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CULINARY TERMS

Au Gratin sprinkled with cheese or breadcrumbs and browned Au Sec almost dry Bain Marie container of hot water used for cooking or storing hot foods Blanch to plunge into boiling water or oil for the purpose of whitening as in bones, retaining color without fully cooking as with vegetables Bouillon unclarified stock (from the French word to bubble, as in when liquid boils) Braise cook meat in a covered dish over gentle heat with little liquid usually on a bed of finely diced vegetables

Canape bite-sized slice of sandwich or other type of bread, toasted or not toasted, which is spread or garnished with various ingredients Casserole an earthenware dish with a lid, also the dish of food cooked in it Chiffonade cut into fine shreds, usually lettuce Condiments highly flavored seasonings or accompaniments Consomme clarified and fortified beef stock- clear soup Coulis a sauce, generally of strained, pureed fruit or vegetable Court Bouillon well flavored cooking liquid for fish

Croutons cubes of fried bread Deglaze swirl liquid in a pan to dissolve food remaining on the bottom Eggwash mixture of egg and milk Entre opening course to a meal, traditionally in Europe is a dish served before the main course where fish or meat is served hot in a sauce Espagnole basic brown sauce Flake to break into natural segments Flambe to flame with alcohol

Flan large open fruit tart Foie Gras goose liver Fondant sugar icing used for glazing pastries, something that melts in the mouth Fondue a preparation of melted cheese, also the equipment used for this (Swiss) Garnish trimmings on a dish for presentation purposes Gnocchi Italian word for dumpling Gourmet a judge of good food and living, one who appreciates and knows about good food and wine

Grill a piece of equipment that cooks with heat from below Hollandaise A rich egg and butter sauce served warm Hors doeuvre appetizing first course Julienne vegetables cut into fine strips Jus unthickened juices from a roast Jus Lie thickened juices from a roast Lait milk Au Lait with milk

Liaison thickener, usually egg yolks and cream Maitre D head waiter Marinade seasoned liquid where food is soaked or marinated Mirepoix roughly cut vegetables, usually onions, carrots, celery Mise en place preparation prior to service Mousse dish of pureed food, egg white and cream, light in consistency Pan-fry cook in moderate amount of fat in an uncovered pan

Petit fours small fancy cakes, highly decorated Pilaf a rice dish Poulet chicken Portion control measurement of portions to ensure that the correct amount of an item is served Ramekin small pastry molds Ravioli small, square, stuffed pasta pockets Recipe set of instructions for producing a certain dish

Reduce to concentrate a liquid by simmering Refresh to make cold under running water or plunge into iced water Roulade to roll Roux cooked mixture of equal parts flour & fat Sabayon egg yolks and a liquid whipped over a bain marie until creamy Sachet mixture of herbs and spices tied in a cheesecloth bag Salmonella food-bourne disease spread by improper food handling and inadequate sanitation

Saute cook quickly in a small amount of fat Sear brown the surface of a food quickly at high temperature Seasoned flavored Sorbet flavored ice water, Souffle a very light sweet or savory dish, served hot or cold Sweat to cook in fat under a lid without coloring the food Vinaigrette salad dressing made from good quality olive oil and vinegar

Wok round bottomed type frying pan used extensively in Chinese cuisine Zest colored part of the peel of citrus fruits

CUTTING TECHNIQUES

Chop to cut into irregularly shaped pieces Concasser to chop coarsely Emincer to cut into very thin slices Mince to chop into very fine pieces Shred to cut into thin strips, either with the coarse blade of a grater or with a chefs knife