i i i r r i i i i
src
r r
surface
d d f L L
sky
i i
src
L L ) , (

1
) , ; , (
r r i i
f
sky
r r
surface
L L ) , (

Specular Reflection and Mirror BRDF
source intensity I
viewing
direction
surface
element
normal
incident
direction
n
v
s
r
specular/mirror
direction
) , (
i i

) , (
v v

) , (
r r

Mirror BRDF is simply a double-delta function :
Valid for very smooth surfaces.
All incident light energy reflected in a SINGLE direction (only when = ).
) ( ) (
v i v i s
I L +
v r
) ( ) ( ) , ; , (
v i v i s v v i i
f +
specular albedo

Combing Specular and Diffuse: Dichromatic Reflection
Observed Image Color = a x Body Color + b x Specular Reflection Color
R
G
B
Color of Source
(Specular reflection)
Color of Surface
(Diffuse/Body Reflection)
Does not specify any specific model for
Diffuse/specular reflection

Diffuse and Specular Reflection
diffuse specular diffuse+specular

Photometric Stereo
Lecture #12

Image Intensity and 3D Geometry

## What is the relation between intensity and shape?

Reflectance Map

Surface Normal
N
surface normal
y
z
x
Equation of plane 0 + + + D Cz By Ax
0 + + +
C
D
z y
C
B
x
C
A
or
Let
p
C
A
x
z

q
C
B
y
z

( ) 1 , , 1 , , q p
C
B
C
A

,
_

N
Surface normal

Surface Normal
X
Y
Z
X
Y
X p
Y q

y
z
x
1 z
q
p
1
s
n
N
( )
1
1 , ,
2 2
+ +

q p
q p
N
N
n
( )
1
1 , ,
2 2
+ +

S S
S S
q p
q p
S
S
s
Normal vector
Source vector
i

( )
1 1
1
cos
2 2 2 2
+ + + +
+ +

S S
S S
i
q p q p
qq pp
s n
1 z
plane is called the Gradient Space (pq plane)
Every point on it corresponds to a particular surface orientation
S

Reflectance Map

## Relates image irradiance I(x,y) to surface orientation (p,q)

for given source direction and surface reflectance

Lambertian case:
( ) y x I ,
s
v
n
i

: source brightness
: surface albedo (reflectance)
: constant (optical system)
k

c
s n kc kc I
i

cos
Let
1 kc

then s n
i
I cos

Lambertian case
( )
( ) q p R
q p q p
qq pp
I
S S
s s
i
,
1 1
1
cos
2 2 2 2

+ + + +
+ +
s n
Reflectance Map
(Lambertian)
cone of constant
i

Iso-brightness contour
Reflectance Map

Lambertian case
0 . 1
3 . 0
0 . 0
9 . 0
8 . 0
( ) 7 . 0 , q p R
p
q

90
i

( ) 0 1 + +
S S
qq pp
( )
S S
q p ,
iso-brightness
contour
Note: is maximum when ( ) q p R , ( ) ( )
S S
q p q p , ,
Reflectance Map

## Glossy surfaces (Torrance-Sparrow reflectance model)

( ) ( ) q p R G p
kc
kc I
r
s
i
d
,
cos
cos +

## diffuse term specular term

p
q
( ) 5 . 0 , q p R
( )
S S
q p ,
Diffuse peak
Specular peak
Reflectance Map

Shape from a Single Image?

## Given a single image of an object with known surface

reflectance taken under a known light source, can we
recover the shape of the object?
Given R(p,q) ( (p
S
,q
S
) and surface reflectance) can we
determine (p,q) uniquely for each image point?
NO
p
q

Solution

## Take more images

Photometric stereo

Photometric Stereo
p
q
( )
1 1
,
S S
q p
( )
2 2
,
S S
q p
( )
3 3
,
S S
q p

## We can write this in matrix form:

,
_

kc
1 1
s n I
1
s
n
v
2
s
2 2
s n I
3
s
3 3
s n I
n
s
s
s
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

T
T
T
I
I
I
3
2
2
2
1
1

Lambertian case:
s n

i
kc I cos
Photometric Stereo

Solving the Equations
n
s
s
s

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

T
T
T
I
I
I
3
2
2
2
1
1
I S n
~
1 3 3 3 1 3
I S n
1
~

n
~

n
n
n
n
~
~
~

inverse

More than Three Light Sources

n
s
s

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

T
N
T
N
I
I

1
1

n S I
~

n S S I S
~
T T

( ) I S S S n
T T
1
~

## Solve for as before n ,

Moore-Penrose pseudo inverse
( ) ( ) 1 3 3 1 N N

Color Images

## Or combine three channels and solve for

Sn I
G G

Sn I
B B

Sn I
R R

( )
B G R
, ,
n
n
Sn I I I I + +
2 2 2
B G R
n

Computing light source directions

## Trick: place a chrome sphere in the scene

the location of the highlight tells you the source direction

## For a perfect mirror, light is reflected about N

Specular Reflection - Recap

'

otherwise 0
if r v
i
e
R
R

## Then is given as follows:

n
v
s
r v
s
( ) r n r n s 2
r
i

Computing the Light Source Direction

## Can compute N by studying this figure

Hints:
use this equation:
can measure c, h, and r in the image
N
rN
C
H
c
h
Chrome sphere that has a highlight at position h in the image
image plane
sphere in 3D

Depth from Normals
Get a similar equation for V
2
Each normal gives us two linear constraints on z
compute z values by solving a matrix equation
V
1
V
2
N

Limitations

Big problems

Smaller problems

## Camera and lights have to be distant

Calibration requirements
measure light source directions, intensities
camera response function

## Solve for as before

n
s
s

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

T
N N
T
N
I
I
I
I

1
1
2
2
1
n ,
( ) ( )
i i i i
I I I s n

Original Images

Results - Shape
Shallow reconstruction
(effect of interreflections)
Accurate reconstruction
(after removing interreflections)

Results - Albedo

Original Images

Results - Shape

Results - Albedo

Results
1. Estimate light source directions
2. Compute surface normals
3. Compute albedo values
4. Estimate depth from surface normals
5. Relight the object (with original texture and uniform albedo)

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